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The Glasgow area has a combination of highly variable superficial deposits and a legacy of heavy industry, quarrying and mining. These factors create complex foundation and hydrological conditions, influencing the movement of contaminants through the subsurface and giving rise locally to unstable ground conditions. Digital geological three-dimensional models developed by the British Geological Survey are helping to resolve the complex geology underlying Glasgow, providing a key tool for planning and environmental management. The models, covering an area of 3200km2 to a depth of 1.2km, include glacial and post-glacial deposits and the underlying, faulted Carboniferous igneous and sedimentary rocks. Control data, including 95,000 boreholes, digital mine plans and published geological maps, were used in model development. Digital outputs from the models include maps of depth to key horizons, such as rockhead or depth to mine workings. The models have formed the basis for the development of site-scale high-resolution geological models and provide input data for a wide range of other applications from groundwater modelling to stochastic lithological modelling.
A QTL (TM-QTL) identified on ovine chromosome 18 (Walling et al., 2004), which increases loin muscle depth by 4-8% in UK Texel sheep, is of interest for the sheep industry as a potential means to increase carcass value. Since the contribution of Texel genes to the UK slaughter generation is generally through use of Texel sires to produce crossbred slaughter lambs (e.g. Texel x Mule lambs), it is necessary to verify the effects of the TM-QTL on loin muscularity and other carcass traits in such crossbred progeny of Texel sires before explotiation of the TM-QTL in commercial sheep populations.
X-ray computed tomography (CT) measurements of live sheep have been used to predict carcass composition very accurately (Macfarlane et al., 2006). The utilisation of spiral CT scans (SCTS) for quantifying muscle volumes and weights, using automatic image analysis procedures has also been shown to be very accurate in sheep (Navajas et al., 2006). Although the limiting size of the CT gantry prevents CT scanning of live beef cattle, beef primal joints are small enough to be scanned. Hence, SCTS could be used to quantify beef carcass composition, and provide valuable information for breeding programmes including composition faster than by anatomical dissection. The objective of this study was to develop a CT image analysis procedure to assess fat, muscle and bone weights of beef carcasses and to evaluate its accuracy.
Research on resilience has shown that resilient individuals possess a variety of internal characteristics (e.g., hardiness and reflectiveness) and a mixture of external characteristics (e.g., social contact and relationship recruiting) that interact to promote resilience. This research examined the relationship between social support of friends, social support of family, and resiliency to further understand the impact of social contact on psychological health and wellbeing. Study 1 showed that in the face of self-reported difficult life circumstances, friend support (but not family support) predicts most aspects of psychological wellbeing. Similarly, Study 2 found that previous reports of friend (but not family) support predicted positive affect for participants in a simulated achievement rejection experimental condition. Taken together, these studies suggest that among adults, perceived social support from friends may be more impactful than social support from family.
Clusters of galaxies are used to study large scale structure and evolution in the universe. The luminosity functions of clusters can be used to investigate their evolutionary effects while their spatial and angular correlation functions are a measure of large-scale clustering. There are, however, many problems with the traditional cluster catalogues that were derived by visual inspection of plate material. The widely used Abell catalogue (Abell 1958) has been shown to have significant problems in homogeneity and completeness (Postman et al. 1986).
We have undertaken an adaptive optics imaging survey of extra-solar planetary systems and stars showing interesting radial velocity trends from high precision radial velocity searches. Adaptive Optics increases the resolution and dynamic range of an image, substantially improving the detectability of faint close companions. This survey is sensitive to objects less luminous than the bottom of the main sequence at separations as close as 1″. We have detected stellar companions to the planet bearing stars HD 114762 and Tau Boo. We have also detected a companion to the non-planet bearing star 16 Cyg A.
This paper describes a preliminary series of observations of the Sun made at a frequency of 80 MHz with the 3 km radioheliograph of the Culgoora Observatory. The instrument records, at one-second intervals, pictures of the solar image in the form of 60 (E-W) × 48 (N-S) points, each separated in angle by half the Rayleigh limit (2’ arc in the zenith). At the time of the present observations the instrument was incomplete in three main respects : (a) the facilities for recording opposite senses of circular polarization were not available; (b) the automatic image compensation for zenith-angle foreshortening was not available—hence the optical disk of the Sun appears elliptical; and (c) the phase and amplitude calibration procedures had not been fully established, resulting in a higher sidelobe level than that specified in the design—the effects are sometimes evident in the pictures as spoke-like brightenings.
The extensively studied Markarian sample of 1500 ultraviolet excess galaxies contains many Seyfert, starburst, and peculiar galaxies. Using the 20 minute V plates obtained for the construction of the Hubble Space Telescope Guide Star Catalog, we have investigated the morphologies of the Markarian galaxies and the environments in which they are located. This paper reports on the relationship between the types of nuclear activity and the morphologies and environments of the Markarian galaxies.
Each of four WR binaries has been observed in the 0.1 −5 keV range on four consecutive days for a total of ∼ 104 sec with the IPC on the Einstein Observatory. One of the stars is the well-known WN5 + 06 binary V444 Cyg; the other three have suspected compact companions; all have periods close to four days.
Neither HD 197406 (WN7) nor HD 96548 (WN8) was detected; hence Lx (0.5–3.0 keV) ≲ 1032 erg s−1, which is on the low side, even for 0-stars. EZ CMa (WN5) and V444 Cyg are moderately strong, variable X-ray sources with Lx (0.5–3.0 keV) ≃ 1033 erg s−1, kT ≃ 0.5 keV and NH ≃ 1022 cm−2. These values suggest that the X-ray flux arises in the outer part of the wind. The variable component may be produced by collision of two winds.
There is no evidence of harder X-rays coming from accretion onto a compact star. Nevertheless, the presence of a collapsar is not excluded at hv ≲ 5 keV, where absorption in the WR wind would likely reduce the X-ray flux to a level which is masked by the flux coming from the hot stellar wind.
Micromechanical testing of electroplated gold alloy films has been conducted using theta-like specimens. Specimens were formed by a standard combination of photolithography, electroplating, and deep reactive ion etching. Testing was performed using an instrumented indenter and the results interpreted using a finite-element model with a Ramberg–Osgood constitutive law to extract elastic and plastic material properties. The observed results were highly repeatable and appear to be sensitive to variations in both sample dimensions and material properties. These qualities suggest that the testing methodology may have significant value as a quality control technique in the fabrication of metal microelectromechanical systems.
The principles embodied by the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) view of ‘life history’ trajectory are increasingly underpinned by biological data arising from molecular-based epigenomic and transcriptomic studies. Although a number of ‘omic’ platforms are now routinely and widely used in biology and medicine, data generation is frequently confounded by a frequency distribution in the measurement error (an inherent feature of the chemistry and physics of the measurement process), which adversely affect the accuracy of estimation and thus, the inference of relationships to other biological measures such as phenotype. Based on empirical derived data, we have previously derived a probability density function to capture such errors and thus improve the confidence of estimation and inference based on such data. Here we use published open source data sets to calculate parameter values relevant to the most widely used epigenomic and transcriptomic technologies Then by using our own data sets, we illustrate the benefits of this approach by specific application, to measurement of DNA methylation in this instance, in cases where levels of methylation at specific genomic sites represents either (1) a response variable or (2) an independent variable. Further, we extend this formulation to consideration of the ‘bivariate’ case, in which the co-dependency of methylation levels at two distinct genomic sites is tested for biological significance. These tools not only allow greater accuracy of measurement and improved confidence of functional inference, but in the case of epigenomic data at least, also reveal otherwise cryptic information.
This paper presents the results of the bulk laser damage performance of undoped epoxy thermosets with glassy and rubbery mechanical properties and two commercial polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) samples. We demonstrate how thermomechanical properties such as glass transition temperature (Tg) and equilibrium shear modulus (Ge) affect laser damage threshold. The rubbery epoxy elastomer shows a damage threshold fluence one order of magnitude higher than PMMA and 2.5 orders of magnitude higher than a glassy epoxy thermoset. A solid-state guest-host limiter is made by doping the epoxy elastomer with zinc octabromotetraphenylporphyrin (ZnOBP). The limiting performance of the elastomer limiter is compared to a solution of ZnOBP and C60 in toluene. Photochemical hysteresis effects in the solid
limiter were also investigated.
Surface adsorption represents a competition between collision and scattering processes that depend on surface energy, surface structure and temperature. The surface reactivity of the actinides can add additional complexity due to radiological dissociation of the gas and electronic structure. Here we elucidate the chemical bonding of gas molecules adsorbed on Pu metal and oxide surfaces. Atmospheric gas reactions were studied at 190 and 300 K using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Evolution of the Pu 4f and O 1s core-level states were studied as a function of gas dose rates to generate a set of Langmuir isotherms. Results show that the initial gas dose forms Pu2O3 on the Pu metal surface followed by the formation of PuO2 resulting in a layered oxide structure. This work represents the first steps in determining the activation energy for adsorption of various atmospheric gases on Pu.
Processing of YBa2Cu3O6+x superconducting samples by employing different precursor powder preparation techniques such as ball milling, attrition milling and also narrow particle size distribution powder preparation through coprecipitation by spraying will be discussed. CuO coated with oxalates shows the lowest resistance above T up to room temperature. The extent of corrosion by water has been studied by employing magnetic susceptibility, XPS and X-ray diffraction. Superconducting samples are affected to a considerable extent when treated in water at 60° C and the severity of the attack increases with time.
Visible light from a copper vapor laser (CVL) operating with 510 and 578 nm radiation (intensity ratio approximately 2:1), an average power of 100 W, a pulse duration of 50 ns, and a repetition frequency of 4.4 kHz has been shown to produce high quality diamond-like-carbon (DLC) films at fluences between 2xl08 and 5xl010 W/cm2. Maximum deposition rates of 2000 μm.cm2/h were obtained at 5xl08 W/cm2. DLC films with hardness values of approximately 60 GPa were characterized by a variety of techniques to confirm DLC character, hydrogen content, and surface morphology. the presence of C2 in the vapor plume was confirmed by the presence of the C2 Swan bands in emission spectra obtained during the process. Economic implications of process scale-up to industrially meaningful component sizes are presented.
Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) has been widely used for deposition of high Tc superconducting thin films, and is recognized as one of the best physical vapor techniques for the preparation of these films. The most important advantage of this technique is stoichiometric deposition; films can be made with the same composition as the target. Utilizing PLD, not only thin films but also multilayers and superlattices of high Tc superconductors have been fabricated. In this paper, the performance of the technique will be reviewed, and speculations regarding the future would be made.
Various thermal treatments have been applied to Cd-Zn and Pb-Cd eutectic alloys in an attempt to better understand the thermal stability of eutectics close to their melting temperatures. Specimens of each system were grown at 40, 400 and 4000 mm/hr to obtain microstructures which were either lamellar, lamellar/cellular, or cellular. These specimens were thermally treated by either: (1) isothermal annealing at 0.95 Tm (up to 192 hrs), (2) thermal cycling between room temperature and 0.95 Tm (up to 64 cycles), (3) exposing to thermal gradients parallel to the growth direction and maintaining one end of the specimen at 0.95 Tm and the opposite end at room temperature (up to 48 hrs). It was found in all cases that some microstructural changes occurred but that the two alloy systems displayed marked differences in degradation sequence. An explanation and interpretation of these decay sequences is attempted. The mechanical properties of the variouslytreated alloy specimens were determined and are correlated with the observed microstructural features. The Cd-Zn specimens coarsened more rapidly than equivalent Pb-Cd specimens, as might be expected since the interphase boundary energies have been reported as 86 and 67 erg/cm2 respectively.
The solid-liquid interfacial free energies of each of the individual phases comprising the eutectic system, Carbon Tetrabromide-Hexachloroethane, were measured as a function of composition using a “grain boundary groove” technique. Thermodynamic data were combined with groove shape measurements made from high resolution optical photomicrographs of the solid-liquid interfaces to give the interfacial free energy data. An interfacial free energy balance at the eutectic trijunction was performed to obtain all the forces acting on that point. The three interphase interfacial free energies at the eutectic trijunctions as well as a solid-solid phase boundary torque were evaluated.
It was found that the solid-liquid interfacial free energies of the two phases of the eutectic could be evaluated from photomicrographs of growing or stationary eutectic interfaces. In addition, it was found that for a substantial range of freezing conditions the eutectic interface shape can be predicted from a knowledge of the interfacial free energies alone.
Superalloy eutectics strengthened with monocarbide whiskers are highly anisotropic in strength. Mechanical behavior transverse to the growth axis is governed largely by the fracture resistance of the matrix grain boundaries. While the matrices of these eutectics are essentially columnar grained superalloys, there are significant differences between d.s. superalloys and superalloy-monocarbide eutectics. These differences arise, in part from different solidification processes and from the alloying limitations in eutectic systems.
Thin slices of directionally solidified, fibrous composite, monotectic alloy samples have been selectively etched to remove the fibrous phase, so to produce fine sieves of filters having pore diameters ≲10μm. Alloys in systems Al-In, Al-Bi and CuAl-Pb have been examined using as etchants aqueous nitric acid (Al-In, Al-Bi) and aqueous citric acid (CuAl-Pb) without applied anode voltages. These alloys and etchants illustrate examples in which fiber and matrix are attacked to different extents (Al-In), the phase interface is selectively attacked (Al-Bi) or only the fibers are attacked (CuAl-Pb). Hole sizes and perfection are compared for etching times, concentrations and anode voltage.
Laser melting of the surface of CuAl-Pb samples has been used to screen or frame areas of the composite microstructure and also shows how local melting of the fibrous Pb phase can be used to assess the heat affected zone.