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We apply gravitational lensing statistics to: (1) place a limit on the cosmological constant (ΩΛ); (2) place a limit on the average red-shift (< z >) of gamma-ray bursters (GRBs); (3) investigate models of galaxy evolution to see how compatible these models are with lensing statistics. We also point out the sources of uncertainty in lensing statistics, leading to uncertainty in the results.
Soybean is a leading oilseed crop in India, which contains about 40% of protein and 20% of oil. Core collection will accelerate the management and utilization of soybean genetic resources in breeding programmes. In the present study, eight agromorphological traits of 3443 soybean germplasm were analysed for the development of core collection using the principal component score (PCS) strategy and the power core method. The PCS strategy yielded core collection (CC1) of 576 accessions, which accounted for 16.72% of the entire collection (EC). The analysis based on the power core programme resulted in CC2 of 402 accessions, which accounted for 11.67% of the EC. Statistical analysis showed similar trends for the mean and range estimated in both core collections and EC. In addition, the variance, standard deviation and coefficient of variance were in general higher in core collections than in the EC. The correlations observed in the EC in general were preserved in core collections. A total of 311 and 137 unique accessions were found in CC1 and CC2 in addition to 265 accessions that were found to be common in both core collections. These 265 common accessions were the most diverse core sets, which accounted for 7.64% of the EC. We proposed to constitute an integrated core collection (ICC) by integrating both common and unique accessions. The ICC comprised 713 accessions, which accounted for about 20.62% of the EC. Statistical analysis indicated that the ICC captured maximum variation than CC1 and CC2. Therefore, the ICC can be extensively evaluated for a large number of economically important traits for the identification of desirable genotypes and for the development of mini core collection in soybean.
An electrochemical capacitive sensor with electrode separation in the order of the Electrical Double Layer width (Debye length) of the analyte solution is presented for extremely sensitive and label-free analysis of Nucleic Acids. As the Electrical Double Layers (EDL) from both the capacitive electrodes interact and overlap each other in the reduced space confinement, the contribution from the electrode polarization effects and noises due to bulk sample resistance are found to be minimized. The dielectric property changes during hybridization reaction were measured using 10-mer nucleotide sequences. A 30-45% change in relative permittivity (capacitance) was observed due to DNA hybridization at 10Hz.
This paper reports on the incorporation and validation of a microagitation system based on a piezoelectric polymer, Poly(vinylidene fluoride) in its beta phase, β-PVDF, in a fully-integrated disposable lab-on-a-chip for point-of-care testing and monitoring of biochemical parameters in biological fluids. The lab-on-a-chip concept offers a novel approach for clinical analyses, especially in biological fluids analyses, due to its portability, ensuring that the analysis can be performed at any location with quick results. Its microagitation system performance was successfully demonstrated by quantitative measurements of uric acid in human urine, though other molecules or biological fluids can be also measured. The optimization tests prove that it is possible to use lower frequencies than resonance with no major changes in the mixing process. The effect of area and location within the lab-on-a-chip of the microagitation system was also considered.
In this study the status of oxidant stress, vitamin A and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) levels were evaluated in cases of laryngeal carcinoma patients from Northern India. In control subjects the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), vitamin A and ACE were 0.23 ± 0.07 nmole/ml, 2515 ± 84 IU, and 1.4 ± 0.8 U/ml respectively. Thirty laryngeal cancer patients were divided into three groups according to the TNM classification (American Joint Committee on Cancers). In laryngeal cancer patients according to tumour size, MDA and ACE levels increased to 0.32 ± 0.04 nmole/ml and 4.7 ± 0.5 U/ml respectively and the effect was statistically significant (p<0.01). The correlation coefficient between different subgroups was also highly significant (r =0.96, p<0.01). However, serum vitamin A levels decreased to 621 ± 20 IU and the effect was statistically significant (p<0.01). In another two groups of laryngeal cancer patients, a similar pattern of various markers was obtained. Thirty patients with laryngeal carcinoma were divided into four different groups according to nodal involvement and it was observed that in laryngeal cancer patients with no nodal involvement, ACE levels were low 3.6 ± 1.4 U/ml while patients with maximum nodal involvement had the highest levels of ACE 7.1 ± 0.18 U/ml. The correlation coefficient between different groups is highly statistically significant (r = 0.95, p<0.01). In patients with laryngeal cancer the serum MDA and vitamin A levels correlation coefficient between different groups was not significant. It is thus concluded that serum ACE might be a specific test marker for laryngeal cancer disease burden. The use of this marker enzyme for therapeutics is being planned.
Groundnuts are mostly grown during the rainy season (kharif) in India. Most of the cultivation is without irrigation. Consequently the crop experiences water deficits of different intensities and durations, depending upon the rainfall distribution. Yields are poor under such conditions. In other leguminous species irrigation at flowering usually improves yield, if the pod development period coincides with a break in rainfall or water deficit (Khanna-Chopra, Koundal & Sinha, 1980). Thus, an understanding of reproductive behaviour and reproductive efficiency could be helpful in adjusting planting to coincide with favourable agroclimatic conditions. Alternatively, this understanding could help in scheduling irrigation.