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Conductive composites are being considered for use in applications such as electromagnetic shielding. Prior work has shown correlation of electrical conductivity to the microstructure of corresponding composite. In the present paper, composites consisting of polyurethane acrylic and dispersed nickel nanoparticles were fabricated, and tested for their electrical conductivity. In the fabrication process, half of the suspensions were agitated by sonication and half were not. Correlations between electrical conductivity and composite microstructural details are presented. These correlations show an optimum concentration of nickel nanoparticles that result in maximum conductivity enhancement. In addition, sonicating the suspensions increased conductivity of resulting nanocomposites. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) images were used to estimate surface concentration and distribution of Nickel nanoparticles, and were correlated to electrical conductivity measurements. Parameters such as number of particles in contact and junction distance between the nano particles in the composites are suggested as a way of enhancing electrical conductivity.
India has the second largest number of people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) globally. Epidemiological evidence indicates that consumption of white rice is positively associated with T2D risk, while intake of brown rice is inversely associated. Thus, we explored the effect of substituting brown rice for white rice on T2D risk factors among adults in urban South India. A total of 166 overweight (BMI ≥ 23 kg/m2) adults aged 25–65 years were enrolled in a randomised cross-over trial in Chennai, India. Interventions were a parboiled brown rice or white rice regimen providing two ad libitum meals/d, 6 d/week for 3 months with a 2-week washout period. Primary outcomes were blood glucose, insulin, glycosylated Hb (HbA1c), insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance) and lipids. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) was a secondary outcome. We did not observe significant between-group differences for primary outcomes among all participants. However, a significant reduction in HbA1c was observed in the brown rice group among participants with the metabolic syndrome (−0·18 (se 0·08) %) relative to those without the metabolic syndrome (0·05 (se 0·05) %) (P-for-heterogeneity = 0·02). Improvements in HbA1c, total and LDL-cholesterol were observed in the brown rice group among participants with a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 compared with those with a BMI < 25 kg/m2 (P-for-heterogeneity < 0·05). We observed a smaller increase in hs-CRP in the brown (0·03 (sd 2·12) mg/l) compared with white rice group (0·63 (sd 2·35) mg/l) (P = 0·04). In conclusion, substituting brown rice for white rice showed a potential benefit on HbA1c among participants with the metabolic syndrome and an elevated BMI. A small benefit on inflammation was also observed.
BiFeO3 (BFO) is the most studied room temperature multiferroic compound. In this work we demonstrate a template assisted growth process through which the growth strain is controlled to achieve required phase of BFO. Growth of (∼20nm) fully strained tetragonal (T), rhombohedral (R) and mixed phase of T and R of Bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3) was achieved by varying the thickness of the template layer. The different phases were confirmed by using high resolution x-ray diffractions studies. The conductivity map of all the three phases were carried out using an atomic force microscope operating in conductive mode. Tip induced surface defect migration within a given grain was observed in pure phases and the conductivity map confirmed the same. The room temperature resistivity is found to be decreasing systematically from 1.1×106 Ωm , 935×105 Ωm and 1.16×104 Ωm respectively for tetragonal, mixed phase and rhombohedral phase BFO. In the case of mixed phase both the nano- scale and macroscopic leakage current studies show low conductivity, which could be due to the increased pinning sites that increases the energy barrier for the defect migration. The local nano-scale measurements and conductivity mapping corroborates well with the macroscopic studies.
Improving understanding of the pathogen-specific seasonality of enteric infections is critical to informing policy on the timing of preventive measures and to forecast trends in the burden of diarrhoeal disease. Data obtained from active surveillance of cohorts can capture the underlying infection status as transmission occurs in the community. The purpose of this study was to characterise rotavirus seasonality in eight different locations while adjusting for age, calendar time and within-subject clustering of episodes by applying an adapted Serfling model approach to data from a multi-site cohort study. In the Bangladesh and Peru sites, within-subject clustering was high, with more than half of infants who experienced one rotavirus infection going on to experience a second and more than 20% experiencing a third. In the five sites that are in countries that had not introduced the rotavirus vaccine, the model predicted a primary peak in prevalence during the dry season and, in three of these, a secondary peak during the rainy season. The patterns predicted by this approach are broadly congruent with several emerging hypotheses about rotavirus transmission and are consistent for both symptomatic and asymptomatic rotavirus episodes. These findings have practical implications for programme design, but caution should be exercised in deriving inferences about the underlying pathways driving these trends, particularly when extending the approach to other pathogens.
As part of a stellar population sampling program, a series of photometric probes at various field sizes and depths have been obtained in a low extinction window in the galactic anticentre direction. Very deep CCD frames probe the most external parts of the disc, providing strong evidence that the galactic density scale length for the old disc population is rather short (2.5 kpc) and drops abruptly beyond 5.5-6 kpc.
Deeper frames in the I band allow to estimate photometric distances and confirm the position of the disk edge. A few stars are found at larger distances. Their number is exactly what we expect if the thick disk does not have any cutoff. We discuss the implications for the formation and evolution of the disc, for the star formation threshold, and for the origin of the thick disc population.
There are few data on excess direct and indirect costs of diabetes in India and limited data on rural costs of diabetes. We aimed to further explore these aspects of diabetes burdens using a clinic-based, comparative cost-of-illness study.
Persons with diabetes (n = 606) were recruited from government, private, and rural clinics and compared to persons without diabetes matched for age, sex, and socioeconomic status (n = 356). We used interviewer-administered questionnaires to estimate direct costs (outpatient, inpatient, medication, laboratory, and procedures) and indirect costs [absence from (absenteeism) or low productivity at (presenteeism) work]. Excess costs were calculated as the difference between costs reported by persons with and without diabetes and compared across settings. Regression analyses were used to separately identify factors associated with total direct and indirect costs.
Annual excess direct costs were highest amongst private clinic attendees (INR 19 552, US$425) and lowest amongst government clinic attendees (INR 1204, US$26.17). Private clinic attendees had the lowest excess absenteeism (2.36 work days/year) and highest presenteeism (0.06 work days/year) due to diabetes. Government clinic attendees reported the highest absenteeism (7.48 work days/year) and lowest presenteeism (−0.31 work days/year). Ten additional years of diabetes duration was associated with 11% higher direct costs (p < 0.001). Older age (p = 0.02) and longer duration of diabetes (p < 0.001) were associated with higher total lost work days.
Excess health expenditures and lost productivity amongst individuals with diabetes are substantial and different across care settings. Innovative solutions are needed to cope with diabetes and its associated cost burdens in India.
Diarrhoeal diseases are major causes of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. This longitudinal study aimed to identify controllable environmental drivers of intestinal infections amidst a highly contaminated drinking water supply in urban slums and villages of Vellore, Tamil Nadu in southern India. Three hundred households with children (<5 years) residing in two semi-urban slums and three villages were visited weekly for 12–18 months to monitor gastrointestinal morbidity. Households were surveyed at baseline to obtain information on environmental and behavioural factors relevant to diarrhoea. There were 258 diarrhoeal episodes during the follow-up period, resulting in an overall incidence rate of 0·12 episodes/person-year. Incidence and longitudinal prevalence rates of diarrhoea were twofold higher in the slums compared to rural communities (P < 0·0002). Regardless of study site, diarrhoeal incidence was highest in infants (<1 year) at 1·07 episodes/person-year, and decreased gradually with increasing age. Increasing diarrhoeal rates were associated with presence of children (<5 years), domesticated animals and low socioeconomic status. In rural communities, open-field defecation was associated with diarrhoea in young children. This study demonstrates the contribution of site-specific environmental and behavioural factors in influencing endemic rates of urban and rural diarrhoea in a region with highly contaminated drinking water.
Physical inactivity and low birth weight (LBW) may lead to an increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes. The extent to which LBW individuals may benefit from physical exercise training when compared with those with normal birth weight (NBW) controls is uncertain. We assessed the impact of an outdoor exercise intervention on body composition, insulin secretion and action in young men born with LBW and NBW in rural India. A total of 61 LBW and 56 NBW healthy young men were recruited into the study. The individuals were instructed to perform outdoor bicycle exercise training for 45 min every day. Fasting blood samples, intravenous glucose tolerance tests and bioimpedance body composition assessment were carried out. Physical activity was measured using combined accelerometry and heart rate monitoring during the first and the last week of the intervention. Following the exercise intervention, the LBW group displayed an increase in physical fitness [55.0 ml (O2)/kg min (52.0−58.0)−57.5 ml (O2)/kg min (54.4−60.5)] level and total fat-free mass [10.9% (8.0−13.4)−11.4% (8.0−14.6)], as well as a corresponding decline in the ratio of total fat mass/fat-free mass. In contrast, an increase in total fat percentage as well as total fat mass was observed in the NBW group. After intervention, fasting plasma insulin levels, homoeostasis model assessments (HOMA) of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and insulin secretion (HOMA-IS), improved to the same extent in both the groups. In summary, young men born with LBW in rural India benefit metabolically from exercise training to an extent comparable with NBW controls.
Organic plasma polymers are currently attracting significant interest for their potential in the areas of flexible optoelectronics and biotechnology. Thin films of plasma-polymerized polyterpenol fabricated under varied deposition conditions were studied using nanoindentation and nanoscratch analyses. Coatings fabricated at higher deposition power were characterized by improved hardness, from 0.33 GPa for 10 W to 0.51 GPa for 100 W at 500-μN load, and enhanced wear resistance. The elastic recovery was estimated to be between 0.1 and 0.14. Coatings deposited at higher RF powers also showed less mechanical deformation and improved quality of adhesion. The average (Ra) and root mean square (Rq) surface roughness parameters decreased, from 0.44 nm and 0.56 nm for 10 W to 0.33 nm and 0.42 nm for 100 W, respectively.
The development of novel organic polymer thin films is essential for the advancement of many emerging fields including organic electronics and biomedical coatings. In this study, the effect of synthesis conditions, namely radio frequency (rf) deposition power, on the material properties of polyterpenol thin films derived from nonsynthetic environmentally friendly monomer was investigated. At lower deposition powers, the polyterpenol films preserved more of the original monomer constituents, such as hydroxy functional groups; however, they were also softer and more hydrophilic compared to polymers fabricated at higher power. Enhanced monomer fragmentation and consequent reduction in the presence of the polar groups in the structure of the high-power samples reduced their optical band gap value from 2.95 eV for 10 W to 2.64 eV for 100 W. Regardless of deposition power, all samples were found to be optically transparent with smooth, defect-free, and homogenous surfaces.
The initial stages of germanium heteroepitaxy on vicinal Si(100) have been studied using in-situ deposition in a UHV STEM. Germanium was deposited using molecular beam techniques onto substrates misoriented 1° and 5* toward <110> held at room temperature, 375°C and 525°C. Film thicknesses were in the range 4-6 ML, just greater than the stable intermediate layer of 3-4ML (1ML = 0.14nm). The Ge clusters were observed using biassed secondary electron (b-SE) imaging with nanometer resolution. Comparisons were made between deposition at the elevated temperatures, and room temperature deposition followed by anneals at the same temperatures.
Annealing the low temperature deposits produces coarsening of the islands which is similar on the 1° and 5° samples. Island size distributions and other film growth parameters obtained from the 375°C and 525°C anneals indicate that the coarsening is different at these temperatures and is possibly affected by instabilities in the intermediate layer. Results of the high temperature depositions indicate that neither surface steps nor the edges of islands act as perfect sinks, and that diffusion distances are of the order of several microns. The nucleation density and size distributions are markedly different for deposition at 375°C and 525°C possibly due to competitive capture at strong sinks.
In a parallel set of experiments in a standard UHV chamber, macroscopic wafer samples were analyzed with RHEED, Auger and secondary electron spectroscopy. These correlate well with the intermediate layer thicknesses previously reported in the literature, and the large contrast observed in the b-SE images. Ex situ TEM studies of samples grown in this chamber show islands with various contrast features including those of coherent strain.
We have studied the initial stages of island formation and coarsening for epitaxial Ge on vicinal Si (100) using in-situ deposition and nanometer resolution biassed secondary electron imaging (b-SEI) in a UHV-STEM. Ge is deposited using MBE techniques on nominally flat Si(100) substrates as well as those misoriented 1° and 5° toward <110>. The temporal evolution of the islanded microstructure can be studied by analysis of computer generated island size distributions. Good statistics can be obtained for islands with radii between 2nm and lOOnm using high resolution b-SE imaging and a large magnification range. Both MBE and Solid phase MBE (SP-MBE) processes have been studied.
We explain the evolution of the islanded microstructure in terms of competition for Ge adatoms among the various available sinks. For the MBE case, control of diffusion distances by varying the substrate temperature has allowed us to identify effects related to coherently strained and highly dislocated Ge islands as well as contaminant particles. In all cases, coherently strained Ge islands appear to be the weakest sinks and contaminant particles the strongest. Metastable growth of the intermediate layer during interrupted depositions at 375°C may be a direct consequence of an energy cost for incorporating adatoms into coherently strained islands. For depositions at higher temperatures, strong adatom sinks influence nucleation densities and size distributions of Ge islands by reducing the effective supersaturation. Island size distributions analyzed for the case of room temperature deposition in the early stages of coarsening also show evidence of effects due to coherently strained islands. These size distributions evolve from an initial distribution to one with increasing number of large islands while the distribution of the smaller islands (< 10nm radius) remains constant.
The fluorine doped TEOS films obtained using an inorganic gaseous dopant source (SiF4) and an organic liquid dopant source (TEFS) are described. The stability of fluorine in these films is strongly dependent on process conditions. The limit of stability for the most stable films is described. The gap fill capability of these films was found to depend strongly on the type of the fluorine precursor.
A study of parasitic bipolar junction transistor effects in single pocket thin film siliconon-insulators (SOI) nMOSFETs has been carried out. Characterization and simulation results show that parasitic bipolar junction transistor action is reduced in single pocket SOI MOSFETs in comparison to homogeneously doped conventional SOI MOSFETs. A novel Gate-Induced-Drain-Leakage (GIDL) current technique was used to characterize the SOI MOSFETs. 2 - D simulations were carried out to analyze the reduced parasitic bipolar junction effect in single pocket thin film SOI MOSFETs.
In 1978, 22 staff members of the National Institute of Virology, Pune, India, were given two doses of human diploid cell antirabies vaccine (HDCV) for primary pre-exposure prophylactic immunization; the interval between the two doses being approximately 4 weeks. Eighteen of these 22 vaccinees were given a booster dose 1 year later. All 18 vaccinees developed protective levels of antibody; most of them had antibody levels exceeding 10 IU/ml.
In 1984, 5 years after the booster dose, 11 (79·0%) of 14 vaccinees tested still possessed neutralizing antibody levels ranging from 0·5 IU/ml to 10 IU/ml. Fourteen days after the administration of a booster dose, the antibody levels ranged from 10 to ≥ 100 IU/ml for all except one vaccinee (5·2 IU/ml). These findings demonstrate that the majority of vaccinees retained detectable neutralizing antibody after pre-exposure prophylaxis for as long as 5 years and that a single booster dose thereafter evoked a good antibody response.
The aim of this study was to ascertain whether international glycaemic index (GI) values, predominantly developed using peoples living in Europe, North America or Australia, are applicable to Asian Indians resident in their own country. Thirty-four Caucasian subjects were recruited in Oxford, UK and thirteen Asian Indian subjects in Chennai, India. Two types of sweet biscuits and three breakfast cereals were tested for glycaemic response in each group. Subjects were served equivalent available carbohydrate amounts (50 g) of test foods and a reference food (glucose), on separate occasions. Capillary blood glucose was measured from finger-prick samples in fasted subjects ( − 5 and 0 min) and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min after starting to eat. For each test food, the incremental area under the curve (IAUC) and GI values were determined. Although the glycaemic response to the reference food was higher in Asian Indian subjects compared with UK Caucasian subjects (IAUC 219 mmol/min per litre v. 157 mmol/min per litre, respectively; P < 0·01), there was no significant difference in GI values of the five test foods between the two groups. This is the first study known to the authors to examine the role of ethnicity on GI when the subjects are resident in their own countries. The findings from this study have important implications for the use of the GI concept worldwide and support the application of international values to different ethnic groups. The higher glycaemic response to all foods in Asian Indians may represent another mechanism for increased diabetes susceptibility among Asian Indians.
Functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) is a widely practiced technique in the UK. This procedure has variable complication rates and can have some serious consequences. We present a case of surgical emphysema of the neck, face and the pre-vertebral space following FESS. Emphysema of the face and neck has been previously reported. However, to our knowledge, emphysema of the pre-vertebral space following FESS has not been documented. Pre-vertebral emphysema following FESS is an unusual and potentially serious complication.
PbO-P2O5-As2O3 glasses containing
different concentrations of Al2O3 ranging from 0 to 5 mol%
were prepared. Dielectric properties (viz., dielectric constant
, loss tan
and a.c. conductivity
over a moderately wide range of frequency and temperature and
dielectric breakdown strength in air medium), optical properties (optical
absorption, IR spectra and thermoluminescence) and differential thermal
analysis have been studied. The interesting changes observed in these
studies have been explained in the light of different structural groups of
The entomopathogenic Beauveria bassiana is a potential biopesticide. Fungicide-tolerant isolates of this fungus would have an added advantage of being compatible with the conventional chemical methods of pest control. Therefore, 30 isolates of the fungus were screened for tolerance to bavistin a commonly used benzimidazole fungicide containing methyl benzimidazol-2-yl carbamate (MBC). Germination and growth bioassays in the presence of 0.05% bavistin were conducted for screening. Three tolerant isolates were identified, showing tolerance up to 2% bavistin. Mutation in the β-tubulin gene is known to confer tolerance to MBC; the nine known mutation sites in the gene involved were sequenced in the tolerant strains. The β-tubulin gene from codons 1–405 was amplified using two pairs of degenerate primers, designed for the conserved region of the β-tubulin gene and sequenced. From the sequence suitable primers were designed for the regions flanking the nine known sites involved in mutations conferring MBC tolerance. The amplified products with these primers from the MBC-tolerant isolates were sequenced and in two (ARSEF 1315 and ARSEF 1316) a mutation was detected in the 198 codon resulting in replacement of glutamic acid with lysine. In the third tolerant isolate (ITCC 913) no mutation could be detected in any of the nine known sites conferring tolerance to MBC. To complete the sequencing of the β-tubulin gene, the remaining part (from codon 405 onwards) of the gene was isolated by a three-prime gene walk. The gene sequence showed a close homology to fungal β-tubulin genes with four introns.