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Nipah virus (NiV) outbreak occurred in Kozhikode district, Kerala, India in 2018 with a case fatality rate of 91% (21/23). In 2019, a single case with full recovery occurred in Ernakulam district. We described the response and control measures by the Indian Council of Medical Research and Kerala State Government for the 2019 NiV outbreak. The establishment of Point of Care assays and monoclonal antibodies administration facility for early diagnosis, response and treatment, intensified contact tracing activities, bio-risk management and hospital infection control training of healthcare workers contributed to effective control and containment of NiV outbreak in Ernakulam.
A new species of Eriocaulon, E. vamanae, is described from the southern Western Ghats of Kerala, India. It resembles Eriocaulon nepalense var. luzulifolium (Mart.) Praj. & J.Parn. but differs in the shape of its involucral bracts and receptacle, the fusion of the sepals in male flowers, the shape and indumentum of the sepals in female flowers, the size and indumentum of the petals in female flowers, and the seed coat appendages. Eriocaulon vamanae is so far known only from the type locality, Meesapulimala in Idukki District, Kerala, and is assessed as ‘Critically Endangered’ according to the IUCN’s Red List Categories and Criteria.
Bio-composite materials with optimal mechanical and structural properties and capability of cell differentiation are crucial for tissue engineering. Synthetic collagen proteins with lengths of approximately 10 nanometers, along with natural spider silk proteins provide an opportunity for development of an optimal biomaterial for scaffolding applications in tissue engineering. This combines unique mechanical, structural and biological properties of two of the nature’s best polymer proteins, albeit the collagen used in the present work is of the synthetic nature, it mimics the properties and advantages of natural collagen itself. In the present work, we study the binding capability of these proteins at a molecular level via molecular dynamics modeling. Spider silk and synthetic collagen protein molecular models in biophysical saline conditions under standard pressure and temperature are investigated to understand if natural binding occurs between the two without any other external factors. An initial minimum separation of 10 angstroms between the proteins was used. Binding was observed between the two proteins throughout the dynamic simulation of 100 nanoseconds. The radius of gyration and minimum distance between the proteins shows a decreasing separation between the two proteins until a stable distance of 2.5 nanometers and 0.2 nanometers respectively, is achieved. Binding is further observed between the proteins via formation of strong and stable hydrogen bonds. A hydrogen bond between collagen Proline-31 and silk Serine-96 was observed to be the most stable and frequent bond between the single collagen and silk system. Results clearly indicate a self-assembly behavior of these two systems illustrating their potential as a biomaterial for tissue engineering.
India has the second largest number of people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) globally. Epidemiological evidence indicates that consumption of white rice is positively associated with T2D risk, while intake of brown rice is inversely associated. Thus, we explored the effect of substituting brown rice for white rice on T2D risk factors among adults in urban South India. A total of 166 overweight (BMI ≥ 23 kg/m2) adults aged 25–65 years were enrolled in a randomised cross-over trial in Chennai, India. Interventions were a parboiled brown rice or white rice regimen providing two ad libitum meals/d, 6 d/week for 3 months with a 2-week washout period. Primary outcomes were blood glucose, insulin, glycosylated Hb (HbA1c), insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance) and lipids. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) was a secondary outcome. We did not observe significant between-group differences for primary outcomes among all participants. However, a significant reduction in HbA1c was observed in the brown rice group among participants with the metabolic syndrome (−0·18 (se 0·08) %) relative to those without the metabolic syndrome (0·05 (se 0·05) %) (P-for-heterogeneity = 0·02). Improvements in HbA1c, total and LDL-cholesterol were observed in the brown rice group among participants with a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 compared with those with a BMI < 25 kg/m2 (P-for-heterogeneity < 0·05). We observed a smaller increase in hs-CRP in the brown (0·03 (sd 2·12) mg/l) compared with white rice group (0·63 (sd 2·35) mg/l) (P = 0·04). In conclusion, substituting brown rice for white rice showed a potential benefit on HbA1c among participants with the metabolic syndrome and an elevated BMI. A small benefit on inflammation was also observed.
Conductive composites are being considered for use in applications such as electromagnetic shielding. Prior work has shown correlation of electrical conductivity to the microstructure of corresponding composite. In the present paper, composites consisting of polyurethane acrylic and dispersed nickel nanoparticles were fabricated, and tested for their electrical conductivity. In the fabrication process, half of the suspensions were agitated by sonication and half were not. Correlations between electrical conductivity and composite microstructural details are presented. These correlations show an optimum concentration of nickel nanoparticles that result in maximum conductivity enhancement. In addition, sonicating the suspensions increased conductivity of resulting nanocomposites. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) images were used to estimate surface concentration and distribution of Nickel nanoparticles, and were correlated to electrical conductivity measurements. Parameters such as number of particles in contact and junction distance between the nano particles in the composites are suggested as a way of enhancing electrical conductivity.
Improving understanding of the pathogen-specific seasonality of enteric infections is critical to informing policy on the timing of preventive measures and to forecast trends in the burden of diarrhoeal disease. Data obtained from active surveillance of cohorts can capture the underlying infection status as transmission occurs in the community. The purpose of this study was to characterise rotavirus seasonality in eight different locations while adjusting for age, calendar time and within-subject clustering of episodes by applying an adapted Serfling model approach to data from a multi-site cohort study. In the Bangladesh and Peru sites, within-subject clustering was high, with more than half of infants who experienced one rotavirus infection going on to experience a second and more than 20% experiencing a third. In the five sites that are in countries that had not introduced the rotavirus vaccine, the model predicted a primary peak in prevalence during the dry season and, in three of these, a secondary peak during the rainy season. The patterns predicted by this approach are broadly congruent with several emerging hypotheses about rotavirus transmission and are consistent for both symptomatic and asymptomatic rotavirus episodes. These findings have practical implications for programme design, but caution should be exercised in deriving inferences about the underlying pathways driving these trends, particularly when extending the approach to other pathogens.
BiFeO3 (BFO) is the most studied room temperature multiferroic compound. In this work we demonstrate a template assisted growth process through which the growth strain is controlled to achieve required phase of BFO. Growth of (∼20nm) fully strained tetragonal (T), rhombohedral (R) and mixed phase of T and R of Bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3) was achieved by varying the thickness of the template layer. The different phases were confirmed by using high resolution x-ray diffractions studies. The conductivity map of all the three phases were carried out using an atomic force microscope operating in conductive mode. Tip induced surface defect migration within a given grain was observed in pure phases and the conductivity map confirmed the same. The room temperature resistivity is found to be decreasing systematically from 1.1×106 Ωm , 935×105 Ωm and 1.16×104 Ωm respectively for tetragonal, mixed phase and rhombohedral phase BFO. In the case of mixed phase both the nano- scale and macroscopic leakage current studies show low conductivity, which could be due to the increased pinning sites that increases the energy barrier for the defect migration. The local nano-scale measurements and conductivity mapping corroborates well with the macroscopic studies.
There are few data on excess direct and indirect costs of diabetes in India and limited data on rural costs of diabetes. We aimed to further explore these aspects of diabetes burdens using a clinic-based, comparative cost-of-illness study.
Persons with diabetes (n = 606) were recruited from government, private, and rural clinics and compared to persons without diabetes matched for age, sex, and socioeconomic status (n = 356). We used interviewer-administered questionnaires to estimate direct costs (outpatient, inpatient, medication, laboratory, and procedures) and indirect costs [absence from (absenteeism) or low productivity at (presenteeism) work]. Excess costs were calculated as the difference between costs reported by persons with and without diabetes and compared across settings. Regression analyses were used to separately identify factors associated with total direct and indirect costs.
Annual excess direct costs were highest amongst private clinic attendees (INR 19 552, US$425) and lowest amongst government clinic attendees (INR 1204, US$26.17). Private clinic attendees had the lowest excess absenteeism (2.36 work days/year) and highest presenteeism (0.06 work days/year) due to diabetes. Government clinic attendees reported the highest absenteeism (7.48 work days/year) and lowest presenteeism (−0.31 work days/year). Ten additional years of diabetes duration was associated with 11% higher direct costs (p < 0.001). Older age (p = 0.02) and longer duration of diabetes (p < 0.001) were associated with higher total lost work days.
Excess health expenditures and lost productivity amongst individuals with diabetes are substantial and different across care settings. Innovative solutions are needed to cope with diabetes and its associated cost burdens in India.
Diarrhoeal diseases are major causes of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. This longitudinal study aimed to identify controllable environmental drivers of intestinal infections amidst a highly contaminated drinking water supply in urban slums and villages of Vellore, Tamil Nadu in southern India. Three hundred households with children (<5 years) residing in two semi-urban slums and three villages were visited weekly for 12–18 months to monitor gastrointestinal morbidity. Households were surveyed at baseline to obtain information on environmental and behavioural factors relevant to diarrhoea. There were 258 diarrhoeal episodes during the follow-up period, resulting in an overall incidence rate of 0·12 episodes/person-year. Incidence and longitudinal prevalence rates of diarrhoea were twofold higher in the slums compared to rural communities (P < 0·0002). Regardless of study site, diarrhoeal incidence was highest in infants (<1 year) at 1·07 episodes/person-year, and decreased gradually with increasing age. Increasing diarrhoeal rates were associated with presence of children (<5 years), domesticated animals and low socioeconomic status. In rural communities, open-field defecation was associated with diarrhoea in young children. This study demonstrates the contribution of site-specific environmental and behavioural factors in influencing endemic rates of urban and rural diarrhoea in a region with highly contaminated drinking water.
Physical inactivity and low birth weight (LBW) may lead to an increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes. The extent to which LBW individuals may benefit from physical exercise training when compared with those with normal birth weight (NBW) controls is uncertain. We assessed the impact of an outdoor exercise intervention on body composition, insulin secretion and action in young men born with LBW and NBW in rural India. A total of 61 LBW and 56 NBW healthy young men were recruited into the study. The individuals were instructed to perform outdoor bicycle exercise training for 45 min every day. Fasting blood samples, intravenous glucose tolerance tests and bioimpedance body composition assessment were carried out. Physical activity was measured using combined accelerometry and heart rate monitoring during the first and the last week of the intervention. Following the exercise intervention, the LBW group displayed an increase in physical fitness [55.0 ml (O2)/kg min (52.0−58.0)−57.5 ml (O2)/kg min (54.4−60.5)] level and total fat-free mass [10.9% (8.0−13.4)−11.4% (8.0−14.6)], as well as a corresponding decline in the ratio of total fat mass/fat-free mass. In contrast, an increase in total fat percentage as well as total fat mass was observed in the NBW group. After intervention, fasting plasma insulin levels, homoeostasis model assessments (HOMA) of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and insulin secretion (HOMA-IS), improved to the same extent in both the groups. In summary, young men born with LBW in rural India benefit metabolically from exercise training to an extent comparable with NBW controls.
Organic plasma polymers are currently attracting significant interest for their potential in the areas of flexible optoelectronics and biotechnology. Thin films of plasma-polymerized polyterpenol fabricated under varied deposition conditions were studied using nanoindentation and nanoscratch analyses. Coatings fabricated at higher deposition power were characterized by improved hardness, from 0.33 GPa for 10 W to 0.51 GPa for 100 W at 500-μN load, and enhanced wear resistance. The elastic recovery was estimated to be between 0.1 and 0.14. Coatings deposited at higher RF powers also showed less mechanical deformation and improved quality of adhesion. The average (Ra) and root mean square (Rq) surface roughness parameters decreased, from 0.44 nm and 0.56 nm for 10 W to 0.33 nm and 0.42 nm for 100 W, respectively.
The development of novel organic polymer thin films is essential for the advancement of many emerging fields including organic electronics and biomedical coatings. In this study, the effect of synthesis conditions, namely radio frequency (rf) deposition power, on the material properties of polyterpenol thin films derived from nonsynthetic environmentally friendly monomer was investigated. At lower deposition powers, the polyterpenol films preserved more of the original monomer constituents, such as hydroxy functional groups; however, they were also softer and more hydrophilic compared to polymers fabricated at higher power. Enhanced monomer fragmentation and consequent reduction in the presence of the polar groups in the structure of the high-power samples reduced their optical band gap value from 2.95 eV for 10 W to 2.64 eV for 100 W. Regardless of deposition power, all samples were found to be optically transparent with smooth, defect-free, and homogenous surfaces.
In 1978, 22 staff members of the National Institute of Virology, Pune, India, were given two doses of human diploid cell antirabies vaccine (HDCV) for primary pre-exposure prophylactic immunization; the interval between the two doses being approximately 4 weeks. Eighteen of these 22 vaccinees were given a booster dose 1 year later. All 18 vaccinees developed protective levels of antibody; most of them had antibody levels exceeding 10 IU/ml.
In 1984, 5 years after the booster dose, 11 (79·0%) of 14 vaccinees tested still possessed neutralizing antibody levels ranging from 0·5 IU/ml to 10 IU/ml. Fourteen days after the administration of a booster dose, the antibody levels ranged from 10 to ≥ 100 IU/ml for all except one vaccinee (5·2 IU/ml). These findings demonstrate that the majority of vaccinees retained detectable neutralizing antibody after pre-exposure prophylaxis for as long as 5 years and that a single booster dose thereafter evoked a good antibody response.
The aim of this study was to ascertain whether international glycaemic index (GI) values, predominantly developed using peoples living in Europe, North America or Australia, are applicable to Asian Indians resident in their own country. Thirty-four Caucasian subjects were recruited in Oxford, UK and thirteen Asian Indian subjects in Chennai, India. Two types of sweet biscuits and three breakfast cereals were tested for glycaemic response in each group. Subjects were served equivalent available carbohydrate amounts (50 g) of test foods and a reference food (glucose), on separate occasions. Capillary blood glucose was measured from finger-prick samples in fasted subjects ( − 5 and 0 min) and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min after starting to eat. For each test food, the incremental area under the curve (IAUC) and GI values were determined. Although the glycaemic response to the reference food was higher in Asian Indian subjects compared with UK Caucasian subjects (IAUC 219 mmol/min per litre v. 157 mmol/min per litre, respectively; P < 0·01), there was no significant difference in GI values of the five test foods between the two groups. This is the first study known to the authors to examine the role of ethnicity on GI when the subjects are resident in their own countries. The findings from this study have important implications for the use of the GI concept worldwide and support the application of international values to different ethnic groups. The higher glycaemic response to all foods in Asian Indians may represent another mechanism for increased diabetes susceptibility among Asian Indians.
Functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) is a widely practiced technique in the UK. This procedure has variable complication rates and can have some serious consequences. We present a case of surgical emphysema of the neck, face and the pre-vertebral space following FESS. Emphysema of the face and neck has been previously reported. However, to our knowledge, emphysema of the pre-vertebral space following FESS has not been documented. Pre-vertebral emphysema following FESS is an unusual and potentially serious complication.
PbO-P2O5-As2O3 glasses containing
different concentrations of Al2O3 ranging from 0 to 5 mol%
were prepared. Dielectric properties (viz., dielectric constant
, loss tan
and a.c. conductivity
over a moderately wide range of frequency and temperature and
dielectric breakdown strength in air medium), optical properties (optical
absorption, IR spectra and thermoluminescence) and differential thermal
analysis have been studied. The interesting changes observed in these
studies have been explained in the light of different structural groups of
The entomopathogenic Beauveria bassiana is a potential biopesticide. Fungicide-tolerant isolates of this fungus would have an added advantage of being compatible with the conventional chemical methods of pest control. Therefore, 30 isolates of the fungus were screened for tolerance to bavistin a commonly used benzimidazole fungicide containing methyl benzimidazol-2-yl carbamate (MBC). Germination and growth bioassays in the presence of 0.05% bavistin were conducted for screening. Three tolerant isolates were identified, showing tolerance up to 2% bavistin. Mutation in the β-tubulin gene is known to confer tolerance to MBC; the nine known mutation sites in the gene involved were sequenced in the tolerant strains. The β-tubulin gene from codons 1–405 was amplified using two pairs of degenerate primers, designed for the conserved region of the β-tubulin gene and sequenced. From the sequence suitable primers were designed for the regions flanking the nine known sites involved in mutations conferring MBC tolerance. The amplified products with these primers from the MBC-tolerant isolates were sequenced and in two (ARSEF 1315 and ARSEF 1316) a mutation was detected in the 198 codon resulting in replacement of glutamic acid with lysine. In the third tolerant isolate (ITCC 913) no mutation could be detected in any of the nine known sites conferring tolerance to MBC. To complete the sequencing of the β-tubulin gene, the remaining part (from codon 405 onwards) of the gene was isolated by a three-prime gene walk. The gene sequence showed a close homology to fungal β-tubulin genes with four introns.
A study of parasitic bipolar junction transistor effects in single pocket thin film siliconon-insulators (SOI) nMOSFETs has been carried out. Characterization and simulation results show that parasitic bipolar junction transistor action is reduced in single pocket SOI MOSFETs in comparison to homogeneously doped conventional SOI MOSFETs. A novel Gate-Induced-Drain-Leakage (GIDL) current technique was used to characterize the SOI MOSFETs. 2 - D simulations were carried out to analyze the reduced parasitic bipolar junction effect in single pocket thin film SOI MOSFETs.
Background: Pleural effusions after bidirectional cavopulmonary anastomosis remain a significant cause of morbidity. Prolonged effusions in such patients have been associated with persistent elevations in plasma renin and angiotensin II. Methods: We conducted a controlled study in 36 patients (median age 8 months) undergoing bidirectional cavopulmonary anastomosis. Enalapril (5 mcg/kg) was administered intravenously within 1 hour of surgery and every 12 hours thereafter in 18 patients; when these patients were tolerating feeds, enalapril was switched to enteral captopril (3 mg/kg/day) every 8 hours. The other 18 patients did not receive perioperative angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. Using standardized criteria for discontinuation of chest tubes (< 2 mL/kg/day), volume and duration of pleural drainage were compared between groups. Results. There were no differences between groups in demographic, diagnostic, or hemodynamic factors. There was no difference in cardiopulmonary bypass time between groups and no difference in postoperative pulmonary arterial pressures. The duration of pleural drainage was shorter (2.2 ± 1.4 vs 5.9 ± 1.4 days, p< 0.001) and the volume less during the first 24 hours (4.7 ± 1.2 vs 7.7 ± 2.1 mL/kg, p< 0.001) and overall (10.6 ± 2.4 vs 19.6 ± 4.5 mL/kg, p< 0.001) in patients who received angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors than those who did not. Readmission for persistent effusions was required in 3 patients who did not receive angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and none who did (p= 0.11). Conclusions. Perioperative administration of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors is associated with decreased severity and duration of pleural effusions following bidirectional cavopulmonary anastomosis.