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To unveil the adaptation of Litopenaeus vannamei to elevated ambient ammonia-N, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) was knocked down to investigate its function in glucose metabolism pathway under ammonia-N exposure. When CHH was silenced, haemolymph glucose increased significantly during 3-6 h, decreased significantly during 12-48 h, and recovered to the control groups’ level at 72 h. After CHH knockdown, DA contents reduced significantly during 3-24 h, which recovered after 48 h. Besides, the expressions of GC and DA1R in the hepatopancreas decreased significantly, while DA4R increased significantly. Correspondingly, the contents of cAMP, cGMP and DAG and the expressions of PKA, PKG, AMPKα and AMPKγ were significantly downregulated, while the levels of PKC and AMPKβ were significantly upregulated. The expressions of CREB and GLUT2 decreased significantly, while GLUT1 increased significantly. Moreover, glycogen content, glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase activities in hepatopancreas and muscle were significantly increased. Furthermore, the levels of key enzymes HK, PK and PFK in glycolysis, rate-limiting enzymes CS in TCA, and critical enzymes PEPCK, FBP and G6P in gluconeogenesis were significantly decreased in hepatopancreas. These results suggest that CHH affects DA, and then they affect their receptors respectively to transmit glucose metabolism signals into the hepatopancreas of L. vannamei under ammonia-N stress. CHH acts on cGMP-PKG-AMPKα-CREB pathway through GC, and CHH affects DA to influence cAMP-PKA-AMPKγ-CREB and DAG-PKC-AMPKβ-CREB pathways, thereby regulating GLUTs, inhibiting glycogen metabolism and promoting glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. This study contributes to further understand glucose metabolism mechanism of crustacean in response to environmental stress.
Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery is associated with high mortality if not timely surgery. We reviewed our experience with anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery to assess the preoperative variables predictive of outcome and post-operative recovery of left ventricular function.
A retrospective review was conducted and collected data from patients who underwent anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery repair at our institute from April 2005 to December 2019. Left ventricular function was assessed by ejection fraction and the left ventricular end-diastolic dimension index. The outcomes of reimplantation repair were analysed.
A total of 30 consecutive patients underwent anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery repair, with a median age of 14.7 months (range, 1.5–59.6 months), including 14 females (46.67%). Surgery was performed with direct coronary reimplantation in 12 patients (40%) and the coronary lengthening technique in 18 (60%). Twelve patients had concomitant mitral annuloplasty. There were two in-hospital deaths (6.67%), no patients required mechanical support, and no late deaths occurred. Follow-up echocardiograms demonstrated significant improvement between the post-operative time point and the last follow-up in ejection fraction (49.43%±19.92% vs 60.21%±8.27%, p < 0.01) and in moderate or more severe mitral regurgitation (19/30 vs 5/28, p < 0.01). The left ventricular end-diastolic dimension index decreased from 101.91 ± 23.07 to 65.06 ± 12.82 (p < 0.01).
Surgical repair of anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery has good mid-term results with low mortality and reintervention rates. The coronary lengthening technique has good operability and leads to excellent cardiac recovery. The decision to concomitantly correct mitral regurgitation should be flexible and be based on the pathological changes of the mitral valve and the degree of mitral regurgitation.
Poor utilisation efficiency of carbohydrate always leads to metabolic phenotypes in fish. The intestinal microbiota plays an important role in carbohydrate degradation. Whether the intestinal bacteria could alleviate high-carbohydrate diet (HCD)-induced metabolic phenotypes in fish remains unknown. Here, a strain affiliated to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens was isolated from the intestine of Nile tilapia. A basal diet (CON), HCD or HCD supplemented with B. amy SS1 (HCB) was used to feed fish for 10 weeks. The beneficial effects of B. amy SS1 on weight gain and protein accumulation were observed. Fasting glucose and lipid deposition were decreased in the HCB group compared with the HCD group. High-throughput sequencing showed that the abundance of acetate-producing bacteria was increased in the HCB group relative to the HCD group. Gas chromatographic analysis indicated that the concentration of intestinal acetate was increased dramatically in the HCB group compared with that in the HCD group. Glucagon-like peptide-1 was also increased in the intestine and serum of the HCB group. Thus, fish were fed with HCD, HCD supplemented with sodium acetate at 900 mg/kg (HLA), 1800 mg/kg (HMA) or 3600 mg/kg (HHA) diet for 8 weeks, and the HMA and HHA groups mirrored the effects of B. amy SS1. This study revealed that B. amy SS1 could alleviate the metabolic phenotypes caused by HCD by enriching acetate-producing bacteria in fish intestines. Regulating the intestinal microbiota and their metabolites might represent a powerful strategy for fish nutrition modulation and health maintenance in future.
A 71-year-old man was admitted for gradually difficult walking for 3 years along with memory impairment and urinary incontinence for 1 year. At first, this patient just complained of weakness while walking and dizziness. He was treated for arterial hypertension; however, no relief was obtained. He experienced more difficulties in walking and initiating steps. Besides these symptoms, his memory and thinking ability declined. His wife found that he responded slowly with personality change from a talkative and considerative gentleman to a silent man with apathy. The patient often felt urinary urgency, sometimes with incontinence. It was considered as symptoms of prostate hypertrophy. He was referred to a neurologist and MRI reported some lacunar infarctions and brain atrophy (retrospectively, lateral ventricles enlargement already existed). His Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score was 18 points. Lumbar puncture (LP) was performed and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) results were normal. The patient was diagnosed as having vascular dementia, hypertension and treated with neuroprotective agents and antihypertensives. After hospitalization, his symptoms were temporarily and partially relieved. His MMSE score was improved to 24 points when he was discharged.
Business operations in large organizations today involve massive, interactive, and layered networks of teams and personnel collaborating across hierarchies and countries on complex tasks. To optimize productivity, businesses need to know: what communication patterns do high-performing teams have in common? Is it possible to predict a team's performance before it starts work on a project? How can productive team behavior be fostered? This comprehensive review for researchers and practitioners in data mining and social networks surveys recent progress in the emerging field of network science of teams. Focusing on the underlying social network structure, the authors present models and algorithms characterizing, predicting, optimizing, and explaining team performance, along with key applications, open challenges, and future trends.
Limited literatures report the management of congenital left atrial appendage aneurysm (LAAA) which is extremely rare. Chest X-ray firstly showed an enlarged left cardiac silhouette for a 3-year-old patient with pneumonia. Echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed a large cyst attached to the left atrium. Aneurysmectomy was performed through lateral thoracotomy using step-by-step method and under the guidance of transoesophageal echocardiography. We aim to show the safety and efficacy of this approach applied to children associated with congenital LAAA.
Social interaction in the twenty-first century involves dynamic use of multilingual and multimodal semiotic resources and is often characterized by the transient, momentary occurrence of creative features. This chapter aims to present Translanguaging as an analytical framework for such dynamic use and creative features in social interaction. The chapter begins with an outline of the diverse phenomena of dynamic and creative practices involving multiple languages and multimodal semiotic resources. Special attention is paid to new media mediated interaction. The characteristics of such practices are identified and discussed. And theoretical issues such as temporality and momentarity are addressed. The chapter then reviews the various analytic concepts, frameworks and approaches that may help to understand these practices, their characteristics and the theoretical issues herein. It focuses specifically on those that have the capacity to offer new insights into the dynamics at the interface of the temporal and spatial dimensions of human social interaction and the creativity of multilingual language users. Perspectives from social semiotics and multimodality, as well as the traditional sociolinguistic and discourse analytic approaches are included. Thus, concepts such as creativity and criticality are also critiqued. The theoretical motivations for the translanguaging perspective and the methodological implications of adopting such a perspective are then discussed and highlighted. It aims to show the added value of translanguaging as an analytic framework for social interaction in the linguistically and culturally diverse world today.