The aim of this study is to examine the association between maternal adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and mental health problems in adolescent offspring. Data were obtained from the population-based Kochi Child Health Impact of Living Difficulty (K-CHILD) study in 2016, and participants were 10,810 children in the fifth grade (3,144 pairs), eighth grade (3,497 pairs), and eleventh grade (4,169 pairs) living in Kochi Prefecture, Japan. Mothers of participating children were asked about their ACEs, childhood social economic status, current mental and physical health, current social economic status, positive parenting behaviors, child maltreatment, marital status, and child behavior problems using the Strength and Difficulty Questionnaire. Children reported their depressive symptoms using the Depression Self-Rating Scale. Children of mothers with a larger number of ACEs showed higher levels of behavior problems (p for trend <.001) and depressive symptoms (p for trend <.001), adjusting for potential confounders. In particular, maternal psychological distress mediated the association between maternal ACEs and child mental health. The adverse effects of maternal ACEs may have a direct intergenerational impact on behavior problems and depressive symptoms in adolescent offspring. Further studies to elucidate possible mediators are needed.