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The Mediterranean diet offers a range of health benefits. However, previous studies indicate that the restricted consumption of red meat in the diet may affect long-term sustainability in non-Mediterranean countries. A 24-week randomised controlled parallel cross-over design compared a Mediterranean diet supplemented with 2–3 serves per week of fresh, lean pork (MedPork) with a low-fat control diet (LF). Thirty-three participants at risk of CVD followed each intervention for 8 weeks, with an 8-week washout period separating interventions. The primary outcome was home-measured systolic blood pressure. Secondary outcomes included diastolic blood pressure, fasting lipids, glucose, insulin, C-reactive protein (CRP), body composition and dietary adherence. During the MedPork intervention, participants achieved high adherence to dietary guidelines. Compared with the MedPork intervention, the LF intervention led to greater reductions in weight (Δ = 0·65; 95 % CI: 0·04, 1·25 kg, P = 0·04), BMI (Δ = 0·25; 95 % CI: 0·03, 0·47 kg/m2, P = 0·01) and waist circumference (Δ = 1·40; 95 % CI: 0·45, 2·34 cm, P < 0·01). No significant differences were observed for blood pressure, lipids, glucose, insulin or CRP. These findings indicate that Australians are capable of adhering to a Mediterranean diet with 2–3 weekly serves of fresh, lean pork, which may offer a healthy alternative to LF diets in Australians at risk of CVD. Larger intervention studies are now required to demonstrate clinical efficacy of the diet in populations with elevated blood pressure.
The propagation of wave disturbances in water of varying depth bounded above by ice sheets is discussed, accounting for gravity, compressibility and elasticity effects. Considering the more realistic scenario of elastic ice sheets reveals a continuous spectrum of acoustic–gravity modes that propagate even below the cutoff frequency of the rigid surface solution where surface (gravity) waves cannot exist. The balance between gravitational forces and oscillations in the ice sheet defines a new dimensionless quantity
. When the ice sheet is relatively thin and the prescribed frequency is relatively low (
), the free-surface bottom-pressure solution is retrieved in full. However, thicker ice sheets or propagation of relatively higher frequency modes (
) alter the solution fundamentally, which is reflected in an amplified asymmetric signature and different characteristics of the eigenvalues, such that the bottom pressure is amplified when acoustic–gravity waves are transmitted to shallower waters. To analyse these scenarios, an analytical solution and a depth-integrated equation are derived for the cases of constant and varying depths, respectively. Together, these are capable of modelling realistic ocean geometries and an inhomogeneous distribution of ice sheets.
The weak thermal emission from the largest minor planets can be detected in the microwave regime by the Very Large Array (VLA). Signal-to-noise ratios are sufficiently high to permit precise measurement of the positions of these objects at all points in their orbits with respect to background extragalactic sources. We are in the process of obtaining observations of astrometric accuracy for minor planets 1 Ceres, 2 Pallas, 4 Vesta, and 10 Hygeia.
Minor planets have historically served as “test particles” in the solar system, and optical observations of these objects have been valuable in the determination of fundamental astronomical constants. In particular, optical observations of minor planets have played an important role in the establishment of the fundamental optical reference frame by permitting the determination of the orientation of the Earth's orbit relative to the stars defining the frame.
Similarly, radio observations of these bodies can play a corresponding role in the establishment of a fundamental radio reference frame. Our observations will provide a direct link between the dynamical and radio reference frames, and provide important information on the relationship between the radio and optical reference frames.
There is a lack of evidence pointing to the efficacy of any specific psychotherapy for adults with anorexia nervosa (AN). The aim of this study was to compare three psychological treatments for AN: Specialist Supportive Clinical Management, Maudsley Model Anorexia Nervosa Treatment for Adults and Enhanced Cognitive Behavioural Therapy.
A multi-centre randomised controlled trial was conducted with outcomes assessed at pre-, mid- and post-treatment, and 6- and 12-month follow-up by researchers blind to treatment allocation. All analyses were intention-to-treat. One hundred and twenty individuals meeting diagnostic criteria for AN were recruited from outpatient treatment settings in three Australian cities and offered 25–40 sessions over a 10-month period. Primary outcomes were body mass index (BMI) and eating disorder psychopathology. Secondary outcomes included depression, anxiety, stress and psychosocial impairment.
Treatment was completed by 60% of participants and 52.5% of the total sample completed 12-month follow-up. Completion rates did not differ between treatments. There were no significant differences between treatments on continuous outcomes; all resulted in clinically significant improvements in BMI, eating disorder psychopathology, general psychopathology and psychosocial impairment that were maintained over follow-up. There were no significant differences between treatments with regard to the achievement of a healthy weight (mean = 50%) or remission (mean = 28.3%) at 12-month follow-up.
The findings add to the evidence base for these three psychological treatments for adults with AN, but the results underscore the need for continued efforts to improve outpatient treatments for this disorder.
Past research shows that prices move in response to World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates (WASDE) reports immediately prior to and after a report. This research develops trading models based on knowing the next WASDE report in advance. This should help traders evaluate investments to predict information contained within the report and in determining how best to use such forecasts. The price-forecasting models use regressions against the ratios of ending stocks to use. Results show a steady increasing return to trading over the report month. The highest returns are produced by trading during the growing and harvest seasons.
Tiny, pelagic arthropods from the Anisian Luoping Biota exposed in two quarries near Luoping, Yunnan Province, China, represent the numerically most abundant organisms in the assemblage. They form the basis for definition of two, and possibly three, species referred to the order Lophogastrida, family Eucopiidae. Yunnanocopia grandis new genus new species and Y. longicauda n. gen. new species represent the oldest occurrence of mysidaceans in the fossil record. Their anatomy allies them with the Ladinian species Schimperella acanthocercus Taylor, Schram, and Shen, 2001, from Guizhou Province, China, which previously was thought to be the oldest lophogastrid, and with extant species of Eucopiidae. Their appearance in the Anisian represents one additional element of the early faunal radiation within the Luoping Biota following the end-Permian extinction event. Presence of well-preserved oostegites, along with other morphological features, documents a conservative bauplan expressed in Eucopiidae.
We present spectroscopic and photometric observational evidence for abundance stratification in stellar atmospheres. Attention is given to chemically peculiar (Ap) stars in which magnetic fields stabilize the atmosphere, allowing diffusion processes to establish abundance stratification during the early stages of star's life. The results of recent empirical modelling of chemically stratified atmospheres are briefly discussed, and a comparison is given with the predictions of self-consistent atmospheric models which include radiative diffusion.
The importance of abundance stratification analysis is demonstrated for rapidly oscillating (roAp) stars in which the amplitudes of the radial velocity pulsations are different for the lines of different elements in different ionization stages. We also demonstrate that chemical stratification has important effects on the Zeeman Stokes IQUV profiles of Ap stars, indicating that stratification must be taken into account in detailed modelling of their magnetic fields.
Zeeman-Doppler Imaging enables one to estimate the short term temporal evolution of surface brightness and magnetic structures, under the effect of differential rotation. We present here spectropolarimetric observations secured between 1998 and 2002 for two evolved active stars: the K1 subgiant of the RS CVn system HR 1099 and the single FK Com giant HD 199178. Differential rotation is detected both from brightness and magnetic images, indicating that the rotational shear, roughly solar in magnitude for the single star, is significantly weaker in the binary system. This result suggests that tidal forces, rather than stellar evolution, could be responsible for the lower rotational shear and thus the longer spot lifetime reported for binary systems.
The recently implemented Rainfall Index Annual Forage pilot program aims to provide risk coverage for annual forage producers in select states through the use of area rainfall indices as a proxy for yield. This article utilizes unique data from a long-term study of annual ryegrass production with rainfall recorded at the site to determine whether the use of rainfall indices provides adequate coverage for annual forage growers. The rainfall index is highly correlated with actual rainfall. However, it does not provide much yield loss risk protection for our cool-season forage data.
Phyllocarids of the Waukesha Biota were systematically and taphonomically evaluated. Three Ceratiocaris species are present in the biota: C. macroura Collette and Rudkin, 2010; C. papilio Salter in Murchison, 1859; and C. pusilla Matthew, 1889. Specimens range in completeness from nearly complete, including the cephalic to caudal regions, to isolated telsons and furcae. Evidence of Salter’s position is present in only three specimens. Relatively complete specimens are interpreted to represent corpses, rather than molts; whereas specimens including only the pleon and caudal region, or caudal region, and specimens with evidence of Salter’s position likely represent exuviae. Specimens are preserved essentially as compression fossils exhibiting two types of preserved cuticle: brown inner cuticle, which tends to be impressed over the topography of bedding planes on which specimens are preserved, and blue-gray phosphatized cuticle exhibiting sub-millimeter scale relief. Cuticle phosphatization likely occurred during early diagenesis. The presence of characteristic near-shore species and C. pusilla, only known from turbidite facies, interpreted to possibly represent a marine trough, suggests that the Waukesha phyllocarid assemblage might represent a transported assemblage, rather than a biota, or that C. pusilla from the Jones Creek Formation was transported basinward in sediment gravity flows.
We investigated the genetic and environmental contributions to disordered eating (DE) between early and late adolescence in order to determine whether different sources of heritability and environmental risk contributed to these peak times of emergence of eating disorders.
Adolescent female twins from the Australian Twin Registry were interviewed over the telephone with the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE). Data were collected at 12–15 and 16–19 years (wave 1: N = 699, 351 pairs; wave 3: N = 499, 247 pairs). Assessments also involved self-report measures related to negative life events and weight-related peer teasing.
Unstandardized estimates from the bivariate Cholesky decomposition model showed both genetic influences and non-shared environmental influences increased over adolescence, but shared environmental influences decreased. While non-shared environmental sources active at ages 12–15 years continued to contribute at 16–19 years, new sources of both additive genetic and non-shared environmental risk were introduced at ages 16–19 years. Weight-related peer teasing in early-mid adolescence predicted increases of DE in later adolescence, while negative life events did not.
Two-thirds of the heritable influence contributing to DE in late adolescence was unique to this age group. During late adolescence independent sources of genetic risk, as well as environmental influences are likely to be related in part to peer teasing, appear key antecedents in growth of DE.
Large numbers of evacuees arrived in Dallas, Texas, from Hurricanes Katrina and Rita just 3 weeks apart in 2005 and from Hurricanes Gustav and Ike just 3 weeks apart again in 2008. The Dallas community needed to locate, organize, and manage the response to provide shelter and health care with locally available resources. With each successive hurricane, disaster response leaders applied many lessons learned from prior operations to become more efficient and effective in the provision of services. Mental health services proved to be an essential component. From these experiences, a set of operating guidelines for large evacuee shelter mental health services in Dallas was developed, with involvement of key stakeholders. A generic description of the processes and procedures used in Dallas that highlights the important concepts, key considerations, and organizational steps was then created for potential adaptation by other communities. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2015;9:423–429)
Helicobacter pylori imparts a considerable burden to public health. Infections are mainly acquired in childhood and can lead to chronic diseases, including gastric ulcers and cancer. The bacterium subsists in water, but the environment's role in transmission remains poorly understood. The nationally representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) was examined for environmental risk factors associated with H. pylori seroprevalence. Data from 1999–2000 were examined and weighted to represent the US population. Multivariable logistic regression estimated adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations with seropositivity. Self-reported general health condition was inversely associated with seropositivity. Of participants aged <20 years, seropositivity was significantly associated with having a well as the source of home tap water (aOR 1·7, 95% CI 1·1–2·6) and living in a more crowded home (aOR 2·3, 95% CI 1·5–3·7). Of adults aged ⩾20 years, seropositivity was not associated with well water or crowded living conditions, but adults in soil-related occupations had significantly higher odds of seropositivity compared to those in non-soil-related occupations (aOR 1·9, 95% CI 1·2–2·9). Exposures to both well water and occupationally related soil increased the effect size of adults' odds of seropositivity compared to non-exposed adults (aOR 2·7, 95% CI 1·3-5·6). Environmental exposures (well-water usage and occupational contact with soil) play a role in H. pylori transmission. A disproportionate burden of infection is associated with poor health and crowded living conditions, but risks vary by age and race/ethnicity. These findings could help inform interventions to reduce the burden of infections in the United States.
A randomized controlled trial of three school-based programs and a no-intervention control group was conducted to evaluate their efficacy in reducing eating disorder and obesity risk factors.
A total of 1316 grade 7 and 8 girls and boys (mean age = 13.21 years) across three Australian states were randomly allocated to: Media Smart; Life Smart; the Helping, Encouraging, Listening and Protecting Peers (HELPP) initiative; or control (usual school class). Risk factors were measured at baseline, post-program (5 weeks later), and at the 6- and 12-month follow-ups.
Media Smart girls had half the rate of onset of clinically significant concerns about shape and weight than control girls at the 12-month follow-up. Media Smart and HELPP girls reported significantly lower weight and shape concern than Life Smart girls at the 12-month follow-up. Media Smart and control girls scored significantly lower than HELPP girls on eating concerns and perceived pressure at the 6-month follow-up. Media Smart and HELPP boys experienced significant benefit on media internalization compared with control boys and these were sustained at the 12-month follow-up in Media Smart boys. A group × time effect found that Media Smart participants reported more physical activity than control and HELPP participants at the 6-month follow-up, while a main effect for group found Media Smart participants reported less screen time than controls.
Media Smart was the only program to show benefit on both disordered eating and obesity risk factors. Whilst further investigations are indicated, this study suggests that this program is a promising approach to reducing risk factors for both problems.
An extremely weak circularly-polarized signature was recently detected in the spectral lines of the Am star Sirius A. With a prominent positive lobe, the shape of the phase-averaged Stokes V line profile is atypical of stellar Zeeman signatures, casting doubts on its magnetic origin. We report here on ultra-deep spectropolarimetric observations of two more bright Am stars: β Uma and θ Leo. Stokes V line signatures are detected in both objects, with a shape and amplitude similar to the one observed on Sirius A. We demonstrate that the amplitude of the Stokes V line profiles depend on various line parameters (Landé factor, wavelength, depth) as expected from a Zeeman signature, confirming that extremely weak magnetic fields are likely present in a large fraction of Am stars. We suggest that the strong asymmetry of the polarized signatures, systematically observed so far in Am stars and never reported in strongly magnetic Ap stars, bears unique information about the structure and dynamics of the thin surface convective shell of Am stars.
A single specimen of a shrimp-like crustacean, Devonostenopus pennsylvaniensis, new genus and species is described from the Huntley Mountain Formation, which is Devonian–Carboniferous (Mississippian) in age. The specimen was collected in north-central Pennsylvania. Devonostenopus pennsylvaniensis is attributed to Stenopodidae. Co-occurrence of the specimen with pinnules of Archaeopteris halliana Goeppert, 1852, suggests that it is Devonian in age. Occurrence of a stenopodidean in the Devonian of North America is significant, as only three definitive decapods have been previously described from the Paleozoic and only two have been described from the Devonian. The earliest stenopodideans described to date are Cretaceous (Cenomanian and Santonian) in age. As such, Devonostenopus pennsylvaniensis extends the geologic range of Stenopodidea from Cretaceous to Late Devonian. Occurrence of a stenopodidean in the Devonian of North America, as well as the occurrence of the only two other known Devonian decapods in North America, suggests that Laurentia might have been a major area of endemism for Devonian decapods.
The epitaphs and other verse inscriptions which are preserved for us in literature impose on us a certain caution. The good-will which our authors have brought to the reading of monuments is like what we bring to the singing of hymns: when lulled by the authority of the verse-form and of the occasion, we can accept things which the poet cannot have intended. I take as example the ‘green hill far away Without a city wall.’ The poet does not say that the hill is unwalled but that it is outside Jerusalem: yet to understand him to say the former is both easy and common.
The moral is important. What generations of intelligent piety can acquiesce in is one thing: what the poet can have meant is another. We must not, therefore, be shocked to find Herodotos also acquiescing in what the poet never meant him to believe. Recording the Battle of Thermopylai, and concluding with the action in which (he says) only Spartans and Thespians fought, he then names the bravest of the Spartans, and then of the Thespians.
Our knowledge of the early military organisation of Thessaly rests mainly on two passages of Aristotle's ‘Constitution of the Thessalians’ which are closely connected. I give the numbers (Fragments 497 and 498) according to V. Rose, Aristotelis Fragmenta, 1886; but I have purged the text of emendations.
AMONG the facts of early Greek history the rise of the Greek Epic, and in particular of the Iliad, has a place of evident importance. But to the historian's question ‘how exactly did it happen?’ no quite confident answer has yet been given. We can speak with reasonable confidence about the rise of Greek sculpture, painting, architecture, and of other techniques, peaceful and warlike: much of our understanding of an exceptionally creative phase of human history depends on such knowledge. The technique of literature is historically no less important. Here too we can speak with reasonable confidence from the seventh century onwards, from Archilochos;—in spite of the fact that of Archilochos and his successors for a hundred and fifty years we have little but the most casual fragments. Why then do we feel so relatively helpless in face of the poems, which have survived whole, of Hesiod and Homer?
There are reasons for this, some accidental, some intrinsic. It is relatively accidental, in Hesiod's case, that his contemporary Amphidamas of Chalkis, whom he names, is a less famous person and therefore less datable than for example Gyges of Lydia (whom Archilochos names). But, to my thinking at least, Hesiod's place in history is not too hard a problem: he lived about 700 B.C., a generation or so before Archilochos: intensely concerned with his own experiences, he is the man who made literature personal. Both of his two great poems are ‘occasional’, circumstantiated: they rose out of occasions in his private life, a vision on Helikon, a quarrel with his brother. As a social phenomenon his importance is, I believe, cardinal. In the Iliad and Odyssey the problem is more intrinsically difficult because they belong to no personal occasions; they tell of a distant past and are themselves timeless.
This has led during the past century to that enormous variety of hypothesis which makes the Homeric Question notorious. I do not suppose the end is really in sight: the signs which I seem to detect of a growing communis opinion are no doubt due to my selecting what I like. However that may be, in these lectures I must make some very large assumptions.