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We evaluated the impact of an electronic health record based 72-hour antimicrobial time-out (ATO) on antimicrobial utilization. We observed that 6 hours after the ATO, 21% of empiric antimicrobials were discontinued or de-escalated. There was a significant reduction in the duration of antimicrobial therapy but no impact on overall antimicrobial usage metrics.
Contaminated hands of healthcare workers (HCWs) are an important source of transmission of healthcare-associated infections. Alcohol-based hand sanitizers, while effective, do not provide sustained antimicrobial activity. The objective of this study was to compare the immediate and persistent activity of 2 hand hygiene products (ethanol [61% w/v] plus chlorhexidine gluconate [CHG; 1.0% solution] and ethanol only [70% v/v]) when used in an intensive care unit (ICU).
Prospective, randomized, double-blinded, crossover study
Three ICUs at a large teaching hospital
In total, 51 HCWs involved in direct patient care were enrolled in and completed the study.
All HCWs were randomized 1:1 to either product. Hand prints were obtained immediately after the product was applied and again after spending 4–7 minutes in the ICU common areas prior to entering a patient room or leaving the area. The numbers of aerobic colony-forming units (CFU) were compared for the 2 groups after log transformation. Each participant tested the alternative product after a 3-day washout period.
On bare hands, use of ethanol plus CHG was associated with significantly lower recovery of aerobic CFU, both immediately after use (0.27 ± 0.05 and 0.88 ± 0.08 log10 CFU; P = .035) and after spending time in ICU common areas (1.81 ± 0.07 and 2.17 ± 0.05 log10 CFU; P<.0001). Both the antiseptics were well tolerated by HCWs.
In comparison to the ethanol-only product, the ethanol plus CHG sanitizer was associated with significantly lower aerobic bacterial counts on hands of HCWs, both immediately after use and after spending time in ICU common areas.
Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are among the most common hospital-acquired infections (HAIs). Reducing CAUTI rates has become a major focus of attention due to increasing public health concerns and reimbursement implications.
To implement and describe a multifaceted intervention to decrease CAUTIs in our ICUs with an emphasis on indications for obtaining a urine culture.
A project team composed of all critical care disciplines was assembled to address an institutional goal of decreasing CAUTIs. Interventions implemented between year 1 and year 2 included protocols recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for placement, maintenance, and removal of catheters. Leaders from all critical care disciplines agreed to align routine culturing practice with American College of Critical Care Medicine (ACCCM) and Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) guidelines for evaluating a fever in a critically ill patient. Surveillance data for CAUTI and hospital-acquired bloodstream infection (HABSI) were recorded prospectively according to National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) protocols. Device utilization ratios (DURs), rates of CAUTI, HABSI, and urine cultures were calculated and compared.
The CAUTI rate decreased from 3.0 per 1,000 catheter days in 2013 to 1.9 in 2014. The DUR was 0.7 in 2013 and 0.68 in 2014. The HABSI rates per 1,000 patient days decreased from 2.8 in 2013 to 2.4 in 2014.
Effectively reducing ICU CAUTI rates requires a multifaceted and collaborative approach; stewardship of culturing was a key and safe component of our successful reduction efforts.
Both physical activity (PA) and diet are important contributors to health and well-being; however, there is limited information on the association of these behaviours and whether observed associations differ by weight. The present study aimed to evaluate whether nutrient intake is associated with PA and if this association varies by weight in young adults.
Cross-sectional study to analyse the association between PA and nutrient intake.
Participants were stratified as normal weight (18·5 kg/m2 <BMI <25·0 kg/m2) and overweight/obese (BMI≥25·0 kg/m2). PA level (PAL) was calculated (PAL=total daily energy expenditure/RMR) and used to stratify groups (PAL<1·6, 1·6≤PAL<1·9, PAL≥1·9).
Adults (n 407; age 27·6 (sd 3·8) years, 48 % male), with BMI between 20 and 35 kg/m2, having at least two 24 h diet recalls and at least 5 d (including two weekend days) of valid, objectively measured PA data were included in the analysis.
In normal-weight participants, higher PAL was associated with higher intakes of minerals (except Ca, Fe and Zn), B-vitamins and choline (P for trend <0·05). In the overweight/obese group, higher PAL was associated with higher intakes of fibre, K, Na and Cu (P for trend <0·05). These differences, however, were no longer significant after additionally controlling for total energy intake.
More active young adults have higher intakes of essential micronutrients. The benefits of PA may be predominantly due to a higher overall food intake while maintaining energy balance rather than a healthier diet.
Accumulating evidence suggests that the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) diagnostic criteria for cannabis abuse and dependence are best represented by a single underlying factor. However, it remains possible that models with additional factors, or latent class models or hybrid models, may better explain the data. Using structured interviews, 626 adult male and female twins provided complete data on symptoms of cannabis abuse and dependence, plus a craving criterion. We compared latent factor analysis, latent class analysis, and factor mixture modeling using normal theory marginal maximum likelihood for ordinal data. Our aim was to derive a parsimonious, best-fitting cannabis use disorder (CUD) phenotype based on DSM-IV criteria and determine whether DSM-5 craving loads onto a general factor. When compared with latent class and mixture models, factor models provided a better fit to the data. When conditioned on initiation and cannabis use, the association between criteria for abuse, dependence, withdrawal, and craving were best explained by two correlated latent factors for males and females: a general risk factor to CUD and a factor capturing the symptoms of social and occupational impairment as a consequence of frequent use. Secondary analyses revealed a modest increase in the prevalence of DSM-5 CUD compared with DSM-IV cannabis abuse or dependence. It is concluded that, in addition to a general factor with loadings on cannabis use and symptoms of abuse, dependence, withdrawal, and craving, a second clinically relevant factor defined by features of social and occupational impairment was also found for frequent cannabis use.
To review and describe device utilization and central line-associated bloodstream (CLABSI) events among patients in a non-intensive care unit (ICU) setting and to examine the morbidity and mortality associated with these events.
One-year descriptive review.
A single tertiary center with a 1,200-bed hospital and 209 adult ICU beds.
Hospitalized patients identified as having a CLABSI event attributed to a non-ICU setting.
The cohort was identified from a prospective infection prevention database. Charts and administrative data sets were reviewed to further characterize the patients. Device utilization ratios (DURs) and CLABSI rates were calculated using National Health and Safety Network (NHSN) CLABSI definitions. Need for ICU stay and crude mortality rates were recorded.
A total of 136 patients with 156 CLABSIs were identified, of whom 78 (57%) were being treated for a hematological malignancy (HM). The overall DUR was 0.27. A tunneled line was in place for 118 (76%) of the CLABSI events, and a peripherally inserted central catheter was in place for 32 (21%) of the CLABSI events. The non-ICU CLABSI rate was significantly higher than the concurrent ICU rate (2.1 CLABSIs per 1,000 catheter-days vs 1.5 CLABSIs per 1,000 catheter-days; P = .02). Hospital mortality was 23% in the affected group and was significantly higher in patients with HM.
CLABSI rates over a 1-year period were higher in patients outside the ICU at our hospital and were associated with significant mortality.