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We compared the pregnancy and live birth rates following transfer of early-stage embryos or blastocysts produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer using in vitro-matured oocytes. In total 102 ovaries were collected from dromedary camels at a local abattoir; from these 1048 cumulus–oocytes complexes (COCs) were aspirated and cultured for 42 h in a commercial maturation medium. Metaphase II oocytes were subjected to nuclear transfer. Somatic cell nuclear transfer-derived embryos were cultured in a commercial embryo medium for 2 or 7 days. Next, 71 early-stage embryos were surgically transferred to the left fallopian tube of 28 recipients and 47 blastocysts were transferred to the left uterine horn of 26 recipients. Early pregnancy was detected by serum progesterone (P4), and pregnancy was confirmed using ultrasonography on days 30 and 90 after embryo transfer. Pregnancy rate based on P4 level was 17.86% (5/28) and 11.54% (3/26) for early-stage embryo and blastocyst transfer, respectively. In the early-stage embryo group, out of five recipients, one recipient had lost the pregnancy by the first ultrasonography on day 30; two other recipients aborted at 14 and 24 weeks, and two recipients gave live births. In the blastocyst group, out of three recipients, one lost the pregnancy at an early stage and two recipients gave live births. Therefore, for dromedary camels, we recommend transvaginal blastocyst transfer from the standpoint of the pregnancy and live birth rate, ease of the transfer procedure, and comfort and safety of the recipients.
Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC), is a rare lysosomal storage disorder, which has a variable presentation based on the age of onset. We describe five adult/adolescent-onset NPC cases presenting with a range of movement disorders along with vertical supranuclear gaze palsy as part of the clinical presentation. A diagnostic delay of 4–17 years from the symptom onset was found in this case series. A high index of clinical suspicion in adult/adolescent patients presenting with vertical supranuclear gaze palsy along with various movement disorder phenomenology can help in the early diagnosis of NPC.
Salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) is an extremely rare and aggressive subtype of salivary gland cancer with high morbidity and mortality and poor response to treatment. The current options of treatment include radical surgery followed by radiotherapy (RT) with or without chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to analyse the patterns of recurrences, possible predictors of outcome and role of RT in a cohort of patients with non-metastatic SDC.
A retrospective review of patients treated between 2010 and 2019 with histologically proven non-metastatic SDC was conducted.
Sixteen patients were included in the series. Median follow-up was 25 months. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) at 12 months were 61% and 80%, respectively. Seven out of the 16 patients had disease progression, distant metastases being most frequent. Four patients died due to disease progression. PFS was significantly worse for patients with pathological neck node positivity (p = 0·036) and peri-parotid nodes (p = 0·007). Local control was significantly associated with RT (p = 0·011). Addition of any chemotherapy, regardless of either concurrent or adjuvant, had no impact on the PFS or OS. Pathological neck node positivity with nodal stage of N2 or higher correlated significantly with worse OS (p = 0·031).
Salivary ductal carcinoma is an aggressive malignancy with high metastatic potential. Inferior prognosis was observed among patients who had metastatic deposits in either cervical nodes or peri-parotid nodes on histopathology. As systemic failures are more predominant among these patients, larger prospective trials are needed to formulate an optimum strategy for choice and sequencing of first-line systemic therapy.
Background: Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are a major global threat to patient safety. Systematic surveillance is crucial for understanding HAI rates and antimicrobial resistance trends and to guide infection prevention and control (IPC) activities based on local epidemiology. In India, no standardized national HAI surveillance system was in place before 2017. Methods: Public and private hospitals from across 21 states in India were recruited to participate in an HAI surveillance network. Baseline assessments followed by trainings ensured that basic microbiology and IPC implementation capacity existed at all sites. Standardized surveillance protocols for central-line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) and catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) were modified from the NHSN for the Indian context. IPC nurses were trained to implement surveillance protocols. Data were reported through a locally developed web portal. Standardized external data quality checks were performed to assure data quality. Results: Between May 2017 and April 2019, 109 ICUs from 37 hospitals (29 public and 8 private) enrolled in the network, of which 33 were teaching hospitals with >500 beds. The network recorded 679,109 patient days, 212,081 central-line days, and 387,092 urinary catheter days. Overall, 4,301 bloodstream infection (BSI) events and 1,402 urinary tract infection (UTI) events were reported. The network CLABSI rate was 9.4 per 1,000 central-line days and the CAUTI rate was 3.4 per 1,000 catheter days. The central-line utilization ratio was 0.31 and the urinary catheter utilization ratio was 0.57. Moreover, 3,542 (73%) of 4,742 pathogens reported from BSIs and 868 (53%) of 1,644 pathogens reported from UTIs were gram negative. Also, 1,680 (26.3%) of all 6,386 pathogens reported were Enterobacteriaceae. Of 1,486 Enterobacteriaceae with complete antibiotic susceptibility testing data reported, 832 (57%) were carbapenem resistant. Of 951 Enterobacteriaceae subjected to colistin broth microdilution testing, 62 (7%) were colistin resistant. The surveillance platform identified 2 separate hospital-level HAI outbreaks; one caused by colistin-resistant K. pneumoniae and another due to Burkholderia cepacia. Phased expansion of surveillance to additional hospitals continues. Conclusions: HAI surveillance was successfully implemented across a national network of diverse hospitals using modified NHSN protocols. Surveillance data are being used to understand HAI burden and trends at the facility and national levels, to inform public policy, and to direct efforts to implement effective hospital IPC activities. This network approach to HAI surveillance may provide lessons to other countries or contexts with limited surveillance capacity.
The Tuting–Tidding Suture Zone (TTSZ), exposed along Dibang and Lohit river valleys in Arunachal Himalaya, NE India, is the easternmost continuation of the Indus–Tsangpo Suture Zone (ITSZ) and consists of ophiolites associated with metabasics and carbonates. Amphibolites, existing at the base of the ophiolite complex, were studied using whole-rock, mineral chemical analyses and pressure–temperature (P-T) pseudosection modelling to understand their metamorphic and petrogenetic history, and interpret the tectonic environment of their formation. They exhibit two-stage deformation, where D1 is depicted by polymineralic inclusion trails in former melt pools and the main foliation represents D2. Sub-alkaline tholeiitic character, high-field-strength element (HFSE) ratios and mid-oceanic ridge basalt (MORB) -like rare earth element (REE) patterns with negative Eu anomaly indicate that the protolith of these amphibolites originated in a spreading regime by extensive partial melting of a depleted mantle source at shallow depth. Petrography, mineral chemistry and P-T modelling indicate a three-stage metamorphic history for them. M1 is the prograde (c. 2.1 GPa, c. 450°C) defined by garnet centre compositions corresponding to the D1 event. The existence of former melts in the samples demarcates the M2 stage (1.4–1.8 GPa, c. 600°C). The rocks later underwent retrogression (M3: 0.8–1.0 GPa, 480–520°C), which corresponds to the D2 event. These observations suggest that the protolith of the TTSZ amphibolites originated in a mid-oceanic ridge setting, which accreted below a subduction zone where it underwent M1 metamorphism followed by M2 metamorphism, corresponding to partial melting of the rocks. Finally, the M3 event occurred during the obduction phase of the ophiolite complex, where the amphibolites were obducted as the metamorphic sole of the TTSZ ophiolites.
This study reveals the characteristic nature and the use of optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLD) as an in vivo dosimetry tool for head and neck intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT).
Materials and methods:
Calibration and characterisation of OSLD such as sensitivity, reproducibility, dose-rate dependence, beam quality dependence, output factor measurement and comparison of two bleaching techniques using halogen and compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) were initially performed. Later, eye dose measurements were performed for head and neck IMRT patients using OSLD and were compared with the corresponding dose calculated by the treatment planning system (TPS).
While the sensitivity was found to be within ±5%, the dose-rate dependence and reproducibility were found to be within ±3%. The OSLD showed an under-response of 3% for 15 MV and an increase in response by 5% for Co60 (1·25 MeV) when compared with the 6 MV X-ray beam. Therefore, a separate calibration for different beam energies is required. The percentage deviation of OSLD to that of TPS was found to be within ±2·77%. The OSLD has been successfully used for the in vivo dosimetry of patients who received IMRT. Hence, it is concluded that OSLDs can serve as effective dosimeters for in vivo dosimetry.
With simultaneous efforts to address a huge burden of malnutrition, especially among children and younger women, India also encounters a mushrooming prevalence of overweight and obesity among the adult population. This study analysed data from two consecutive rounds of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) conducted in 2005–06 and 2015–16, to present the burden of overweight and obesity among adult men and women in India. The findings highlight a rising burden of overweight and obesity, although the level and the extent of change over the study period varied across states. The district-wise analysis revealed geographical clusters of overweight and obesity. Further investigation suggests that overweight or obesity are not exclusive to urban areas, and economically well-off populations are more inclined to be overweight or obese. The trends and patterns of overweight and obesity in India argue for timely public health preparedness and interventions to avoid the rising incidence of non-communicable diseases in India.
Garra gotyla is an indigenous coldwater fish of the cyprinid family and has wide geographical distribution in India as well as in other countries of Asia and Africa. Induced breeding in G. gotyla was carried out successfully for the first time and an attempt has been made to document developmental stages chronologically from the first minute of fertilization, through all stages of embryonic development until the fifth day post hatching. This experiment was carried out at 22–24°C water temperature at the Directorate of Coldwater Fisheries Research, Bhimtal, India. During the breeding trial, the fertilization rate was observed as 70–75% and hatching rate was 85–90%. The mature fertilized ova were measured as 0.8–1.0 mm in diameter and the perivitelline membrane became thick soon after fertilization and formation of the germ pole. The periods taken for complete developmental stages were recorded; cleavage stage 111 min (min post fertilization (pf)), blastulation stage 580 min (pf), neurulation and segmentation 1250 min (pf) and hatching was completed after 1420 min. The sac fry was measured as 3 mm in length and took almost 3 days for complete absorption of the yolk content. The major structural and differential changes observed are in head, tail, fins, alimentary canal, rudiments of each organ and appearance of melanophore pigmentation in the whole body. The 5-day-old larvae were measured as 6 mm in length with almost every organ fully differentiated. The present study will be utilized for large-scale production of fingerlings for stock enhancement in rivers, lakes and possibilities of genetic improvement and manipulation at the embryonic stage.
Despite a reduction in maternal mortality in recent years, a high rate of anaemia and other nutrient inadequacies during pregnancy pose a serious threat to mothers and their children in the Global South. Using the framework of the WHO–Commission on Social Determinants of Health, this study examines the socioeconomic, programmatic and contextual factors associated with the consumption of iron and folic acid (IFA) tablets/syrup for at least 100 d (IFA100) and receiving supplementary food (SF) by pregnant women in India.
We analysed a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of over 190 898 ever-married women aged 15–49 years who were interviewed as part of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) conducted during 2015–16, who had at least one live birth preceding 5 years of the survey.
All twenty-nine states and seven union territories of India.
Ever-married women aged 15–49 years.
Less than one-third of women were found to be consuming IFA100, and a little over half received SF during their last pregnancy. The consumption of IFA100 was likely to improve with women’s education, household wealth, early and more prenatal visits, and in a community with high pregnancy registration. Higher parity, early and more prenatal visits, contact with community health workers during pregnancy, belonging to a poor household and living in an aggregated poor community and rural area positively determine whether a woman might receive SF during pregnancy.
Continuous monitoring and evaluation of provisioning IFA and SF in targeted groups and communities is a key to expanding the coverage and reducing the burden of undernutrition during pregnancy.
To analyse the presentation, diagnosis and patterns of care of extraosseous Ewing sarcoma treated at our institution between 2008 and 2018.
Electronic medical records of extraosseous Ewing sarcoma patients treated at our institution between January 2008 and April 2018 were reviewed. Kaplan–Meier curves were plotted to assess the overall and disease-free survival with 95% confidence intervals. A univariate analysis was carried out to assess the impact of variables such as surgical excision, completeness of surgery, completeness of chemotherapy and addition of radiation therapy on the survivorship.
The records of 65 patients treated at our institution were available for review. The mean age was 26·4 years. The most frequent sites of extraosseous Ewing tumour were kidney—9/65 (13·8%) and brain—10/65 (15·4%). Sixteen (24·6%) patients presented with inoperable/metastatic disease at diagnosis. The other 49 (75·4%) had localised disease at presentation. The median overall survival of the 49 non-metastatic patients was 46 months, and the disease-free survival was 45 months.
Extraosseous Ewing sarcoma is a rare and aggressive tumour diagnosed by molecular techniques. Multi-modality treatment including surgical resection with wide margins, adjuvant radiation when indicated and completion of systemic chemotherapy results in optimum outcomes.
In the present work, the effect of cooling rate on the evolution of the microstructure and mechanical properties of an α + β titanium alloy has been systematically investigated. Titanium alloy samples were heated to 1066 °C (above the β transus), 930 °C (just below the β transus), and 850 °C (well below the β transus) followed by oil quenching, air cooling, and furnace cooling, respectively. Primary alpha (αp), lamellar alpha (αL), and martensite (α′) were the dominant features of the microstructures for all the samples heated below the β transus. Furnace-cooled samples showed variation in the size and shape of the αp and fraction of αL according to the heating temperature. At slower cooling rates, the thickness of the αL increased with the increase in temperature. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction confirmed the presence of α′ in all the quenched samples. The volume fraction and size of the αp decreased with the increase in temperature but was independent of the cooling rate. The microhardness was relatively unaffected by the cooling rate for heating just below the β transus, i.e., 930 °C. The modulus of elasticity was found to be extremely sensitive to the microstructure.
Detailed studies on temporal changes of crevasses and their linkage with glacier dynamics are scarce in the Himalayan context. Observations of temporally changing surficial crevasse patterns and their orientations are suggestive of the processes that determine seasonal glacier flow characteristics. In the present study, on a Himalayan valley glacier, changing crevasse patterns and orientations were detected and mapped on Landsat 8 images in an automated procedure using the ratio of Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) band 10 to Optical Land Imager (OLI) shortwave infrared (SWIR) band 6. The ratio was capable of mapping even crevasses falling under mountain shadows. Differential GPS observations suggested an average error of 3.65% and root-mean-square error of 6.32m in crevasse lengths. A year-round observation of these crevasses, coupled with field-based surface velocity measurements, provided some interesting interpretations of seasonal glacier dynamics.
Caseinophosphopeptides (CPPs) are multifunctional bioactive peptides containing phosphorylated seryl residues in their sequence. In the present study, method for the production of CPPs from buffalo milk casein was optimised and characterised for their sequence, calcium solubilising and calcium binding activities. Response surface methodology was used to optimise the conditions for hydrolysis of buffalo casein by trypsin to obtain maximum yield of CPPs. The optimum hydrolysis conditions were as follows: hydrolysis pH 7·5, temperature 37 °C, hydrolysis time 7·0 h. Under these conditions, the experimental yield obtained was 10·04±0·24%, which is slightly lower than value predicted by the model. These CPPs were able to solubilise 1·03±0·08 mg la/mg CPPs in presence of excess phosphate and bind 0·935 mg of Ca/mg of CPPs. Eight phosphopeptides i.e. αs1-CN f (37-58) 2P; αs1-CN f (37-58) 3P; αs1-CN f (35-58) 2P; αs1-CN f (35-58) 3P; αs2-CN f (2-21) 4P; αs2-CN f (138-149) 1P; β-CN f (2-28) 4P and β-CN f (33-48) 1P were identified by LC-MS/MS which contained motif for binding of divalent minerals. The sequences of these CPPs differed from that of derived from bovine casein.
This article reports temporal changes in the measured oceanic geochemical properties of the Arabian Sea and the equatorial Indian Ocean by reoccupying six stations investigated during the GEOSECS expedition in 1977 and 1978. Observed differences are interpreted in terms of plausible changes in the environment and climate that have occurred in response to natural or anthropogenic processes. The depth profiles of major parameters such as dissolved oxygen, ΣCO2, major nutrients (silicates, nitrates, and phosphates), and radiocarbon in dissolved inorganic carbon were measured during the cruises between 1994 and 1998 along with temperature and salinity. Most stations in the Arabian Sea show an increase in salinity by ∼0.2 to 0.3 salinity units in the top 400 m, whereas one station in the equatorial Indian Ocean showed a decrease in salinity by ∼0.1 units, indicating a likely change in the evaporation-precipitation (E-P) balance. The ΣCO2 increased by an average of 8 μM within the top 1200 m of the Arabian Sea. The depth profiles of nitrates and dissolved oxygen for the central Arabian Sea stations show significant variations, while only marginal changes are seen for silicates and phosphates relative to the GEOSECS data. The decrease in Δ14C of surface waters is due to the steady decrease in atmospheric 14C concentration since GEOSECS, and the Δ14C increase in subsurface waters is attributed to the downward vertical diffusion of bomb 14C interpreted in terms of atmosphere to ocean transfer and lateral advection of water masses.
The migration of a capsule enclosed by an elastic membrane in a wall-bounded linear shear is investigated using a front-tracking method. A detailed comparison with the migration of a viscous drop is presented varying the capillary number (in the case of a capsule, the elastic capillary number) and the viscosity ratio. In both cases, the deformation breaks the flow reversal symmetry and makes them migrate away from the wall. They quickly go through a transient evolution to eventually reach a quasi-steady state where the dynamics becomes independent of the initial position and only depends on the wall distance. Previous analytical theories predicted that for a viscous drop, in the quasi-steady state, the migration and slip velocities scale approximately with the square of the inverse of the drop–wall separation, whereas the drop deformation scales as the inverse cube of the separation. These power law relations are shown to hold for a capsule as well. The deformation and inclination angle of the capsule and the drop at the same wall separation show a crossover in their variation with the capillary number: the capsule shows a steeper variation than that of the drop for smaller capillary numbers and slower variation than the drop for larger capillary numbers. Using the Green’s function of Stokes flow, a semi-analytic theory is presented to show that the far-field stresslet that causes the migration has two distinct contributions from the interfacial stresses and the viscosity ratio, with competing effects between the two defining the dynamics. It predicts the scaling of the migration velocity with the capsule–wall separation, however, matching with the simulated result very well only away from the wall. A phenomenological correlation for the migration velocity as a function of elastic capillary number, wall distance and viscosity ratio is developed using the simulation results. The effects of different membrane hyperelastic constitutive equations – neo-Hookean, Evans–Skalak, and Skalak – are briefly investigated to show that the behaviour remains similar for different equations.
This study was designed to study the variations in different geometrical and dosimetric parameters.
Materials and methods
In this study, two groups comprises 21 and 28 patients, who were treated with 9·5 Gy × 2 Fx and 7·5 Gy × 3 Fx, respectively, using microselectron high-dose rate (HDR) remote control unit. All patients were analysed using orthogonal radiographs to evaluate variations in different parameters.
Variations in different parameters are more in Group II patients than in Group I patients, which show that the variation in geometrical and dosimetrical parameters increases with increasing HDR number of fractions.
In the reporting of an outcome of multiple fractionation of HDR treatments resultant dosimetric parameters must be evaluated and must be used for clinical interpretation.
The mass concentration of uranium in water samples collected from the Bathinda district
of Punjab state, India, was estimated using the laser fluorimetric technique. The study
region has shown a pronounced number of cancer cases in the recent period. The study aims
to calculate the human radiological risk and chemical toxicity associated with uranium
consumption through drinking water. The mass concentration of uranium was found to vary
from 0.48 to 571.7 μg/l with a mean value of 84.70 μg/l. The radiological risk due to
consumption of uranium through contaminated drinking water was observed to be in the range
of 1.34 × 10-6 to 1.60 × 10-3 with a mean value of
2.37 × 10-4. The chemical toxicity was found to vary from 0.04–43.11
µg.kg-1.day-1 with a mean value of 6.38
Trials in farmers' field(s) were conducted to study the usefulness of vermicompost (VC) produced from distillation waste of menthol mint (Mentha arvensis L. cv. Kushal) using earthworms (Eisenia foetida) in reducing the inputs of chemical fertilizers and improving soil health in menthol mint-based cropping systems. Results of the first trial conducted on menthol mint (sole crop) in the fields of 45 farmers clearly indicated that 75% of the chemical fertilizer inputs can be reduced by supplementing the fields with 5tha−1 of menthol mint VC leading to higher levels of profits to the farmers by significantly improving herb and oil yield (6.7 and 8.4%, respectively) compared to the full recommended dose of chemical fertilizers (NPK 75:60:60kgha−1). The second trial was conducted in the fields of six farmers adopting a menthol mint cropping system (mint–rice–wheat–mint) where significantly higher yields were recorded in plots supplemented with 5tha−1 of menthol mint VC+25% of the recommended dose of chemical fertilizers; an increase of 5.6–7.2% in mint oil and 6.6% in wheat yield over the plots receiving the full recommended dose of chemical fertilizers (NPK 75:60:60kgha−1). However, in the case of rice, the highest grain yield was observed within plots receiving the full recommended dose of chemical fertilizers. Data obtained on soil properties clearly showed that apart from enhancing the yields of crops, the integration of VC with chemical fertilizers considerably improved the soil fertility/sustainability status in terms of organic carbon, available N, P and K.
The potential of bio-dielectrics for thin film transistor applications was explored via the incorporation of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles, rutile form, a high dielectric constant (ε) ceramic, in the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) bio-polymer. The DNA-ceramic hybrid films were fabricated from stable suspensions of the TiO2 nanoparticles in viscous, aqueous DNA solutions. Dielectric characterization revealed that the incorporation of TiO2 in DNA resulted in enhanced dielectric constant (14.3 at 1 kHz for 40 wt % TiO2) relative to that of DNA in the entire frequency range of 1 kHz-1 MHz. Variable temperature dielectric measurements, in the 20-80°C range, of the DNA-TiO2 films revealed that the ceramic additive stabilizes DNA against large temperature dependent variations in both ε and the dielectric loss factor tan δ. The bulk resistivity of the DNA-TiO2 hybrid films was measured to be two to three orders of magnitude higher than that of the control DNA films, indicating their potential for utilization as insulating dielectrics in transistor and capacitor applications.