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Geochronological, major and trace element, and Sr–Nd–Hf isotopic data are reported for the monzonitic rocks of the Fushan pluton in the Taihang Mountains, central North China Craton, in order to investigate their sources, petrogenesis and tectonic implications. Zircon U–Pb dating results reveal that the Fushan pluton was emplaced during the Early Cretaceous (∼126–124 Ma). The monzonites and quartz monzonites are mainly characterized by calc-alkaline and magnesian features and display light rare earth element (LREE) enrichment and flat heavy REE (HREE) patterns with slightly positive Eu anomalies. They have similar whole-rock initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.70653–0.70819), εNd(t) values (−13.6 to −18.6) and zircon εHf(t) values (−21.8 to −17.3). The primary magma of the Fushan pluton was derived from the partial melting of a spinel-facies amphibole-bearing ancient enriched lithospheric mantle. The monzonitic rocks also have high Ba–Sr and low Y and Yb contents, with high Sr/Y and La/Yb ratios. These geochemical features of monzonitic rocks are not only inherited from the magma source but also significantly enhanced by crystal fractionation during magmatic evolution; e.g. hornblende fractionation increased the Ba–Sr concentrations and Sr/Y ratios. During the Early Cretaceous, the slab sinking and roll-back of the Palaeo-Pacific Plate could have created an ancient big mantle wedge beneath East Asia and induced a lithospheric extensional process in the central North China Craton within an intracontinental setting.
Swelling deformation tests of Kunigel bentonite and its sand mixtures were performed in distilled water and NaCl solution. The salinity of NaCl solution has a significant impact on the swelling properties of bentonite, but not on its surface structure. The surface structure was characterized using the fractal dimension Ds. Based on the fractal dimension, a unique curve of the em–pe relationship (em is the void ratio of montmorillonite and pe is the effective stress) at full saturation was introduced to express the swelling deformation of bentonite–sand mixtures. In mixtures with a large bentonite content, the swelling deformation always followed the em–pe relationship. In mixtures with a small bentonite content, when the effective stress reached a threshold, the void ratio of montmorillonite em deviated from the unique em–pe curve due to the appearance of a sand skeleton. The threshold of vertical pressure for mixtures in different solutions and the maximum swelling strains were estimated using the em–pe relationship. The good agreement between estimates and experimental data suggest that the em–pe relationship might be an alternative method for predicting the swelling deformation of bentonite–sand mixtures in salt solution.
Disclosing the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) to a patient is controversial. There is significant stigma associated with a diagnosis of AD or dementia in China, but the attitude of the society toward disclosure of such a diagnosis had not been formally evaluated prior to our study. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the attitude toward disclosing an AD diagnosis to patients in China with cognitive impairment from their caregivers, and the factors that may affect their attitude.
We designed a 17-item questionnaire and administered this questionnaire to caregivers, who accompanied patients with cognitive impairment or dementia in three major hospitals in Shanghai, China. The caregiver's attitude toward disclosing the diagnosis of AD as evaluated by the questionnaire was compared to that of disclosing the diagnosis of terminal cancer.
A majority (95.7%) of the 175 interviewed participants (mean 14.2 years of education received) wished to know their own diagnosis if they were diagnosed with AD, and 97.6% preferred the doctor to tell their family members if they were diagnosed with AD. If a family member of the participants suffered from AD, 82.9% preferred to have the diagnosis disclosed to the patient. “Cognitive impairment” was the most accepted term by caregivers to disclose AD diagnosis in Chinese.
This study suggests most of the well-educated individuals in a Chinese urban area favored disclosing the diagnosis when they or their family members were diagnosed with AD.
Young Type Ia supernova remnants (SNRs) are characterized by Balmer-dominated optical spectra, well-defined shell morphologies, > 1036 ergs s−1 X-ray luminosities, and a lack of massive stars and dense interstellar gas in their vicinity. Applying these characteristics and using archival deep HST and Chandra observations of M83, we search for young Type Ia SNRs in this spiral galaxy. This is a very difficult task!
Rapid progress in the stellar pulsation research has presented many new challenges to traditional pulsation theory. The following progress made by us should belong to one of the new challenges:
1)There are many variable stars located at the Horizontal Branch (HB) but outside the instability strip with amplitude larger than 0.02 mag.
Maybe some astronomers have already doubted of the 1950’s conclusion-the RR Lyrae stars are confined to the narrow instability strip in the C-M diagram, the boundaries of the gap are extremely sharp and definite, beyond the edges no light variations occur with ranges greater than 0.02 mag. We are changing the conclusion by observations. Here we do not mean the microvariability. We still raise the question from the classical viewpoint. We want to show that there are variable stars outside the strip with peak to peak amplitudes larger than 0.02 mag.
Associations of folic acid supplementation with risk of preterm birth (PTB) and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth were unclear for the Chinese populations. The aim of the present study was to investigate the associations in a large Chinese prospective cohort study: the Jiaxing Birth Cohort. In the Jiaxing Birth Cohort, 240 954 pregnant women visited local clinics or hospitals within their first trimester in Southeast China during 1999–2012. Information on anthropometric parameters, folic acid supplementation and other maternal characteristics were collected by in-person interviews during their first visit. Pregnancy outcomes were recorded during the follow-up of these participants. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the association of folic acid supplementation with pregnancy outcomes. The prevalence of folic acid supplementation was 24·9 % in the cohort. The prevalence of PTB and SGA birth was 3·48 and 9·2 %, respectively. Pre-conceptional folic acid supplementation was associated with 8 % lower risk of PTB (relative risk (RR) 0·92; 95 % CI 0·85, 1·00; P=0·04) and 19 % lower risk of SGA birth (RR 0·81; 95 % CI 0·70, 0·95; P=0·008), compared with non-users. Higher frequency of pre-conceptional folic acid use was associated with lower risk of PTB (Ptrend=0·032) and SGA birth (Ptrend=0·046). No significant association between post-conceptional initiation of folic acid supplementation and either outcome was observed. In conclusion, the present study suggests an association between pre-conceptional, but not post-conceptional, folic acid supplementation and lower risk of PTB and SGA birth in the Jiaxing Birth Cohort. Further research in other cohorts of large sample size is needed to replicate these findings.
The high repetition rate 10 J/10 ns Yb:YAG laser system and its key techniques are reported. The amplifiers in this system have a multi-pass V-shape structure and the heat in the amplifiers is removed by means of laminar water flow. In the main amplifier, the laser is four-pass, and an approximately 8.5 J/1 Hz/10 ns output is achieved in the primary test. The far-field of the output beam is approximately 10 times the diffraction limit. Because of the higher levels of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) in the main amplifier, the output energy is lower than expected. At the end we discuss some measures that can improve the properties of the laser system.
This study was designed to determine the effect of melatonin on the in vitro maturation (IVM) and developmental potential of bovine oocytes denuded of the cumulus oophorus (DOs). DOs were cultured alone (DOs) or with 10−9 M melatonin (DOs + MT), cumulus–oocyte complexes (COCs) were cultured without melatonin as the control. After IVM, meiosis II (MII) rates of DOs, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, apoptotic rates and parthenogenetic blastocyst rates of MII oocytes were determined. The relative expression of ATP synthase F0 Subunit 6 and 8 (ATP6 and ATP8), bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP-15) and growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF-9) mRNA in MII oocytes and IFN-tau (IFN-τ), Na+/K+-ATPase, catenin-beta like 1 (CTNNBL1) and AQP3 mRNA in parthenogenetic blastocysts were quantified using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The results showed that: (1) melatonin significantly increased the MII rate of DOs (65.67 ± 3.59 % vs. 82.29 ± 3.92%; P < 0.05), decreased the ROS level (4.83 ± 0.42 counts per second (c.p.s) vs. 3.78 ± 0.29 c.p.s; P < 0.05) and apoptotic rate (36.99 ± 3.62 % vs. 21.88 ± 2.08 %; P < 0.05) and moderated the reduction of relative mRNA levels of ATP6, ATP8, BMP-15 and GDF-9 caused by oocyte denudation; (2) melatonin significantly increased the developmental rate (24.17 ± 3.54 % vs. 35.26 ± 4.87%; P < 0.05), and expression levels of IFN-τ, Na+/K+-ATPase, CTNNBL1 and AQP3 mRNA of blastocyst. These results indicated that melatonin significantly improved the IVM quality of DOs, leading to an increased parthenogenetic blastocyst formation rate and quality.
The discovery of c. 1.77 Ga A-type granite in the Tarim Craton (TC) provides the first evidence that supports an extensional event related to fragmentation of the Columbia supercontinent in the late Palaeoproterozoic. We present laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) zircon U–Pb ages, Lu–Hf isotopic data and the whole-rock geochemical and Nd isotopic data of A-type granites in the Dunhuang area in the SE Tarim Craton. Zircon U–Pb dating for three granite samples indicate that they were emplaced at c. 1.77 Ga. Zircons from these granites have εHf(t) values ranging from –5.9 to 8.7, corresponding to two-stage model ages of 1.9–2.7 Ga. These granites exhibit the following petrological geochemical characteristics that are typical of A-type granite: (a) high content of SiO2 and alkalis (i.e. high K2O + Na2O with K2O/Na2O > 1), enrichment of high-field-strength elements (HFSE) and rare Earth elements (REE) (except for Eu) and extreme depletion of Ba, Sr, P, Ti and Eu; (b) 10000×Ga/Al ratios in the Dunhuang granites of 3.5–4.4, with an average value of 3.79 which is similar to the global average of 3.75 for A-type granites; (c) the presence of characteristic minerals such as amphibole, sphene and perthite; and (d) zirconium saturation temperature results indicate that the Dunhuang granites have high initial magmatic temperatures in the range 887–950°C, similar to those of typical of A-type granites. Whole-rock εNd(t) values range from –2.5 to –6.2 and TDM model ages from 2.3 to 2.7 Ga. Nd–Hf isotopic and whole-rock geochemical data indicate that these granites were most likely derived from the late Archean crustal source in a post-collisional/post-orogenic extensional tectonic environment. The late Palaeoproterozoic A-type granites in the TC could be correlated with those of the North China Craton (NCC), India and the Canadian Shield, thus demonstrating extensional tectonics and break-up of the Columbia supercontinent.
Cu0.62Zn0.38 foil was subjected to surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT) processing first. Growth behavior of ZnO nanostructure on the SMAT Cu0.62Zn0.38 surface during thermal oxidation was investigated in this paper. The original and SMAT Cu0.62Zn0.38 foils were thermally oxidized at 400 ~ 700 °C under various gaseous environments, including nitrogen and mixture of N2-O2 at a pressure of 1 atm. for 3 h. The oxidized specimens were characterized with a scanning electron microscope, an X-ray diffractometer and a transmission electron microscope. It is found that nanosheets are easily formed on the SMAT specimen surface. The favorable formation of nanosheets relates to twin lamellae structure of Cu0.62Zn0.38 formed during SMAT processing.
The driving mechanism of solar flares and coronal mass ejections is a topic of ongoing debate, apart from the consensus that magnetic reconnection plays a key role during the impulsive process. While present solar research mostly depends on observations and theoretical models, laboratory experiments based on high-energy density facilities provide the third method for quantitatively comparing astrophysical observations and models with data achieved in experimental settings. In this article, we show laboratory modeling of solar flares and coronal mass ejections by constructing the magnetic reconnection system with two mutually approaching laser-produced plasmas circumfused of self-generated megagauss magnetic fields. Due to the Euler similarity between the laboratory and solar plasma systems, the present experiments demonstrate the morphological reproduction of flares and coronal mass ejections in solar observations in a scaled sense, and confirm the theory and model predictions about the current-sheet-born anomalous plasmoid as the initial stage of coronal mass ejections, and the behavior of moving-away plasmoid stretching the primary reconnected field lines into a secondary current sheet conjoined with two bright ridges identified as solar flares.
We investigated the effect mouse cumulus cells (mCCs) on the in vitro maturation (IVM) and developmental potential of bovine denuded germinal vesicle oocytes (DOs). Cumulus–oocyte complexes (COCs), DOs and DOs cocultured with either mCCs (DOs + mCCs) or bovine cumulus cells (bCCs; DOs + bCCs) were subjected to IVM. The meiosis II (MII) rates of DOs, glutathione (GSH) contents, zona pellucida (ZP) hardening and parthenogenetic blastocyst rates of MII oocytes were determined. The relative expression levels of bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP-15) and growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF-9) in MII oocytes were measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). mCCs significantly increased the MII rate of DOs from 53.5 ± 3.58% to 69.67 ± 4.72% (p < 0.05) but had no effect on the GSH content (2.17 ± 0.31 pmol/oocyte with mCCs, 2.14 ± 0.53 pmol/oocyte without mCCs). For the DOs + mCCs group, the BMP-15 and GDF-9 expression levels were significantly higher and the ZP dissolution time was significantly lower (162.49 ± 12.51 s) than that of the DOs group (213.95 ± 18.87 s; p < 0.05). The blastocyst rate of the DOs + mCCs group (32.56 ± 4.94%) was similar to that of the DOs group (31.75 ± 3.65%) but was significantly lower than that of the COCs group (43.52 ± 5.37%; p < 0.05). In conclusion, mCCs increased the MII rate of DOs and expression of certain genes in MII oocytes, and decreased the ZP hardening of MII oocytes, but could not improve their GSH content or developmental potential.
The preference of fertilized (IVF) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) presumptive zygotes for different media when cultured in vitro to the blastocyst stage was evaluated in this study. The experiment comprised two zygote production methods (IVF and SCNT) × two culture media (mSOF and G1.5/G2.5) factorial design in which culture droplets that contained approximate 30 presumptive zygotes formed the experimental plots for the assessment of cleavage and blastocyst development. There were 15 to 20 replicates (culture droplets) per treatment combination. Sub-samples 30 to 41 of the blastocysts produced were assessed for cell number and cell apoptosis. A further 10 blastocysts per treatment combination were used for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to evaluate the relative abundance of Hsp70 and Bax mRNA. Presumptive zygotes produced by IVF were developmentally more competent than SCNT zygotes in terms of cleavage rate (66.9 vs. 57.0%; P < 0.05) and blastocyst development rates (blastocysts of presumptive zygotes 29.7 vs. 24.8%; blastocysts of cleaved zygotes 44.4 vs. 36.6%; P < 0.05). Over both zygote production systems, however, the results were similar whether culture was in mSOF or in G1.5/G2.5 media for cleavage rate (63.2 vs. 62.4%; P > 0.05) and blastocyst development rate (blastocysts of presumptive zygotes 26.4 vs. 25.7%; P > 0.05; blastocysts of cleaved zygotes 41.8 vs. 41.2%; P > 0.05). There was, however, a significant interaction between the method of zygote production and culture medium for the apoptotic index of blastocysts. The interaction was such that IVF-produced zygotes cultured in mSOF had a lower apoptotic index compared with those cultured in G1.5/G2.5 (4.7 ± 1.2% vs. 9.8 ± 0.9%; P < 0.05) whereas SCNT zygotes had a higher apoptotic index when cultured in mSOF compared with those cultured in G1.5/G2.5 (11.9 ± 1.5% vs. 4.5 ± 1.2%; P < 0.05). Moreover, RT-PCR analysis showed that embryos from IVF-produced zygotes cultured in mSOF had a lower expression level of stress-related and apoptosis genes (Hsp70 and Bax) than those cells cultured in G1.5/G2.5 medium, while SCNT-derived embryos cultured in mSOF had a higher expression level of these genes than those embryos cultured in G1.5/G2.5 medium. The results of this study show that bovine IVF- and SCNT-produced presumptive zygotes have different nutrient requirements for in vitro culture to the blastocyst stage of development. IVF-derived zygotes have a preference for mSOF as the culture medium whereas the G1.5/G2.5 medium is more suitable for the culture of bovine SCNT-derived zygotes.
Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is implicated in the negative regulation of the insulin signalling pathway by dephosphorylating the insulin receptor (IR) and IR substrates. Ganodermalucidum has traditionally been used for the treatment of diabetes in Chinese medicine; however, its anti-diabetic potency and mechanism in vivo is still unclear. Our previously published study reported a novel proteoglycan PTP1B inhibitor, named Fudan-Yueyang-Ganoderma lucidum (FYGL) from G. lucidum, with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 5·12 (sem 0·05) μg/ml, a protein:polyglycan ratio of 17:77 and 78 % glucose in polysaccharide, and dominant amino acid residues of aspartic acid, glycine, glutamic acid, alanine, serine and threonine in protein. FYGL is capable of decreasing plasma glucose in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice with a high safety of median lethal dose (LD50) of 6 g/kg. In the present study, C57BL/6 db/db diabetic mice were trialed further using FYGL as well as metformin for comparison. Oral treatment with FYGL in db/db diabetic mice for 4 weeks significantly (P < 0·01 or 0·05) decreased the fasting plasma glucose level, serum insulin concentration and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. FYGL also controlled the biochemistry indices relative to type 2 diabetes-accompanied lipidaemic disorders. Pharmacology research suggests that FYGL decreases the plasma glucose level by the mechanism of inhibiting PTP1B expression and activity, consequently, regulating the tyrosine phosphorylation level of the IR β-subunit and the level of hepatic glycogen, thus resulting in the improvement of insulin sensitivity. Therefore, FYGL is promising as an insulin sensitiser for the therapy of type 2 diabetes and accompanied dyslipidaemia.
Irritability is not uncommon after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Unfortunately, no instruments are available to directly measure this clinical feature. This study thus aimed to develop a specific scale to evaluate the irritability for patients with TBI. A total of 144 participants, which include 80 healthy participants and 64 patients suffering from TBI, were recruited. Irritability was assessed by the National Taiwan University Irritability Scale (NTUIS). Our results showed the NTUIS has good reliability. The factor analysis further revealed 2 different components: annoyance, and verbal aggression. Moreover, both self-reported and family-reported irritability postinjury were significantly higher than the irritability reported by the healthy participants. Indeed patients with TBI have significant problems with irritability after injuries, and thus a more specific assessment tool to carefully evaluate patients' irritability should be used.
We have developed a blend of food extracts commonly consumed in the Mediterranean and East Asia, named blueberry punch (BBP), with the ultimate aim to formulate a chemoprevention strategy to inhibit prostate cancer progression in men on active surveillance protocol. We demonstrated previously that BBP inhibited prostate cancer cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. The purpose of this study was to determine the molecular mechanism responsible for the suppression of prostate cancer cell proliferation by BBP. Treatment of lymph node-metastasised prostate cancer cells (LNCaP) and bone-metastasised prostate cancer cells (PC-3 and MDA-PCa-2b) with BBP (up to 0·8 %) for 72 h increased the percentage of cells at the G0/G1 phase and decreased those at the S and G2/M phases. The finding was supported by the reduction in the percentage of Ki-67-positive cells and of DNA synthesis measured by the incorporation of 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine. Concomitantly, BBP treatment decreased the protein levels of phosphorylated retinoblastoma, cyclin D1 and E, cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4 and 2, and pre-replication complex (CDC6 and MCM7) in LNCaP and PC-3 cells, whereas CDK inhibitor p27 was elevated in these cell lines. In conclusion, BBP exerts its anti-proliferative effect on prostate cancer cells by modulating the expression and phosphorylation of multiple regulatory proteins essential for cell proliferation.
Characterization of the TiN coatings oxidized in air at temperatures at 600 and 700°C for 30 min was carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). TiN thin films with a Ti interlayer were prepared by hollow cathode discharge ion plating on AISI 304 stainless steel. Both XRD and TEM results show that the TiN coatings and Ti interlayer have columnar structure with (111) and (0002) preferred orientations, respectively. AFM results show the existence of pinholes on the surface of specimens due to electropolishing process of the steel substrate, and the surface roughness (Ra) changes from 3.5 nm for the as-deposited specimen to 11.6 nm after oxidation at 700°. After oxidation, the TiO2 oxide layer formed on the specimen surface was porous and retained the columnar structure as the original TiN coating. The microstructure of the Ti interlayer gradually changed from columnar to polycrystalline structure due to grain growth. The Auger elemental depth profiling indicated that interdiffusion of the Ti interlayer with steel substrate had occurred during the oxidation process.
Composite Sensitive High Resolution Ion Microprobe (SHRIMP) U–Pb zircon and 40Ar–39Ar step-heating biotite-hornblende ages are used to provide constraints on the timing and origin of the felsic gneissic rocks in the Baiyunshan Mountains region and to elucidate their tectonothermal history. SHRIMP dating and CL imaging of zircons give magmatic zircon crystallization ages between Late Ordovician and Early Silurian (c. 453.5 Ma, 446 Ma, and 439 Ma) for three representative felsic gneisses, suggesting that most of the Baiyunshan gneiss cannot represent basement rocks of the Cathaysia Block as previously thought. Including the present age information, a synthesis of available age data for regional Wuyun (Wuyi-Yunkai) events reflects the emergence of orogen-wide magmatism that could be syn-orogenic and have occurred mainly between 460 and 420 Ma in the South China Block. Inherited zircons are abundant, with ages clustering at late Mesoproterozoic (1189–1017 Ma) and middle Mesoproterozoic (772 Ma), which reveals that the Baiyunshan orthogneiss samples a crustal basement containing significant igneous or recycled components related to the Rodinia amalgamation and break-up. A SHRIMP date of 212 ± 12 Ma from a white rim of zircon provides evidence for metamorphic overprinting of an Indosinian tectonothermal event on the Baiyunshan gneiss. Incremental heating experiments with six biotite samples and one hornblende sample from a variety of metamorphic rocks yielded two distinct 40Ar–39Ar age groups: 150–155 and 94–98 Ma. The older ages are similar to zircon U–Pb dates for widespread granitic intrusions in central Guangdong. We attribute them to Late Jurassic magmatism-induced thermal resetting of the biotite K–Ar system. On the other hand, the younger age group is interpreted to record either cooling through the biotite closure temperature of ~300–350 °C or a second resetting of biotite Ar isotopes at c. 94–98 Ma due to contemporaneous magmatic activity. Our present age data suggest that the Maofengshan orthogneiss was exhumed to 8 to 10 km crustal levels at c. 150 Ma, whereas the eastward components of gneissic rock masses appear to have passed upward through the same crustal depth synchronously or later (by c. 94 Ma). Exhumation of middle crustal-level rocks in the study area since c. 155 Ma is roughly coeval with exhumation of gneissic rocks from elsewhere in the Wuyun Orogen, suggesting a large-scale mechanism for the exhumation pulse related to the Yanshanian extensional tectonic regime.