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A dysfunctional default mode network (DMN) has been reported in patients with schizophrenia. However, the stability of the deficits has not been determined across different stages of the disorder.
We examined the functional connectivity of the DMN subsystems of 125 patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES) or recurrent schizophrenia (RES), compared to that of 82 healthy controls. We tested the robustness of the findings in an independent cohort of 158 patients and 39 healthy controls. We performed resting-state functional connectivity analysis, and examined the strength of the connections within and between the three subsystems of the DMN (core, dorsal medial prefrontal cortex [dMPFC], and medial temporal lobe [MTL]). We also analyzed the connectivity correlations to symptoms and illness duration.
We found reduced connectivity strength between the core and MTL subsystems in schizophrenia patients compared to controls, with no differences between the FES and RES patient groups; these findings were validated in the second sample. Schizophrenia patients also showed a significant reduction in connectivity within the MTL and between the dMPFC−MTL subsystems, similarly between FES and RES groups. The connectivity strength within the core subsystem was negatively correlated with clinical symptoms in schizophrenia. There was no significant correlation between the DMN subsystem connectivity and illness duration.
DMN subsystem connectivity deficits are present in schizophrenia, and the homochronicity of their appearance indicates the trait-like nature of these alterations. The DMN deficit may be useful for early diagnosis, and MTL dysfunction may be a crucial mechanism underlying schizophrenia.
Sugarcane brown rust, caused by Puccinia melanocephala, is one of the main diseases of sugarcane in China. The identification and discovery of new resistance genes have important theoretical and practical significance for preventing outbreaks of brown rust and ensuring the sustainable production of sugarcane. To screen for polymorphic simple-sequence repeat (SSR) molecular markers for localization of brown rust resistance genes, we used two populations that are suitable for genetic linkage map construction and mapping of new resistance genes to construct resistant and susceptible genetic pools. We then screened 449 pairs of primers to identify polymorphic SSR markers in the parental lines and the resistant/susceptible genetic pools. The results showed that 25 pairs of primers directed amplification of polymorphic DNA fragments between the parents of the cross combination ‘Yuetang 03-393’ × ‘ROC 24’, and 16 pairs of primers amplified polymorphic fragments between the parents of the cross combination ‘Liucheng 03-1137’ × ‘Dezhe 93-88’. Four pairs of primers (SMC236CG, SCESSR0928, SCESSR0636 and SCESSR2551) amplified polymorphic DNA fragments between the parental lines and the resistant/susceptible genetic pools in ‘Yuetang 03-393’ × ‘ROC 24’. The results of this study will establish a solid foundation for the mapping of new brown rust resistance genes, genetic linkage map construction and the development of closely-associated molecular markers in sugarcane.
To explore the relationship between dietary patterns and risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Chinese adults aged 45–59 years.
Dietary data were collected using a semi-quantitative FFQ. Factor analysis was used to identify the major dietary patterns. Logistic regression models were applied to clarify the association between dietary patterns and the risk of CKD.
The present study population was a part of the population-based Nutrition and Health Study performed in the city of Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, eastern China.
A total of 2437 eligible participants (45–59 years) were enrolled in the present cross-sectional study from June 2015 to December 2016.
Three major dietary patterns were identified: ‘traditional southern Chinese’, ‘Western’ and ‘grains–vegetables’ patterns, collectively accounting for 25·6 % of variance in the diet. After adjustment for potential confounders, participants in the highest quartile of the Western pattern had greater odds for CKD (OR = 1·83, 95 % CI 1·21, 2·81; P < 0·05) than those in the lowest quartile. Compared with the lowest quartile of the grains–vegetables pattern, the highest quartile had lower odds for CKD (OR = 0·84, 95 % CI 0·77, 0·93; P < 0·05). In addition, there was no significant association between the traditional southern Chinese pattern and risk of CKD (P > 0·05).
Our results suggest that the Western pattern is associated with an increased risk, whereas the grains–vegetables pattern is associated with a reduced risk for CKD. These findings can guide dietary interventions for the prevention of CKD in a middle-aged Chinese population.
We assessed inheritance of resistance to sugarcane brown rust (Puccinia melanocephala) in selfing F1 populations of wild sugarcane germplasm Erianthus rockii ‘Yundian 95-19’ and E. rockii ‘Yundian 95-20’. We tested parent and selfing F1 individuals for the brown rust resistance gene, Bru1, that has been shown to confer resistance to brown rust in sugarcane. The Bru1 gene was not detected in E. rockii ‘Yundian 95-19’, E. rockii ‘Yundian 95-20’ or their selfing F1 individuals, and we found there was segregation of resistance in the two selfing F1 populations (segregation ratio: 3:1). The results confirmed resistance in E. rockii ‘Yundian 95-19’ and E. rockii ‘Yundian 95-20’ to sugarcane brown rust is controlled by a novel, single dominant gene.
The development of mechanised large-scale farming has led to changes in rice production systems. Increases in time of farming operations often occur under large-scale farming conditions, which can lead to delayed transplanting (DTP). In this study, field experiments were conducted in the late rice-growing season in 2016 and 2017 to compare the growth stages, growing-season temperature and yield attributes between normal transplanting with 15- to 20-day-old seedlings and DTP with 30-day-old seedlings of two rice cultivars. DTP resulted in 6- and 12-day delays in heading stage for both cultivars in 2016 and 2017, respectively. As a consequence, low temperature stress occurred at anthesis under DTP in both years, which led to significantly reduced spikelet filling and grain yield under DTP for both cultivars. These results confirm that DTP can reduce spikelet filling and grain yield due to low temperature stress at anthesis in machine-transplanted late-season rice. This finding highlights that greater efforts should be made to develop high-yielding short-duration rice cultivars to meet the development of mechanised large-scale rice farming.
The collimated electron jets ejected from cylindrical plasma are produced in particle-in-cell simulation under the applied longitudinal magnetostatic field and radial electrostatic field, which is a process that can be conveniently performed in a laboratory. We find that the applied magnetostatic field contributes significantly to the jet collimation, whereas the applied electrostatic field plays a vital role in the jet formation. The generation mechanism of collimated jets can be well understood through energy gain of the tagged electrons, and we conclude that the longitudinal momentum of the electrons is converted from the transverse momentum via the transverse-induced magnetic field. It has been found that the ejecting velocity of the jets is close to the speed of light when the applied electrostatic field reaches 3 × 1010 V/m. The present scheme may also give us an insight into the formation of astrophysical jets in celestial bodies.
Transplanting single seedlings rather than seedlings in clumps has been increasingly attractive in hybrid rice production in China due to reduced seed requirements and higher grain yield. This study was conducted to determine grain yield and nitrogen (N) utilization in response to reductions in the N rate in hybrid rice under single-seedling transplanting. Field experiments were done in 2015 and 2016 on a moderate to high fertility soil at the Experimental Farm of Hunan Agricultural University, China. The hybrid rice cultivar Liangyoupeijiu (LYPJ) was used in 2015, and two hybrid cultivars LYPJ and Xiangliangyou 900 were used the next year. In each year, the rice plants transplanted with a single seedling per hill were grown with three N rates, including the usual N rate (150 kg ha–1) and two reduced N rates (120 and 90 kg ha–1). Grain yield, yield attributes, and N uptake and use efficiency were determined for each N rate. Significant reduction in grain yield was observed in only one of three cultivar-year combinations when N rate was reduced by 20% (from 150 to 120 kg ha–1), and the magnitude of yield reduction was only 4%. Although significant reduction in grain yield was observed in two of the three cultivar-year combinations when N rate reduced by 40% (to 90 kg ha–1), the highest yield reduction was only 7%. Yield attributes were generally changed slightly when N rate was reduced by 20%, while compensation among yield attributes and N utilization characteristics could explain why a 40% reduction in N rate did not result in substantial yield loss. Partial factor productivity of applied N (PFPN) was increased by 21–24% and 56–63% with 20% and 40% reductions in the N rate, respectively. The higher PFPN with a reduced N rate was attributed to higher recovery efficiency of applied N (REN) or to both higher REN and internal N use efficiency. Our study suggests that reducing N rate does not necessarily result in yield loss due to compensation among yield components and increased N use efficiency in hybrid rice transplanted as single seedlings under moderate to high soil fertility conditions.
Patient’s needs and rights are the key to delivering state-of-the-art modern nursing care. It is especially challenging to provide proper nursing care for patients who are reaching the end of life (EOL). In Chinese culture nursing practice, the perception and expectations of these EOL patients are not well known. This article explores the feelings and wishes of 16 terminally ill Chinese cancer patients who are going through the dying process. An open-ended questionnaire with eight items was used to interview 16 terminally ill Chinese cancer patients, and was then analyzed by a combined approach employing grounded theory and interpretive phenomenological analysis. Four dimensions were explored: first, patient’s attitudes towards death, such as accepting the fact calmly, striving to survive, and the desire for control; second, the care desired during the dying process, including avoiding excessive treatment and dying with dignity; third, the degree of the patient’s acceptance of death; and fourth, the consequences of death. This cognitive study offers a fundamental understanding of perceptions of death of terminally ill cancer patients from the Chinese culture. Their attitude toward death was complex. They did not prefer aggressive treatment and most of them had given a great deal of thought to their death.
To develop a theoretical model explaining the longitudinal changes in the caregiving process for family caregivers of persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in Taiwan.
A longitudinal, grounded theory approach using in-depth face-to-face interviews and an open-ended interview guide. We conducted 42 interviews over a two-year period; each participant was interviewed at least once every six months. All participants were interviewed in their home. The participants total of 13 family caregivers of persons with MCI.
One core theme emerged: “protective preparation.” This reflected the family caregiving process of preparation for a further decline in cognitive function, and protection from the impact of low self-esteem, accidents, and symptoms of comorbidities for the family member with MCI. Protective preparation contained three components: ambivalent normalization, vigilant preparation, and protective management.
Interventions to help family caregivers manage the changes in persons with MCI can reduce caregiver burden. Our findings could provide a knowledge base for use by healthcare providers to develop and implement strategies to reduce caregiver burden for family caregivers of persons with MCI.
Isolation of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria (MDR-GNB) from patients in the community has been increasingly observed. A prediction model for MDR-GNB colonization and infection risk stratification on hospital admission is needed to improve patient care.
A 2-stage, prospective study was performed with 995 and 998 emergency department patients enrolled, respectively. MDR-GNB colonization was defined as isolates resistant to 3 or more classes of antibiotics, identified in either the surveillance or early (≤48 hours) clinical cultures.
A score-assigned MDR-GNB colonization prediction model was developed and validated using clinical and microbiological data from 995 patients enrolled in the first stage of the study; 122 of these patients (12.3%) were MDR-GNB colonized. We identified 5 independent predictors: age>70 years (odds ratio [OR], 1.84 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.06–3.17]; 1 point), assigned point value in the model), residence in a long-term-care facility (OR, 3.64 [95% CI, 1.57–8.43); 3 points), history of cerebrovascular accidents (OR, 2.23 [95% CI, 1.24–4.01]; 2 points), hospitalization within 1 month (OR, 2.63 [95% CI, 1.39–4.96]; 2 points), and recent antibiotic exposure (OR, 2.18 [95% CI, 1.16–4.11]; 2 points). The model displayed good discrimination in the derivation and validation sets (area under ROC curve, 0.75 and 0.80, respectively) with the best cutoffs of<4 and ≥4 points for low- and high-risk MDR-GNB colonization, respectively. When applied to 998 patients in the second stage of the study, the model successfully stratified the risk of MDR-GNB infection during hospitalization between low- and high-risk groups (probability, 0.02 vs 0.12, respectively; log-rank test, P<.001).
A model was developed to optimize both the decision to initiate antimicrobial therapy and the infection control interventions to mitigate threats from MDR-GNB.
A facile synthesis procedure of nitrogen-self-doped porous carbon (NPC) derived from abundant natural biological materials has been presented. The pyrolysis temperature and the weight ratio of Co3O4 to carbon play a key role in determining microscopic structure and electrochemical performances of the final materials. The ordered mesostructures with nanopores in the channel walls provided support for immobilization of well-dispersed Co3O4 nanoparticles. They also served as a highly conductive substrate for effectively alleviating severe particle aggregation during the charge/discharge processes, which prevented capacity fading from deteriorated electric contact between the components. Taking advantage of the interconnected porous structures and high specific surface area (1799 m2/g) of carbon substrate, the Co3O4/NPC composite as anode in lithium-ion battery delivers a stable reversible capacity of 903 mA h/g after 400 cycles. It is expected that by loading other electrode active materials on such carbon material, the manufacture of the promising anode materials with excellent cycle stability is highly possible.
Ceratovacuna lanigera Zehntner is a major leaf pest of sugarcane. Widely distributed, it affects both the yield and quality of sugarcane in China. This study aimed to assess real yield and sugar yield losses, and the effect of C. lanigera damage on emergence of newly planted and ratoon cane under current production levels. Field experiments were carried out from 2014 to 2016 in Yunnan Province China. At maturity, plants were harvested and weighed to determine yield, and the effect on sugarcane quality and sucrose content analyzed. Real yield decreased by average of 46,185 kg hm−2 (range: 37,545–61,845 kg hm−2) in damaged versus undamaged areas, with an average yield loss rate of 35.9% (28.5–45.7%). Juice yield decreased by an average of 3.01% (2.4–4.13%) and sucrose content by 6.38% (5.48–8.16%). Juice brix decreased by an average of 7.66°BX (6.95–9.05°BX) and juice gravity purity by 12.35% (8.43–19.97%). In contrast, the reducing sugar content increased by an average of 1.21% (1.01–1.3%). Emergence rates of newly planted cane decreased by an average of 26.0% (24.7–27.3%). The emergence number of ratoon cane decreased by 66,834 hm2 (57,429–76,238 hm−2) and relative emergence loss rates of ratoon cane decreased by an average of 57.8% (57.6–58.0%). These findings confirm that C. lanigera damage severely affects sugarcane yield and quality in Yunnan Province. The results will help the implementation of effective control measures, thereby supporting sustainable development of the Chinese sugar industry.
A study in rodent models showed that phytosterols protected against colon carcinogenesis, probably by inhibiting dysregulated cell cycle progression and inducing cellular apoptosis. However, epidemiological studies on the relationship between phytosterols and colorectal cancer risk are quite limited. The aim of this study was to investigate dietary phytosterol intake in relation to colorectal cancer risk in the Chinese population. A case–control study was conducted from July 2010 to June 2016, recruiting 1802 eligible colorectal cancer cases plus 1813 age (5-year interval) and sex frequency-matched controls. Dietary information was collected by using a validated FFQ. The OR and 95 % CI of colorectal cancer risk were assessed by multivariable logistic regression models. A higher total intake of phytosterols was found to be associated with a 50 % reduction in colorectal cancer risk. After adjusting for various confounders, the OR of the highest quartile intake compared with the lowest quartile intake was 0·50 (95 % CI 0·41, 0·61, Ptrend<0·01) for total phytosterols. An inverse association was also found between the consumption of β-sitosterol, campesterol, campestanol and colorectal cancer risk. However, stigmasterol intake was related to an increased risk of colorectal cancer. No statistically significant association was found between β-sitostanol and colorectal cancer risk. Stratified analysis by sex showed that the positive association of stigmasterol intake with colorectal cancer risk was found only in women. These data indicated that the consumption of total phytosterols, β-sitosterol, campesterol and campestanol is inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk in a Chinese population.
Day care services for patients with dementia (PWD) are generally under-utilized worldwide despite evidence of positive outcomes, such as improved behavioral, psychological, and cognitive functioning for patients, and reduced caregiver burden. This study sought to gain an in-depth understanding of the reasons for non-utilization of day care services in Singapore using qualitative methodology.
A purposive sample of 16 caregivers of PWD who had never attended day care services participated in semi-structured interviews. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data analysis was based on an Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis framework.
Caregivers recognized the importance of engagement for PWD, yet were constrained by patients’ refusal to attend day care, which caregivers attributed to the patients’ negative beliefs about day care and fear of abandonment by their families. Caregivers also raised concerns about service delivery issues, the suitability of activities at day care, and their perceptions of the patients’ ability to integrate into the setting. Non-utilization was also related to caregivers’ low perceived need due to the availability of alternative care arrangements (e.g. having a domestic helper and adequate family support).
Caregivers generally understand the value of day care but several factors tip the balance in favor of non-use. These include culturally bound caregiving values and perceptions, and inadequacies in service delivery. Negative perceptions about services highlight the need to enhance the image and standards of day care and increase awareness of the benefits of day care for PWD beyond its custodial role.
Flavonoids may play an important role in the protective effects of vegetables, fruits and tea against colorectal cancer. However, associations between flavonoids and colorectal cancer risk are inconsistent, and a few studies have evaluated the effect of flavonoids from different dietary sources separately. This study aimed to evaluate associations of flavonoids intake from different dietary sources with colorectal cancer risk in a Chinese population. From July 2010 to December 2015, 1632 eligible colorectal cancer cases and 1632 frequency-matched controls (age and sex) completed in-person interviews. A validated FFQ was used to estimate dietary flavonoids intake. Multivariate logistical regression models were used to calculate the OR and 95 % CI of colorectal cancer risk after adjusting for various confounders. No significant association was found between total flavonoids and colorectal cancer risk, with an adjusted OR of 1·06 (95 % CI 0·85, 1·32) comparing the highest with the lowest quartile. Anthocyanidins, flavanones and flavones intakes from total diet were found to be inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk. Compared with the lowest quartile, the adjusted OR for the highest quartile were 0·80 (95 % CI 0·64, 1·00) for anthocyanidins, 0·28 (95 % CI 0·22, 0·36) for flavanones and 0·54 (95 % CI 0·43, 0·67) for flavones. All subclasses of flavonoids from vegetables and fruits were inversely associated with colorectal cancer. However, no significant association was found between tea flavonoids and colorectal cancer risk. These data indicate that specific flavonoids, specifically flavonoids from vegetables and fruits, may be linked with the reduced risk of colorectal cancer.
Ni-doped ZnO hollow microspheres were fabricated by calcining the mixture of zinc and nickel citrate precursors at 500 °C for 2 h. The structure, composition, Barrett–Emmett–Teller specific surface area, and optical properties of Ni-doped ZnO samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, wave length dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, N2 adsorption–desorption isotherms, and ultraviolet (UV)-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The photocatalytic results demonstrated that the as-synthesized Ni-doped ZnO microcrystals possessed much higher photocatalytic activity than pure ZnO in the decomposition of methylene blue under UV-light irradiation. The present work suggests that Ni-doped ZnO hollow microspheres can be applied as an efficient photocatalyst for water polluted by some chemically stable azo dyes.
The microstructural evolution of spray-formed high speed steel during hot deformation was investigated as well as the effects of spray forming parameters on the porosity formation. Four distinct zones are identified in the as-deposited material, and interstitial porosity is present in the bottom and peripheral zones, while gas-related porosity is mainly found in the central zone. It can keep the porosity at a minimum value by using the optimum parameters, e.g., the average porosity of central zone is 3.7% for a superheat of 170 °C and a gas-to-metal flow rate of 0.7. During hot deformation at 1150 °C, the amount of porosity can be obviously decreased by increasing the height reduction which also plays a key role in breaking up eutectic carbides. The critical height reduction for the breakdown of the eutectic carbides is 50%, the dominant mechanism being mechanical fragmentation.