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In recent years, there has been an increase in migration in Europe. Particularly, Italy has been one of the most important landing place. Currently, migrants in the province of Avellino, South Italy city, amount to about 1400, housed in 40 facilities in 23 municipalities. Psychological interest on migration and its impact on lifestyle patterns has increased in recent years.
There are few studies that evaluated the frequent psychosomatic symptoms in these populations. Despite the trauma experienced, they are not able to give a name to the suffered and somatized pain.
Assessment of somatic symptoms reported by the immigrant cohort after a three-month observation period.
We included 50 migrants (21.3 mean years) hosted in emergency centre in Avellino, Italy. All guests have conducted psychological clinical interviews. At baseline, were administered following scales: the patient health questionnaire (PHQ-9); Illness Behaviour Inventory (IBI); Symptoms checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) scale. Same data was collected after three months.
The migrant group was a heterogeneous group. Overall data on IBI and PHQ-9 scale indicate a statistically significant variation baseline vs deadline Data of IBI scale is statistically significant [T-Score: 3,921; P: 003]; also with PHQ-9 [T0 vs. T1: T-Score: 3,986; P: .003]. Similar results have been found with SCL-90-R.
In their vocabulary, terms such as anxiety, sadness, fear exist hardly. They tend to minimize the psychological pain, not because I do not feel, but because move it on the body. They have difficulty to talk about emotions, not just a matter of culture and language, but also because they are ashamed.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The Spacewatch Project uses four telescopes of apertures 0.9-m, 1.8-m, 2.3-m, and 4-m on Kitt Peak mountain in Arizona for followup astrometry of priority NEOs. Objects as faint as V=23 on the MPC's NEO Confirmation Page, targets of radar, potential impactors, targets of spacecraft observations or visits, and PHAs with future close approaches to Earth receive priority for astrometry.
The proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 1 (PCSK1) gene encodes the prohormone convertase 1/3 enzyme that processes prohormones into functional hormones that, in turn, regulate central and peripheral energy metabolism. Mutations in the human PCSK1 gene cause severe monogenic obesity or confer risk of obesity. We herein investigated the porcine PCSK1 gene with the aim of identifying polymorphisms associated with fat deposition and production traits in Italian heavy pigs. By re-sequencing about 5.1 kb of this gene in 21 pigs of different breeds, we discovered 14 polymorphisms that were organized in nine haplotypes, clearly distributed in two clades of putative European and Asian origin. Then we re-mapped this gene on porcine chromosome 2 and analysed its expression in several tissues including gastric oxyntic mucosa of weanling pigs in which PCSK1 processes the pre-pro-ghrelin into ghrelin, which in turn is involved in the control of feed intake and energy metabolism. Association analyses between PCSK1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and production, carcass and several other traits were conducted on five groups of pigs from three different experimental designs, for a total of 1221 animals. Results indicated that the analysed SNPs were associated (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05) with several traits including backfat thickness and visible intermuscular fat in Italian Duroc (ID) and growth performances in Italian Large White (ILW) and in ILW × Italian Landrace pigs. However, the effects estimated in the ILW were opposite to the effects reported in the ID pigs. Suggestive association (P < 0.10) was observed with muscle cathepsin B activity, opening, if confirmed, potential applications to reduce the excessive softness defect of the green hams that is of particular concern for the processing industry. The results obtained supported the need to further investigate the PCSK1 gene to fully exploit the value of its variability and apply this information in pig breeding programmes.
We have established mutant collections of the model species Medicago truncatula according to current protocols. In particular, we used a transposon (Tnt1) tagging method and an ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis approach (TILLING). The collections were subjected to both forward and reverse genetics screenings, and several mutants were isolated that affect plant traits (e.g. shoot, root developments, flower morphology, etc.) and also biosynthetic pathways of secondary compounds (saponins and tannins). Genes responsible for some of the mutations were cloned and further characterized.
Double ‘free-hybrids’ (DH) in alfalfa were obtained by crossing in a diallelic scheme, six multiplied simple hybrids (SH) derived from four partly inbred (S2) lines. Analysis of the specific combining ability demonstrated that the main source of variation was for dry matter yield (DMY) in DHs and supported heterosis values of DHs versus the best parent of an average +45% (ranging from +5 to +76%). Investigation at the molecular level was carried out by analysis of simple sequence repeat markers on the six parental SHs and 15 DH progenies and by comparison of gene expression profiles using microarrays of a single DH line to its parental lines. The variation of heterozygosity estimates of the DHs explained a small part (about 20%) of their variation in DMY, while the number of alleles was significantly related to DM performance (r = 0.61; P < 0.05). The microarray analysis identified genes with both significant additive and non-additive levels of expression in the hybrid compared with the parents. The majority of the variation in gene expression was additive (87%), but among the genes with a non-additive pattern of expression, the greater proportion of probe sets (86%) fell outside the parental range. Gene ontology analysis of these genes revealed the presence of a number of terms related to metabolism and genetic information processing.
Despite behavioural signs of flattened affect, patients affected by schizophrenia show enhanced sensitivity to negative stimuli. The current literature concerning neural circuitry for emotions supports dysregulations of cortico-limbic networks, but gives contrasting results. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) could persistently influence emotional regulation and neural correlates of response to emotional stimuli in healthy humans. This study evaluated the effect of ACEs and chronic undifferentiated schizophrenia on neural responses to emotional stimuli (negative facial expression).
Brain blood-oxygen-level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging neural responses to a face-matching paradigm, and regional grey matter (GM) volumes were studied at 3.0 T in the amygdala, hippocampus, anterior cingulated cortex (ACC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC). The severity of ACEs was assessed. Participants included 20 consecutively admitted in-patients affected by chronic undifferentiated schizophrenia, and 20 unrelated healthy volunteers from the general population.
Patients reported higher ACEs than controls. Worse ACEs proportionally led to decreasing responses in the amygdala and hippocampus, and to increasing responses in the PFC and ACC in all participants. Patients showed higher activations in the amygdala and hippocampus, and lower activations in the PFC and ACC. Higher ACEs were associated with higher GM volumes in the PFC and ACC, and schizophrenia was associated with GM reduction in all studied regions.
Structural and functional brain correlates of emotional reactivity are influenced by both current chronic undifferentiated schizophrenia and the severity of past ACEs.
Although human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a notifiable disease in Italy, there is evidence that the actual number of cases is far higher than that notified. A programme for active surveillance of VL in the 14 Italian endemic regions was launched by the Istituto Superiore di Sanità. We report data collected during a 3-year period of active surveillance in Campania, a south Tyrrhenian region covering 4·5% of the Italian territory. Out of 120 clinically suspected cases referred to medical and diagnostic references centres, there were 52 confirmed VL cases (17·3/year), i.e. 10-fold more than previously notified. Most of the infection sites were in rural areas or peripheral districts of towns in hilly parts of Naples province. An epidemic cluster of 10 cases was identified in a microfocus of Caserta province. The biochemical analysis of 23 Leishmania stocks showed a zymodeme composition indicating Campania as an old and well-established focus of VL. The data obtained emphasize that the present notification system for VL in Italy is inadequate.
Given the personal and societal costs associated with acute impairment and enduring post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the mental health response to disasters is an integral component of disaster response planning. The purpose of this paper is to explore the compatibility between cognitive-behavioral psychology and the disaster mental health model, and explicate how cognitivebehavioral perspectives and intervention methods can enhance the effectiveness of disaster mental health services. It is argued that cognitive-behavioral methods, if matched to the contexts of the disaster and the needs of individuals, will improve efforts to prevent the development of PTSD and other trauma-related problems in survivors of disaster or terrorist events. First, the similarities between models of care underlying both disaster mental health services and cognitive-behavioral therapies are described. Second, examples of prior cognitive-behavioral therapy-informed work with persons exposed to disaster and terrorism are provided, potential cognitive-behavioral therapy applications to disaster and terrorism are explored, and implications of cognitive-behavioral therapy for common challenges in disaster mental health is discussed. Finally, steps that can be taken to integrate cognitive-behavioral therapy into disaster mental health are outlined. The aim is to prompt disaster mental health agencies and workers to consider using cognitive-behavioral therapy to improve services and training, and to motivate cognitive-behavioral researchers and practitioners to develop and support disaster mental health response.
Ce3+-doped boro, phospho and borophosphosilicate monolithic glasses (BSG, PSG and BPSG) were prepared by sol-gel method. The inclusion of the glass formers P and B in silica lowered the tendency of rare earth (RE) to segregate as CeO2 with respect to pure SiO2 matrix (SG). In PSG and BPSG, Ce3+ co-ordination to P=O groups was responsible for the inhibition of both CeO2 segregation and oxidation of isolated Ce3+ ions to Ce4+. The better ion dispersion in the host matrix and the stabilization of Ce3+ oxidation state improved PSG and BPSG luminescence properties with respect to BSG and SG.
The reactivity of nanosized Ru(Pd,Pt)-doped SnO2, obtained by sol-gel synthesis, towards NO/Ar was investigated by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR), Mössbauer and Electrical Resistance measurements. A sensing mechanism was proposed that involves (i) the formation of bielectronic oxygen vacancies VO, (ii) their single-ionisation to VO•, which injects electrons to SnO2 conduction band, (iii) the transfer of VO• electrons to the transition metal centers reducing them to lower oxidation states. It was suggested that the electronic exchange between oxide and transition metal is responsible for the enhancement of the reactivity in doped SnO2 with respect to the undoped material.
High-quality YBCO thin films have been grown by Inverted Cylindrical Magnetron Sputtering (ICMS) on LaAlO3(100), SrTiO3(100), SrTiO3(110), and MgO(100) substrates. Transition temperatures of c-axis films exceed 90 K, and transition widths are within 1 K. Critical currents range up to 5 × 106 A/cm2 at 77 K. Structural and morphological features analyzed by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively, are found to be strongly dependent on film orientation and deposition temperature. In order to understand such dependence, a simple interpretation is proposed in terms of Gibbs energies and growth dynamics of the nucleation process.
A statically stable stratified free shear layer was formed within the test section of a wind tunnel by merging two uniform streams of air after uniformly heating the top stream. The two streams were accelerated side by side in a contraction section. The resulting sheared thermocline thickened gradually as a result of molecular diffusion and was characterized by nearly self-similar temperature (odd), velocity (odd) and Richardson number (even) profiles. The minimum Richardson number J0 could be adjusted over the range 0·07 ≥ J0 ≥ 0·76; the Reynolds number Re varied between 30 and 70. Small periodic disturbances were introduced upstream of the test section by a fine wire oscillating in the thermocline. The wire generated a narrow horizontal beam of internal waves, which propagated downstream and remained confined within the thermocline. The growth or decay of these waves was observed in the test section. The results confirm the existence of a critical Richardson number the value of which is in plausible agreement with theoretical predictions (J0 ≅ 0·22 for the Reynolds number of the experiment). The growth rate is a function of the wavenumber and is somewhat different from that computed for the same Reynolds and Richardson numbers, but the calculation assumed velocity and density profiles which were also somewhat different.
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