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Accumulating evidence suggests that positive and negative emotions, as well as emotion regulation, play key roles in human health and disease. Recent work has shown the gut microbiome is important in modulating mental and physical health through the gut–brain axis. Yet, its association with emotions and emotion regulation are understudied. Here we examined whether positive and negative emotions, as well as two emotion regulation strategies (i.e. cognitive reappraisal and suppression), were associated with the gut microbiome composition and functional pathways in healthy women.
Participants were from the Mind-Body Study (N = 206, mean age = 61), a sub-study of the Nurses' Health Study II cohort. In 2013, participants completed measures of emotion-related factors. Two pairs of stool samples were collected, 6 months apart, 3 months after emotion-related factors measures were completed. Analyses examined associations of emotion-related factors with gut microbial diversity, overall microbiome structure, and specific species/pathways and adjusted for relevant covariates.
Alpha diversity was negatively associated with suppression. In multivariate analysis, positive emotions were inversely associated with the relative abundance of Firmicutes bacterium CAG 94 and Ruminococcaceae bacterium D16, while negative emotions were directly correlated with the relative abundance of these same species. At the metabolic pathway level, negative emotions were inversely related to the biosynthesis of pantothenate, coenzyme A, and adenosine.
These findings offer human evidence supporting linkages of emotions and related regulatory processes with the gut microbiome and highlight the importance of incorporating the gut microbiome in our understanding of emotion-related factors and their associations with physical health.
Impactful, transdisciplinary scientific discoveries are created by teams of researchers spanning multiple disciplines, but collaboration across disciplines can be challenging. We examined how team dynamics and collaboration are related to successes and barriers faced by teams of researchers from multiple disciplines.
A mixed-methods approach was used to examine 12 research teams granted multidisciplinary pilot awards. Team members were surveyed to assess their team dynamics and individual views about transdisciplinary research. Forty-seven researchers (59.5%) responded, including two to eight members from each funded team. Associations were examined between collaborative dynamics and scholarly product outcomes, including manuscripts, grant proposals, and awarded grants. One member from each team was selected for an in-depth interview to contextualize and extend information about collaborative processes, successes, and barriers to performing transdisciplinary research.
Quality of team interactions was positively associated with achievement of scholarly products (r = 0.64, p = 0.02). Satisfaction with team members (r = 0.38) and team collaboration scores (r = 0.43) also demonstrated positive associations with achievement of scholarly products, but these were not statistically significant. Qualitative results support these findings and add further insight into aspects of the collaborative process that were particularly important to foster success on multidisciplinary teams. Beyond scholarly metrics, additional successes from the multidisciplinary teams were identified through the qualitative portion of the study including career development and acceleration for early career researchers.
Both the quantitative and qualitative study results indicate that effective collaboration is critical to multidisciplinary research team success. Development and/or promotion of team science-based trainings for researchers would promote these collaborative skills.
We consider the stability of laminar high-Reynolds-number flow through a planar channel formed by a rigid wall and a heavy compliant wall under longitudinal tension with motion resisted by structural damping. Numerical simulations indicate that the baseline state (with Poiseuille flow and a flat wall) exhibits two unstable normal modes: the Tollmien–Schlichting (TS) mode and a surface-based mode which manifests as one of two flow-induced surface instabilities (FISI), known as travelling wave flutter (TWF) and static divergence (SD), respectively. In the absence of wall damping the system is unstable to TWF, where the neutrally stable wavelength becomes shorter as the wall mass increases. With wall damping, TWF is restricted to long wavelengths through interaction with the most unstable centre mode, while for wall damping greater than a critical value the system exhibits an SD mode with a two branch neutral stability curve; the critical conditions along the upper and lower branches are constructed in the limit of large wall damping. We compute the Reynolds–Orr and activation energy descriptions of these neutrally stable FISI by continuing the linear stability analysis to the following order in perturbation amplitude. We find that both FISI are primarily driven by the working of normal stress on the flexible wall, lower-branch SD has negative activation energy, while upper-branch SD approaches zero activation energy in the limit of large wall damping. Finally, we elucidate interaction between TS and TWF modes for large wall mass, resulting in stable islands within unstable regions of parameter space.
Nutrition is a key determinant of bone health and attainment of peak bone mass. Excess oxidative stress induces bone loss while increasing antioxidant capacity promotes protective effects on bone. Nuts are rich in antioxidants; therefore, we tested the hypothesis that compared to a control diet high in fat (40 % energy) and cholesterol, diets containing isocaloric amounts of pistachios (8·1 % g/g) or mixed nuts (7·5 % g/g) for 8 weeks would result in greater bone health in male adolescent (3 weeks; a state of continued skeletal growth) Sprague-Dawley rats. We found no difference in bone mechanical properties among groups. Tibial apparent density was ~5 % higher in the pistachio and mixed nuts groups v. control (P < 0·05) with no clear difference detected for the femur. Expressions of genes known to impact bone turnover and serum bone turnover biomarkers were unaffected by either diet relative to control. Serum antioxidant capacity was ~2-fold higher in the pistachio and mixed nuts groups compared with control (P < 0·05) but were similar between groups. Therefore, pistachios and mixed nuts may increase tibial density, in part, due to increasing antioxidant capacity. Longer dietary interventions may be necessary to elicit detectable changes in other bones (e.g. femur) and to detect potential mechanisms for the possible bone protective effects of nuts.
Reconstructing past climate events relies on the relevant proxies and how they are related. Depending only on such relationships, however, could not be robust because only few proxy observations are usually available at each age. A state-space model employs a prior to make the hidden past climate events correlated with one another so that extreme inferences are precluded. Here, we construct a Gaussian process state-space model for reconstructing past sea surface temperatures from the alkenone paleotemperature proxy and apply the model to nine sediment cores with three different calibration curves and compare the results.
In view of the cooperative guidance problem with time delay, this paper proposes a two-stage time-delay prescribed-time cooperative guidance law in the three-dimensional (3D) space. In the first stage, by introducing a time scaling function and time-delay consensus, the proposed cooperative guidance law can overcome the negative influence of time delay to guaranteed the desired convergence performance. Derived from the Lyapunov convergence analysis, the time-delay stability of the first stage can be ensured and the convergence time can be described as the relationship between delayed time and mission-assigned convergence time. Then, taking the prescribed-time-related convergence time as the switching point, the second stage begins with suitable initial conditions and all interceptors are governed by proportional navigation guidance. Finally, comparative simulations are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed time-delay guidance law.
We investigated whether the one-time application of polymer-coated urea (PCU) before transplanting could simultaneously improve the grain yield and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) of japonica-indica hybrid rice (JIHR) through a field experiment. The local high-yield JIHR cultivar Chunyou-927 was field grown during the rice-growing seasons in 2019 and 2020. The experiment consisted of three treatments: no nitrogen application (0N), application of conventional urea (CU), and the one-time application of PCU. Grain yield was 1.0–1.3 t/ha higher, and agronomic NUE (kg grain yield increase per kg N applied) was 5.2–5.9 kg/kg higher, respectively, under the PCU treatment compared with the CU treatment across the two study years. When compared with the CU treatment, the PCU treatment could (1) improve root morphological trait, (2) reduce redundant vegetative growth during the early growth period, (3) increase matter production during the mid and late growth period, and (4) increase plant activity during the grain-filling period. Overall, our findings indicate that one-time PCU application before transplanting of the JIHR cultivar holds great promise for increasing grain yield and NUE.
Intellectual disability (ID) has been linked to substance use-related problems (SUP). However, previous research is limited by the small sample sizes, lack of general population comparison and have not accounted for familial confoundings. The role of other psychiatric comorbidities also remains unknown.
To examine the risk of SUP in individuals with mild-ID and assess whether the associations depend on other psychiatric comorbidities, controlling for potential familial confounding.
Population-based cohort study of individuals born in Sweden 1973-2003. We identified 19,078 individuals with mild-ID, 953,900 reference individuals from the general population, and 20,722 full-siblings of individuals with mild-ID. Conditional logistic regression models were used to compare individuals with mild-ID to the general population and their full-siblings regarding the risk of SUP, including alcohol and substance use disorders, alcohol and substance-related somatic diseases, substance-related crime, and substance-related death. Analyses were repeated stratified by the presence of psychiatric comorbidities.
Individuals with mild-ID had increased risks of any SUP (adjusted OR [95%CI]: 1.41 [1.35, 1.47]), compared to the general population, including alcohol-related somatic diseases (3.27 [1.92, 5.59]), alcohol (2.05 [1.91, 2.22]) and drug-use disorder (1.79 [1.69, 1.91]), and alcohol (1.36 [1.19, 1.49]) and drug-related crime (1.27 [1.19, 1.36]). The risk of SUP for individuals with mild ID was particularly elevated with comorbid mood (3.74 [3.47, 4.04]), anxiety (3.30 [3.09, 3.53]) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders (2.61 [2.44, 2.80]). Increased risk of SUP remained significant when controlling for familial confounding.
Individuals with mild-ID, especially those with other psychiatric comorbidities, are at increased risks of SUP.
This study assesses governments' long-term non-pharmaceutical interventions upon the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in East Asia. It advances the literature towards a better understanding of when and which control measures are effective. We (1) provide time-varying case fatality ratios and focus on the elderly's mortality and case fatality ratios, (2) measure the correlations between daily new cases (daily new deaths) and each index based on multiple domestic pandemic waves and (3) examine the lead–lag relationship between daily new cases (daily new deaths) and each index via the cross-correlation functions on the pre-whitened series. Our results show that the interventions reduce COVID-19 infections for some periods before the period of the Omicron variant. Moreover, there is no COVID-19 policy lag in Taiwan between daily new confirmed cases and each index. As of March 2022, the case fatality ratios of the elderly group in Japan, Hong Kong and South Korea are 4.69%, 4.72% and 1.48%, respectively, while the case fatality ratio of the elderly group in Taiwan is 25.01%. A government's COVID-19 vaccination distribution and prioritisation policies are pivotal for the elderly group to reduce the number of deaths. Immunising this specific group as best as possible should undoubtedly be a top priority.
The great demographic pressure brings tremendous volume of beef demand. The key to solve this problem is the growth and development of Chinese cattle. In order to find molecular markers conducive to the growth and development of Chinese cattle, sequencing was used to determine the position of copy number variations (CNVs), bioinformatics analysis was used to predict the function of ZNF146 gene, real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used for CNV genotyping and one-way analysis of variance was used for association analysis. The results showed that there exists CNV in Chr 18: 47225201-47229600 (5.0.1 version) of ZNF146 gene through the early sequencing results in the laboratory and predicted ZNF146 gene was expressed in liver, skeletal muscle and breast cells, and was amplified or overexpressed in pancreatic cancer, which promoted the development of tumour through bioinformatics. Therefore, it is predicted that ZNF146 gene affects the proliferation of muscle cells, and then affects the growth and development of cattle. Furthermore, CNV genotyping of ZNF146 gene was three types (deletion type, normal type and duplication type) by Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (qPCR). The association analysis results showed that ZNF146-CNV was significantly correlated with rump length of Qinchuan cattle, hucklebone width of Jiaxian red cattle and heart girth of Yunling cattle. From the above results, ZNF146-CNV had a significant effect on growth traits, which provided an important candidate molecular marker for growth and development of Chinese cattle.
We report the experimental results of the commissioning phase in the 10 PW laser beamline of the Shanghai Superintense Ultrafast Laser Facility (SULF). The peak power reaches 2.4 PW on target without the last amplifying during the experiment. The laser energy of 72 ± 9 J is directed to a focal spot of approximately 6 μm diameter (full width at half maximum) in 30 fs pulse duration, yielding a focused peak intensity around 2.0 × 1021 W/cm2. The first laser-proton acceleration experiment is performed using plain copper and plastic targets. High-energy proton beams with maximum cut-off energy up to 62.5 MeV are achieved using copper foils at the optimum target thickness of 4 μm via target normal sheath acceleration. For plastic targets of tens of nanometers thick, the proton cut-off energy is approximately 20 MeV, showing ring-like or filamented density distributions. These experimental results reflect the capabilities of the SULF-10 PW beamline, for example, both ultrahigh intensity and relatively good beam contrast. Further optimization for these key parameters is underway, where peak laser intensities of 1022–1023 W/cm2 are anticipated to support various experiments on extreme field physics.
The performance of hypersonic vehicles in the take-off stage considerably influences their capability of accomplishing the flight tasks. This study is aimed at enhancing the take-off performance of a cruise aircraft using the improved chimp optimisation algorithm. The proposed algorithm, which uses the Sobol sequence for initial population generation and a function of the weight factors, can effectively overcome the problems of premature convergence and low accuracy of the original algorithm. In particular, the Sobol sequence aims to obtain a better fitness value in the first iteration, and the weight factor aims to accelerate the convergence speed and avoid the local optimal solution. The take-off mass model of the hypersonic vehicle is constructed considering the flight data obtained using the pseudo-spectral method in the climb phase. Simulations are performed to evaluate the algorithm performance, and the results show that the algorithm can rapidly and stably optimise the benchmark function. Compared to the original algorithm, the proposed algorithm requires 28.89% less optimisation time and yields an optimised take-off mass that is 1.72kg smaller.
Posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) are common following traumatic stress exposure (TSE). Identification of individuals with PTSS risk in the early aftermath of TSE is important to enable targeted administration of preventive interventions. In this study, we used baseline survey data from two prospective cohort studies to identify the most influential predictors of substantial PTSS.
Self-identifying black and white American women and men (n = 1546) presenting to one of 16 emergency departments (EDs) within 24 h of motor vehicle collision (MVC) TSE were enrolled. Individuals with substantial PTSS (⩾33, Impact of Events Scale – Revised) 6 months after MVC were identified via follow-up questionnaire. Sociodemographic, pain, general health, event, and psychological/cognitive characteristics were collected in the ED and used in prediction modeling. Ensemble learning methods and Monte Carlo cross-validation were used for feature selection and to determine prediction accuracy. External validation was performed on a hold-out sample (30% of total sample).
Twenty-five percent (n = 394) of individuals reported PTSS 6 months following MVC. Regularized linear regression was the top performing learning method. The top 30 factors together showed good reliability in predicting PTSS in the external sample (Area under the curve = 0.79 ± 0.002). Top predictors included acute pain severity, recovery expectations, socioeconomic status, self-reported race, and psychological symptoms.
These analyses add to a growing literature indicating that influential predictors of PTSS can be identified and risk for future PTSS estimated from characteristics easily available/assessable at the time of ED presentation following TSE.
In times of repeated disaster events, including natural disasters and pandemics, public health workers must recover rapidly to respond to subsequent events. Understanding predictors of time to recovery and developing predictive models of time to recovery can aid planning and management.
We examined 681 public health workers (21-72 y, M(standard deviation [SD]) = 48.25(10.15); 79% female) 1 mo before (T1) and 9 mo after (T2) the 2005 hurricane season. Demographics, trauma history, social support, time to recover from previous hurricane season, and predisaster work productivity were assessed at T1. T2 assessed previous disaster work, initial emotional response, and personal hurricane injury/damage. The primary outcome was time to recover from the most recent hurricane event.
Multivariate analyses found that less support (T1; odds ratio [OR] = .74[95% confidence interval [CI] = .60-.92]), longer previous recovery time (T1; OR = 5.22[95%CI = 3.01-9.08]), lower predisaster work productivity (T1; OR = 1.98[95%CI = 1.08-3.61]), disaster-related personal injury/damage (T2; OR = 3.08[95%CI = 1.70-5.58]), and initial emotional response (T2; OR = 1.71[95%CI = 1.34-2.19]) were associated with longer recovery time (T2).
Recovery time was adversely affected in disaster responders with a history of longer recovery time, personal injury/damage, lower work productivity following prior hurricanes, and initial emotional response, whereas responders with social support had shorter recovery time. Predictors of recovery time should be a focus for disaster preparedness planners.
Background: Despite a higher prevalence of traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI) amongst Canadian Indigenous peoples, there is a paucity of studies focused on Indigenous TSCI. We present the first Canada-wide study comparing TSCI amongst Canadian Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples. Methods: This study is a retrospective analysis of prospectively-collected TSCI data from the Rick Hansen Spinal Cord Injury Registry (RHSCIR) from 2004-2019. We divided participants into Indigenous and non-Indigenous cohorts and compared them with respect to demographics, injury mechanism, level, severity, and outcomes. Results: Compared with non-Indigenous patients, Indigenous patients were younger, more female, less likely to have higher education, and less likely to be employed. The mechanism of injury was more likely due to assault or transportation-related trauma in the Indigenous group. The length of stay for Indigenous patients was longer. Indigenous patients were more likely to be discharged to a rural setting, less likely to be discharged home, and more likely to be unemployed following injury. Conclusions: Our results suggest that more resources need to be dedicated for transitioning Indigenous patients sustaining a TSCI to community living and for supporting these patients in their home communities. A focus on resources and infrastructure for Indigenous patients by engagement with Indigenous communities is needed.
We report on the design and characterization of the plasma mirror system installed on the J-KAREN-P laser at the Kansai Photon Science Institute, National Institutes for Quantum Science and Technology. The reflectivity of the single plasma mirror system exceeded 80%. In addition, the temporal contrast was improved by two orders of magnitude at 1 ps before the main pulse. Furthermore, the laser near-field spatial distribution after the plasma mirror was kept constant at plasma mirror fluence of less than 100 kJ/cm2. We also present the results of investigating the difference and the fluctuation in energy, pulse width and pointing stability with and without the plasma mirror system.