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High-residue cover crops can facilitate organic no-till vegetable production when cover crop biomass production is sufficient to suppress weeds (>8000 kg ha−1), and cash crop growth is not limited by soil temperature, nutrient availability, or cover crop regrowth. In cool climates, however, both cover crop biomass production and soil temperature can be limiting for organic no-till. In addition, successful termination of cover crops can be a challenge, particularly when cover crops are grown as mixtures. We tested whether reusable plastic tarps, an increasingly popular tool for small-scale vegetable farmers, could be used to augment organic no-till cover crop termination and weed suppression. We no-till transplanted cabbage into a winter rye (Secale cereale L.)-hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) cover crop mulch that was terminated with either a roller-crimper alone or a roller-crimper plus black or clear tarps. Tarps were applied for durations of 2, 4 and 5 weeks. Across tarp durations, black tarps increased the mean cabbage head weight by 58% compared with the no tarp treatment. This was likely due to a combination of improved weed suppression and nutrient availability. Although soil nutrients and biological activity were not directly measured, remaining cover crop mulch in the black tarp treatments was reduced by more than 1100 kg ha−1 when tarps were removed compared with clear and no tarp treatments. We interpret this as an indirect measurement of biological activity perhaps accelerated by lower daily soil temperature fluctuations and more constant volumetric water content under black tarps. The edges of both tarp types were held down, rather than buried, but moisture losses from the clear tarps were greater and this may have affected the efficacy of clear tarps. Plastic tarps effectively killed the vetch cover crop, whereas it readily regrew in the crimped but uncovered plots. However, emergence of large and smooth crabgrass (Digitaria spp.) appeared to be enhanced in the clear tarp treatment. Although this experiment was limited to a single site-year in New Hampshire, it shows that use of black tarps can overcome some of the obstacles to implementing cover crop-based no-till vegetable productions in northern climates.
Method of levels (MOL) is an innovative transdiagnostic cognitive therapy with potential advantages over existing psychological treatments for psychosis.
The Next Level study is a feasibility randomised controlled trial (RCT) of MOL for people experiencing first-episode psychosis. It aims to determine the suitability of MOL for further testing in a definitive trial (trial registration ISRCTN13359355).
The study uses a parallel group non-masked feasibilityRCT design with two conditions: (a) treatment as usual (TAU) and (b) TAU plus MOL. Participants (n = 36) were recruited from early intervention in psychosis services. Outcome measures are completed at baseline, 10 and 14 months. The primary outcomes are recruitment and retention.
Participants’ demographic and clinical characteristics are presented along with baseline data.
Next Level has recruited to target, providing evidence that it is feasible to recruit to a RCT of MOL for first-episode psychosis.
Ice types, albedos and impurity content are characterized for the ablation zone of the Greenland ice sheet in Kronprinz Christians Land (80° N, 24° W). Along this ice margin the width of the ablation zone is only about 8 km. The emergence and melting of old ice in the ablation zone creates a surface layer of dust that was originally deposited with snowfall high on the ice sheet. This debris cover is augmented by locally derived wind-blown sediment. Subsequently, the surface dust particles often aggregate together to form centimetre-scale clumps that melt into the ice, creating cryoconite holes. The debris in the cryoconite holes becomes hidden from sunlight, raising the area-averaged albedo relative to surfaces with uniform debris cover. Spectral and broadband albedos were obtained for snow, ice hummocks, debris-covered ice, cryoconite-studded ice and barren tundra surfaces. Broadband ice albedos varied from 0.2 (for ice with heavy loading of uniform debris) to 0.6 (for ice hummocks with cryoconite holes). The cryoconite material itself has albedo 0.1 when wet. Areal distribution of the major surface types was estimated visually from a transect video as a function of distance from the ice edge (330 m a.s.l.). Ablation rates were measured along a transect from the ice margin to the slush zone 8 km from the margin (550 m a.s.l.), traversing both Pleistocene and Holocene ice. Ablation rates in early August averaged 2 cm d−1. Impurity concentrations were typically 4.3 mg L−1 in the subsurface ice. Surface concentrations were about 16 g m−2 on surfaces with low impurity loading, and heavily loaded surfaces had concentrations as high as 1.4 kg m−2. The mineralogical composition of the cryoconite material is comparable with that of the surrounding soils and with dust on a snowdrift in front of the ice margin, implying that much of the material is derived from local sources. A fine mode (clay) is present in the oldest ice but not in the nearby soil, suggesting that its origin is from wind deposition during Pleistocene glaciation.
The northern New England region includes the states of Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine and encompasses a large degree of climate and edaphic variation across a relatively small spatial area, making it ideal for studying climate change impacts on agricultural weed communities. We sampled weed seedbanks and measured soil physical and chemical characteristics on 77 organic farms across the region and analyzed the relationships between weed community parameters and select geographic, climatic, and edaphic variables using multivariate procedures. Temperature-related variables (latitude, longitude, mean maximum and minimum temperature) were the strongest and most consistent correlates with weed seedbank composition. Edaphic variables were, for the most part, relatively weaker and inconsistent correlates with weed seedbanks. Our analyses also indicate that a number of agriculturally important weed species are associated with specific U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones, implying that future changes in climate factors that result in geographic shifts in these zones will likely be accompanied by changes in the composition of weed communities and therefore new management challenges for farmers.
Museum exhibitions possess a long history of serving as useful tools for teaching both paleontology and evolutionary biology to college undergraduates. Yet, they are frequently under-appreciated and underutilized. However, they remain potentially outstanding resources because they can be used to meet a spectrum of learning objectives related to nature of science, real-world relevance, and student interest. Specifically, even small museum displays can provide: 1) authentic specimens, which often are more diverse, of higher quality, and historically more significant than those in teaching collections; 2) specimens in context, with other specimens and/or geological or biological background available; 3) examples of how fossils connect to virtually all of Earth and life sciences (explaining why they have so frequently been at the center of traditional “natural history”); 4) cross-disciplinary experiences, connecting science, art, technology, and history within a social context; and 5) opportunities for students to learn about teaching. A survey of instructor-developed activities performed within a host of natural history museums—with particular attention devoted to the Museum of the Earth, an affiliate of Cornell University—suggests that natural history exhibitions, regardless of size and scope, can complement and strengthen formal education in an undergraduate setting.
Background: The value of clients’ reports of their experiences in therapy is widely recognized, yet quantitative methodology has rarely been used to measure clients’ self-reported perceptions of what is helpful over a single session. Aims: A video-rating method using was developed to gather data at brief intervals using process measures of client perceived experience and standardized measures of working alliance (Session Rating Scale; SRS). Data were collected over the course of a single video-recorded session of cognitive therapy (Method of Levels Therapy; Carey, 2006; Mansell et al., 2012). We examined the acceptability and feasibility of the methodology and tested the concurrent validity of the measure by utilizing theory-led constructs. Method: Eighteen therapy sessions were video-recorded and clients each rated a 20-minute session of therapy at two-minute intervals using repeated measures. A multi-level analysis was used to test for correlations between perceived levels of helpfulness and client process variables. Results: The design proved to be feasible. Concurrent validity was borne out through high correlations between constructs. A multi-level regression examined the independent contributions of client process variables to client perceived helpfulness. Client perceived control (b = 0.39, 95% CI .05 to 0.73), the ability to talk freely (b = 0.30, SE = 0.11, 95% CI .09 to 0.51) and therapist approach (b = 0.31, SE = 0.14, 95% CI .04 to 0.57) predicted client-rated helpfulness. Conclusions: We identify a feasible and acceptable method for studying continuous measures of helpfulness and their psychological correlates during a single therapy session.
A contradiction has existed in the literature as to the conditions favoring formation of “ablation hollows” (“suncups”) on a melting snow surface. Some experiments find that these features grow under direct sunlight and decay in overcast, windy weather; whereas others find just the opposite result, that they grow best under cloudy, windy conditions and decay if exposed to direct sunlight. We find that the hidden variable in past experiments, which acts as a switch to determine which mode of formation can operate, is the absence or abundance of dark insoluble impurities in the snow. Direct sunlight causes ablation hollows to grow in clean snow and to decay in dirty snow (for dirt content below a critical value), because the dirt migrates to the ridges between the hollows, lowering the albedo at the ridges. By contrast, when ablation is dominated by turbulent heat exchange, the presence of dirt favours development of ablation hollows because the dirt migrates to the ridges and insulates them; albedo reduction has a negligible effect on ablation.
This hypothesis is supported by an experiment which showed that the presence of a thin layer of volcanic ash on the snow inhibited formation of ablation hollows under direct sunlight.
Reflection of solar radiation was studied in the seasonal sea-ice zone off East Antarctica on a cruise of the Australian Antarctic Expedition, October-December 1988. Spectral and total albedos were measured for grease ice, nilas, young grey ice, grey-white ice, snow-covered ice, and open water. Spectral measurements covered the region 400–1000 nm wavelength. For ice too thin to support our weight, the radiometers were mounted at the end of a 1.5 m rod extended out the door of a helicopter or from a basket hung from the ship's crane, using a positioning and leveling rack. Corrections had to be applied to the downward radiation flux because the helicopter or the crane was in the field of view of the cosine-collector.
The fractional coverage of each of the ice types (and open water) was estimated hourly for the region near the ship, as well as the thickness of each ice type, and the snow thickness. Observations were carried out continuously during the four weeks the ship was in the ice, supplemented by occasional helicopter surveys covering larger areas. These observations, together with the radiation measurements, make possible the computation of area-average albedo for the East Antarctic sea-ice zone in spring.
To study near-surface heat flow on the Antarctíc ice sheet, snow temperatures were measured at South Pole Station to a depth of 3 m at 15 min intervals during most of 1992. Solar heating and water-vapor transport were negligible during the 6 month Winter, as was inter-grain net thermal radiation, leaving conduction as the dominant heat-transport mechanism. The rate of temperature change at depth over 15 min intervals was smaller than that at the surface, by one order of magnitude at 20 cm depth and two orders of magnitude at 1 m depth. A finite-difference model, with conduction as the only heat-transfer mechanism and measured temperatures as the upper and lower boundary conditions, was applied to foursets of three thermistors each. The thermal conductivity was estimated as that which minimized the difference between modeled and measured 15 min changes in temperatures at the center thermistor. The thermal conductivity obtained at shallow depths (above 40 cm) was lower than that given by existing parameterizations based on density, probably because the snow grains were freshly deposited, cold and poorly bonded. A model using only vertical conduction explains on average 87% ofthe observed 15 min temperature changes at less than 60 cm depth and 92% below 60 cm. The difference between modeled andmeasured temperature changes decreased with depth. The discrepancies between model and observation correlated more strongly with the air-snow temperature difference than with the product of that difference with the square of the wind speed,suggesting that the residual errors are due more to non-vertical conduction and to sub-grid-scale variabilis of the conductivity than to windpumping. The residual heating rate not explained by the model of vertical conduction exceeds 0.2 W m−3 only in the top 60 cm of the near-surface snow.
Observations of temperature maxima at about 10 cm depth in cold Antarctic snow during summer have previously been explained by proposing that solar heating is distributed with depth whereas thermal infrared cooling is localized at the surface (the “solid-state greenhouse”). An increase in temperature from the surface to 10 cm depth (ΔΤ ≈ 4 K) found by Rusin (1961) on the Antarctic Plateau was successfully reproduced by Schlatter (1972) in a combined radiative-transfer and heat-transfer model. However, when we improve the model’s spectral resolution, solving for solar radiative fluxes separately in 118 wavelength bands instead of just one “average” wavelength, ΔΤ shrinks to 0.2 Κ and moves toward the surface, indicating that the solid-state greenhouse is largely an artifact of inadequate spectral resolution. The agreement between Schlatter’s broad-band model and Rusin’s measurement suggests that the measurement is inaccurate, perhaps due to solar heating of the buried thermistors. Similar broad-band models which have been applied to the icy surface of Jupiter’s satellite Europa are also shown to overestimate the solid-state greenhouse by a factor of about 6.
The reason that the solid-state greenhouse effect is insignificant in the case of Antarctic snow is that the wavelengths which do penetrate deeply into snow (visible light) are essentially not absorbed and are scattered back to the surface, whereas the wavelengths that are absorbed by snow (near-infrared) are absorbed in the top few millimeters.
The conditions needed to obtain a significant solid-state greenhouse are examined. The phenomenon becomes important if the scattering coefficient is small (as in blue ice) or if the thermal conductivity is low (as in low-density snow, such as near-surface depth hoar).
We draw attention to studies indicating that phasic arousal increases interference effects in tasks necessitating the recruitment of cognitive control. We suggest that arousal-biased competition models such as GANE (glutamate amplifies noradrenergic effects) may be able to explain these findings by taking into account dynamic, within-trial changes in the relative salience of task-relevant and task-irrelevant features. However, testing this hypothesis requires a computational model.
New radiocarbon calibration curves, IntCal04 and Marine04, have been constructed and internationally ratified to replace the terrestrial and marine components of IntCal98. The new calibration data sets extend an additional 2000 yr, from 0–26 cal kyr BP (Before Present, 0 cal BP = AD 1950), and provide much higher resolution, greater precision, and more detailed structure than IntCal98. For the Marine04 curve, dendrochronologically-dated tree-ring samples, converted with a box diffusion model to marine mixed-layer ages, cover the period from 0–10.5 cal kyr BP. Beyond 10.5 cal kyr BP, high-resolution marine data become available from foraminifera in varved sediments and U/Th-dated corals. The marine records are corrected with site-specific 14C reservoir age information to provide a single global marine mixed-layer calibration from 10.5–26.0 cal kyr BP. A substantial enhancement relative to IntCal98 is the introduction of a random walk model, which takes into account the uncertainty in both the calendar age and the 14C age to calculate the underlying calibration curve (Buck and Blackwell, this issue). The marine data sets and calibration curve for marine samples from the surface mixed layer (Marine04) are discussed here. The tree-ring data sets, sources of uncertainty, and regional offsets are presented in detail in a companion paper by Reimer et al. (this issue).
High-dispersion Copernicus and IUE observations of chromospheric Ly α emission are used to study the distribution of HI in the local interstellar medium. Interstellar parameters are derived toward 3 stars within 5 pc of the sun, and upper limits are given for the Ly a flux from 9 other stars within 10 pc.
We present fast (72ms) spectroscopy of AM Her obtained at an intermediate brightness state just before a rise to a high state. Interesting features in the line behaviour of AM Her are noted and the variability spectrum is presented and compared to that of SS Cyg.
High-quality data from appropriate archives are needed for the continuing improvement of radiocarbon calibration curves. We discuss here the basic assumptions behind 14C dating that necessitate calibration and the relative strengths and weaknesses of archives from which calibration data are obtained. We also highlight the procedures, problems, and uncertainties involved in determining atmospheric and surface ocean 14C/12C in these archives, including a discussion of the various methods used to derive an independent absolute timescale and uncertainty. The types of data required for the current IntCal database and calibration curve model are tabulated with examples.
The IntCal09 and Marine09 radiocarbon calibration curves have been revised utilizing newly available and updated data sets from 14C measurements on tree rings, plant macrofossils, speleothems, corals, and foraminifera. The calibration curves were derived from the data using the random walk model (RWM) used to generate IntCal09 and Marine09, which has been revised to account for additional uncertainties and error structures. The new curves were ratified at the 21st International Radiocarbon conference in July 2012 and are available as Supplemental Material at www.radiocarbon.org. The database can be accessed at http://intcal.qub.ac.uk/intcal13/.
Cover crops represent a potentially important biological filter during weed community assembly in agroecosystems. This filtering could be considered directional if different cover-crop species result in weed communities with predictably different species composition. We examined the following four questions related to the potential filtering effects of cover crops in a field experiment involving five cover crops grown in monoculture and mixture: (1) Do cover crops differ in their effect on weed community composition? (2) Is competition more intense between cover crops and weeds that are in the same family or functional group? (3) Is competition more intense across weed functional types in a cover-crop mixture compared with cover crops grown in monocultures? (4) Within a cover-crop mixture, is a higher seeding rate associated with more effective biotic filtering of the weed community? We found some evidence that cover crops differentially filtered weed communities and that at least some of these filtering effects were due to differential biomass production across cover-crop species. Monocultures of buckwheat and sorghum–sudangrass reduced the number of weed species relative to the no-cover-crop control by an average of 36 and 59% (buckwheat) and 25 and 40% (sorghum–sudangrass) in 2011 and 2012, respectively. We found little evidence that competition intensity was dependent upon the family or functional classification of the cover crop or weeds, or that cover-crop mixtures were stronger assembly filters than the most effective monocultures. Although our results do not suggest that annual cover crops exert strong directional filtering during weed community assembly, our methodological framework for detecting such effects could be applied to similar future studies that incorporate a greater number of cover-crop species and are conducted under a greater range of cover-cropping conditions.