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We developed a tilt sensor for studying ice deformation and installed our tilt sensor systems in two boreholes drilled close to the shear margin of Jarvis Glacier, Alaska to obtain kinematic measurements of streaming ice. We used the collected tilt data to calculate borehole deformation by tracking the orientation of the sensors over time. The sensors' tilts generally trended down-glacier, with an element of cross-glacier flow in the borehole closer to the shear margin. We also evaluated our results against flow dynamic parameters derived from Glen's exponential flow law and explored the parameter space of the stress exponent n and enhancement factor E. Comparison with values from ice deformation experiments shows that the ice on Jarvis is characterized by higher n values than that is expected in regions of low stress, particularly at the shear margin (~3.4). The higher n values could be attributed to the observed high total strains coupled with potential dynamic recrystallization, causing anisotropic development and consequently sped up ice flow. Jarvis' n values place the creep regime of the ice between basal slip and dislocation creep. Tuning E towards a theoretical upper limit of 10 for anisotropic ice with single-maximum fabric reduces the n values by 0.2.
The COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) project is a large international collaborative effort to analyze individual-level phenotype data from twins in multiple cohorts from different environments. The main objective is to study factors that modify genetic and environmental variation of height, body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and size at birth, and additionally to address other research questions such as long-term consequences of birth size. The project started in 2013 and is open to all twin projects in the world having height and weight measures on twins with information on zygosity. Thus far, 54 twin projects from 24 countries have provided individual-level data. The CODATwins database includes 489,981 twin individuals (228,635 complete twin pairs). Since many twin cohorts have collected longitudinal data, there is a total of 1,049,785 height and weight observations. For many cohorts, we also have information on birth weight and length, own smoking behavior and own or parental education. We found that the heritability estimates of height and BMI systematically changed from infancy to old age. Remarkably, only minor differences in the heritability estimates were found across cultural–geographic regions, measurement time and birth cohort for height and BMI. In addition to genetic epidemiological studies, we looked at associations of height and BMI with education, birth weight and smoking status. Within-family analyses examined differences within same-sex and opposite-sex dizygotic twins in birth size and later development. The CODATwins project demonstrates the feasibility and value of international collaboration to address gene-by-exposure interactions that require large sample sizes and address the effects of different exposures across time, geographical regions and socioeconomic status.
X-ray diffraction techniques have been used for the structure characterization of Y-Ba-Cu-O and Tl-Ca-Ba-Cu-O thin films. A powder diffraction analysis of Y-Ba-Cu-O films showed that the films deposited at 650°C on Si are polycrystalline and have an orthorhambic structure similar to that of the YBa2Cu3O7 bulk superconductors. In addition to the conventional powder diffraction technique, both the rocking curve and the grazing incidence diffraction methods were used to characterize a YBa2Cu3O7 film on (110) SrTiO3 substrate. Results showed that the film was epitaxially grown and aligned with its substrate in a true epitaxy. Phase identification and line broadening analyses of Tl-Ca-Ba-Cu-O films showed that the films are comprised of one or more superconducting phases and probably contain stacking faults.
Reciprocal space mapping can be efficiently carried out using a position-sensitive x-ray detector (PSD) coupled to a traditional double-axis diffractometer. The PSD offers parallel measurement of the total scattering angle of all diffracted x-rays during a single rocking-curve scan. As a result, a two-dimensional reciprocal space map can be made in a very short time similar to that of a one-dimensional rocking-curve scan. Fast, efficient reciprocal space mapping offers numerous routine advantages to the x-ray diffraction analyst. Some of these advantages arc the explicit differentiation of lattice strain from crystal orientation effects in strain-relaxed heteroepitaxial layers; the nondestructive characterization of the size, shape and orientation of nanocrystalline domains in ordered-alloy epilayers; and the ability to measure the average size and shape of voids in porous epilayers. Here, the PSD-based diffractometer is described, and specific examples clearly illustrating the advantages of complete reciprocal space analysis are presented.
Immunization data are vital to support responses to vaccine-preventable disease outbreaks. The Oregon Immunization Program developed a unique prototype instrument—the Rapid Response Tool (RRT)—that provides population data to local responders within 2 hours of a request. Data outputs include vaccination coverage by age group and zip code; percentages of students with nonmedical exemptions to vaccination requirements, by school; and current, comprehensive lists of local vaccination providers.
The RRT was demonstrated to staff at 7 Oregon counties and feedback was solicited via comments and a structured survey.
The RRT received strong support. Attendees identified several uses for RRT data, including outbreak response and ongoing intervention efforts, and they pointed to areas for further development.
The success of the RRT demonstrations illustrates that a well-populated immunization information system can contribute to preparedness work well beyond current standards. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:682–685)