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A novel tilt sensor for studying ice deformation: application to streaming ice on Jarvis Glacier, Alaska

  • Ian R. Lee (a1), Robert L. Hawley (a1), Steven Bernsen (a2), Seth W. Campbell (a2), David Clemens-Sewall (a1), Christopher C. Gerbi (a2) and Kate Hruby (a2)...

Abstract

We developed a tilt sensor for studying ice deformation and installed our tilt sensor systems in two boreholes drilled close to the shear margin of Jarvis Glacier, Alaska to obtain kinematic measurements of streaming ice. We used the collected tilt data to calculate borehole deformation by tracking the orientation of the sensors over time. The sensors' tilts generally trended down-glacier, with an element of cross-glacier flow in the borehole closer to the shear margin. We also evaluated our results against flow dynamic parameters derived from Glen's exponential flow law and explored the parameter space of the stress exponent n and enhancement factor E. Comparison with values from ice deformation experiments shows that the ice on Jarvis is characterized by higher n values than that is expected in regions of low stress, particularly at the shear margin (~3.4). The higher n values could be attributed to the observed high total strains coupled with potential dynamic recrystallization, causing anisotropic development and consequently sped up ice flow. Jarvis' n values place the creep regime of the ice between basal slip and dislocation creep. Tuning E towards a theoretical upper limit of 10 for anisotropic ice with single-maximum fabric reduces the n values by 0.2.

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Copyright

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: Ian R. Lee, ilrj@hotmail.com

References

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Keywords

A novel tilt sensor for studying ice deformation: application to streaming ice on Jarvis Glacier, Alaska

  • Ian R. Lee (a1), Robert L. Hawley (a1), Steven Bernsen (a2), Seth W. Campbell (a2), David Clemens-Sewall (a1), Christopher C. Gerbi (a2) and Kate Hruby (a2)...

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