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The current study was undertaken to identify the sources of tolerance to bruchid in cowpea, by screening a set of germplasm accessions as a source for natural resistance. A total of 103 diverse accessions of cowpea were evaluated for resistance to Callosobruchus maculatus Fab. under no-choice artificial infestation conditions. Significant differences among the cowpea accessions were observed for oviposition, adult emergence, exit holes and per cent seed weight loss (PSWL) caused by the bruchid infestation. The accessions showed variation in physical seed parameters viz., colour, shape, testa texture, length, width and seed hardness. Among the seed biochemical parameters studied, per cent sugar content ranged from 0.322 (IC330950) to 1.493 (IC249137), and per cent phenol content ranged from 0.0326 (EC390261) to 1.081 (EC528423). Correlation studies indicated that PSWL had significant positive correlation (r = 0.335) with exit holes, oviposition (r = 0.219), adult emergence (r = 0.534) and seed roundness (r = 0.219). Adult emergence had a significant negative correlation with seed hardness (r = −0.332). Correlation with biochemical parameters indicated that PSWL had a significant positive correlation (r = 0.231) with sugar content and a significant negative correlation with phenol content (r = −0.219). None of the accessions were found to be immune to bruchid infestation. However, out of studied accessions, EC528425 and EC528387 were identified as resistant based on PSWL and moderately resistant based on adult emergence. These resistance sources of cowpea germplasm can be used as potential donors for development of bruchid tolerant/resistant cultivars.
Transitions from Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) to Adult Mental Health Services (AMHS) can often be problematic due to high eligibility thresholds, inconsistent support during transition and limited participation from young people. The TRACK Study highlighted several clinical, organizational and policy related reasons for Services to develop and implement transition protocols effectively.
Aims and objectives
This audit aims to examine whether the Trust's Transitions Policy is adhered to during transitions of young people across services. It also aims to review the qualitative experience of young people and professionals involved.
A Questionnaire Survey method was used to collect quantitative and qualitative data from involved professionals and young people who moved from CAMHS into AMHS (Aug11–Jan12). The data was analyzed against the audit criteria, which relate to specific aspects of the Transitions Policy.
A variable response rate showed that majority of the young people and involved professionals were satisfied with the planning and transfer of care with high policy adherence rates. Young people wished for better communication, more information on the nature of services offered and greater support, while professionals hoped for greater consideration of engagement levels and joint working. Alternative support was requested for declined referrals.
Improved adherence to the Transitions Policy can be achieved through proper planning, better communication, more joint working and regular feedback from young people and professionals. It can also help to achieve higher standards and continuity of clinical care to meet the needs of young people.
There is a lack of pharmacological trials studying drug response in Persistent Delusional Disorder (PDD) to guide clinical practice. Available reviews of retrospective data indicate good response to second-generation antipsychotics, but even such data from India is sparse.
Objectives and aims
We aimed to compare the response of acute PDD to risperidone and olanzapine in our retrospective review.
We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients diagnosed with PDD (ICD-10) from 2000 to 2014 (n = 455) at our Center. We selected the data of patients prescribed either olanzapine or risperidone for the purpose of this analysis. We extracted data about dose, drug compliance and response, adverse effects, number of follow-up visits and hospitalizations. The study was approved by the Institute Ethics Committee.
A total of 280/455 (61%) were prescribed risperidone and 86/455 (19%) olanzapine. The remaining (n = 89; 20%) had received other antipsychotics. The two groups were comparable in socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of PDD. Compliance was good and comparable in both groups (> 80%, P = 0.2). Response to treatment was comparable in both groups (85% partial response and > 52% good response, all P > 0.3). Olanzapine was effective at lower mean chlorpromazine equivalents than risperidone (240 vs. 391, P < 0.05).
Our study indicates a good response to both risperidone and olanzapine, if compliance to treatment can be ensured. In the absence of specific treatment guidelines for PDD, second-generation antipsychotics like risperidone and olanzapine offer good treatment options for this infrequently encountered and difficult to treat psychiatric disorder.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Previous studies have reported depressive symptoms in patients with persistent delusional disorder (PDD). Patients with PDD and depression may need antidepressants for treatment.
The aim of the study was to compare the sociodemographic profile, clinical presentation and treatment response in patients with PDD with and without comorbid depressive symptoms.
We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients diagnosed with PDD (ICD-10) from 2000 to 2014 (n = 455). We divided the patients into PDD + depression (n = 187) and PDD only (n = 268) for analysis.
Of the 187 patients with PDD + D, only eighteen (3.9%) were diagnosed with syndromal depression. There were no significant differences in sociodemographic profile including sex, marital and socioeconomic status (all P > 0.05). PDD + D group had a significantly younger age at onset ([PDD + D: 30.6 9.2 years vs. PDD: 33.5 11.1 years]; t = 2.9, P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the clinical presentation including mode of onset, the main theme of their delusion and secondary delusions (all P > 0.3). However, comorbid substance dependence was significantly higher in patients with PDD only. (χ2 = 5.3, P = 0.02). In terms of treatment, response to antipsychotics was also comparable ([> 75% response: PDD + D = 77/142 vs. PDD = 106/179); χ2 = 1.9, P = 0.3). There was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of antidepressant treatment ([PDD + D = 32/187; 17% vs PDD: 17/268; 6%), χ2 = 12.9, P = 0.001).
Patients with PDD + D had significantly earlier onset of illness. These patients may require antidepressants for treatment.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The process of high energy electron acceleration along the surface of grating targets (GTs) that were irradiated by a relativistic, high-contrast laser pulse at an intensity
was studied. Our experimental results demonstrate that for a GT with a periodicity twice the laser wavelength, the surface electron flux is more intense for a laser incidence angle that is larger compared to the resonance angle predicted by the linear model. An electron beam with a peak charge of
, for electrons with energies
, was measured. Numerical simulations carried out with parameters similar to the experimental conditions also show an enhanced electron flux at higher incidence angles depending on the preplasma scale length. A theoretical model that includes ponderomotive effects with more realistic initial preplasma conditions suggests that the laser-driven intensity and preformed plasma scale length are important for the acceleration process. The predictions closely match the experimental and computational results.
With the latest configuration, the Ti:Sa laser system ARCTURUS (Düsseldorf University, Germany) operates with a double-chirped pulse amplification (CPA) architecture delivering pulses with an energy of 7 J before compression in each of the two high-power beams. By the implementation of a plasma mirror system, the intrinsic laser contrast is enhanced up to
on a time scale of hundreds of picoseconds, before the main peak. The laser system has been used in various configurations for advanced experiments and different studies have been carried out employing the high-power laser beams as a single, high-intensity interaction beam (
), in dual- and multi-beam configurations or in a pump–probe arrangement.
This study examined the effectiveness of a formal postdoctoral education program designed to teach skills in clinical and translational science, using scholar publication rates as a measure of research productivity.
Participants included 70 clinical fellows who were admitted to a master’s or certificate training program in clinical and translational science from 1999 to 2015 and 70 matched control peers. The primary outcomes were the number of publications 5 years post-fellowship matriculation and time to publishing 15 peer-reviewed manuscripts post-matriculation.
Clinical and translational science program graduates published significantly more peer-reviewed manuscripts at 5 years post-matriculation (median 8 vs 5, p=0.041) and had a faster time to publication of 15 peer-reviewed manuscripts (matched hazard ratio = 2.91, p=0.002). Additionally, program graduates’ publications yielded a significantly higher average H-index (11 vs. 7, p=0.013).
These findings support the effectiveness of formal training programs in clinical and translational science by increasing academic productivity.
We investigated risk factors for severe acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) among hospitalised children <2 years, with a focus on the interactions between virus and age. Statistical interactions between age and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza, adenovirus (ADV) and rhinovirus on the risk of ALRI outcomes were investigated. Of 1780 hospitalisations, 228 (12.8%) were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). The median (range) length of stay (LOS) in hospital was 3 (1–27) days. An increase of 1 month of age was associated with a decreased risk of ICU admission (rate ratio (RR) 0.94; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.91–0.98) and with a decrease in LOS (RR 0.96; 95% CI 0.95–0.97). Associations between RSV, influenza, ADV positivity and ICU admission and LOS were significantly modified by age. Children <5 months old were at the highest risk from RSV-associated severe outcomes, while children >8 months were at greater risk from influenza-associated ICU admissions and long hospital stay. Children with ADV had increased LOS across all ages. In the first 2 years of life, the effects of different viruses on ALRI severity varies with age. Our findings help to identify specific ages that would most benefit from virus-specific interventions such as vaccines and antivirals.
Measurement of Excitation Functions and their Analysis
In the introductory part of this monograph, it has already been mentioned that various interesting phenomena are associated with heavy ion interactions; they have attracted the attention of many researchers during the last couple of decades. In heavy ion reactions, when the projectile energy is more than the Coulomb barrier, the fusion of incident ion and target nucleus is the most likely process. The composite nucleus so formed is excited and is likely to decay initially via particle emission; when the excitation energy decreases, it decays by emitting gamma radiations. Such reactions in which the projectile completely fuses with the target nucleus are referred to as the complete fusion (CF) reactions, as already mentioned in earlier chapters. These complete fusion reactions are dominant at energies slightly above the Coulomb barrier. On the other hand, at considerably higher energies, the interaction between the incident and the target heavy ions proceeds in a different way; only a part of the incident ion fuses with the target nucleus while the remaining unfused part moves on without any interaction. This is referred to as incomplete fusion (ICF), which is likely to dominate at considerably higher incident energies. However, in recent years, it has been observed that incident ions such as 12C and 16O that have an alpha cluster structure exhibit a significant contribution of incomplete fusion (ICF) even at low energies where the CF is expected to dominate. Further, in some recent experiments where non-alpha cluster beams like 19F were used, significant contributions by ICF were observed. With the objective to study the dynamics of complete and incomplete fusion reactions in heavy ion interactions in a variety of projectile–target combinations, several experiments have been carried out using both alpha cluster as well as non-alpha cluster projectiles. Since a direct evidence of incomplete fusion may be obtained from the measurement of the excitation function of a specific reaction channel, excitation functions for a large number of reaction channels have been measured using the stacked foil activation technique. Table 4.1 lists the systems for which excitation functions have been measured, along with the energy range of study and the height of the Coulomb barrier for each system. The specified energy range covers from near the Coulomb barrier to well above it for each system.
The study of incomplete fusion (ICF) reactions in heavy ion (HI) interactions at energies below 10 MeV per nucleon is a topic of resurgent interest. At such low energies, near and/or just above the fusion barrier, the complete fusion (CF) of the interacting ions is expected to be the most dominant process; however, experiments carried out during the last decade or so have indicated that a significant part of the interaction proceeds through ICF process. Some theories have been proposed to explain the process of incomplete fusion but none of them could successfully reproduce the experimental data at energies < 10 MeV/A. In order to understand the dynamics of such low energy ICF processes and to develop a viable theoretical frame work, our group carried out extensive and complementary experiments on the topic during the last decade or so. The monograph presents the details of these experiments and the analysis of the data.
The presentation has five chapters; Chapter-1 gives a historical background of the subject and discusses the motivation for the work. Chapter-2, entitled ‘Theoretical Tools, Reaction Mechanism and Computer Codes’ is intended to develop a sound theoretical background of the subject. Important features of computer codes available in the market for theoretical simulation are discussed in this chapter. All experimental details, including the methodology, experimental setups, formulations used for data reduction etc., are given in Chapter-3. The Chapter-4, entitled ‘Measurements’ contains the details of the measurements of Excitation Functions (EFs), Recoil Range Distributions (RRDs), Angular Distributions (ADs), Spin Distributions (SDs) and Feeding Intensity Profiles (FIPs) of reaction residues. Each measurement is discussed in detail and the recorded experimental data is presented both in tabular form as well as in graphical form. Chapter-5, is ‘Results and Conclusions’ which provides a detailed discussion of the results obtained from the critical analysis and evaluation of the data obtained in the present set of experiments. Conclusions regarding the dependence of ICF component on various entrance channel parameters, presented in this chapter may be of considerable value in developing a theoretical frame work for HI reactions at energies below 10 MeV per nucleon. The experiments detailed in this document were carried out by our research group at the Physics Department, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India, in collaboration with members of the Nuclear Physics Group of the Inter University Accelerator Centre (IUAC), New Delhi, India.
Though the concept of the nucleus and the subsequent evolution of nuclear physics are credited to Rutherford, the earlier discovery of radioactivity by A. Henri Becquerel, Pierre and Marie Curie (1896–1898) played the most crucial role in these developments. The discovery of radioactivity opened up the way to new techniques of exploring subatomic systems – for example, by bombarding them with fast moving charged particles, a technique which is still in use, and used more vigorously now, even after hundred years.
In 1898, Pierre and Marie Curie succeeded in isolating significant amounts of two new elements from pitchblende, a uranium ore. They named the two elements polonium and radium. These new elements were found to undergo spontaneous self-destruction by emitting mysterious radiations. Passing of the collimated beam of these radiations through electric and magnetic fields revealed that they are made up of three components: negatively charged components, called beta particles; neutral components of electromagnetic waves of very short wavelength or gamma rays and a third component of positively charged particles. The negatively charged beta particles were identified as electrons, while the Curies established that the positively charged particles were doubly-ionized helium atoms, called alpha particles. The average kinetic energies of these alpha particles, beta particles and neutral gamma rays had different values for different radioactive sources. Radium and polonium, the two natural radioactive sources, emit alpha particles of energies in the range of 5 to 7 MeV. Rutherford, in his famous alpha scattering experiments, actually carried out by Geiger and Marsden, bombarded thin metallic foils by a collimated beam of alpha particles obtained from radium. In these experiments, it was observed that, on an average, one to five alpha particles out of about 20,000 particles, get scattered by more than 90°. Rutherford concluded that this is possible only if the target atoms have very small volumes at their centres where total positive charge and almost all mass of the atom are concentrated. Rutherford named this small volume as the nucleus of the atom, a term he borrowed from biological science. The layout of the experimental setup used by Rutherford is shown in Figure 1.1. The alpha particle source (radium) was kept in a lead box with a small hole to get the collimated beam.