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The aim of the study was to assess the inflammatory potential of the Brazilian population’s diet and its association with demographic, socio-economic and anthropometric characteristics. A cross-sectional study was performed with 34 003 individuals aged 10 years and older, evaluated by the National Diet and Nutrition Survey from the Consumer Expenditure Survey (POF 2008–2009). The Energy-adjusted Dietary Inflammatory Index (E-DII™) was determined using thirty-four dietary parameters calculated through non-consecutive 2-d dietary records. Positive scores indicate a pro-inflammatory diet, while negative scores indicate an anti-inflammatory diet. A bivariate and multivariate linear regression analysis based on a hierarchical theoretical model was performed to verify the factors associated with the E-DII. The mean of the E-DII was 1·04 (range of −4·77 to +5·98). The highest values of the pro-inflammatory E-DII were found among adolescents (1·42; P < 0·001) and individuals with higher income (1·10; P < 0·001) and level of education (1·18; P < 0·001). In the final model, the E-DII was associated with higher income quartiles and was higher in the Northeast and South regions, in white people, individuals with ≥9 years of education and adults and adolescents age group. The Brazilian population consumes a diet with high inflammatory potential, especially adolescents, white people and those with higher income and level of education. Thus, the index presented uneven distribution among the population, emphasising groups with higher dietary inflammatory potential. The socio-economic risk profile of a diet with higher inflammatory potential in medium-income countries is different from what is observed in high-income nations.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Cactus (Opuntia spp) levels in total mixed ration silages based on Cactus and Gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Steud) on the fermentation profile, microbial populations, aerobic stability and taxonomic diversity. The completely randomized design was used in a 4 × 4 factorial design with four replications, being four rations with different levels of Cactus (15, 30, 45, 60% based on the dry matter) and four opening periods (0, 15, 30 and 60 days of fermentation). An interaction effect (P < 0.050) was observed among the diets and opening times for mould and yeast populations. An interaction effect for the levels of acetic acid was observed, where the diets 15, 30, 45 and 60% showed higher values at 60 days (0.44, 0.41, 0.35 and 0.40 g/kg DM, respectively). A significant difference was observed for the richness and diversity index (Chao1 and Shannon). The most abundant bacterial phyla were Proteobacteria and Firmicutes and the genera Lactobacillus and Weissella. Cactus can be added in total mixed ration silages up to the level of 60% in a way that it positively affects the qualitative indicators of the silages, modulating the taxonomic communities and allowing the predominance of important groups for preservation of the ensiled mass.
This is a cross-sectional analysis of data obtained in the baseline of the Longitudinal Study on the Lifestyle and Health of University Students (n 685) carried out in a public Brazilian university. Food intake was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Dietary patterns (DP) for breakfast, lunch and dinner were identified using principal component analysis. Generalised linear models were used to analyse the variables associated with each DP. Three DP were extracted for each meal: breakfast: ‘White bread and butter/margarine’, ‘Coffee and tea’ and ‘Sausages, whole wheat bread and cheese’; lunch: ‘Traditional’, ‘Western’ and ‘Vegetarian’ and dinner: ‘Beans, rice and processed juice’, ‘White bread and butter/margarine’ and ‘White meat, eggs and natural juice’. Students who had meals at the campus showed greater adherence to the ‘White bread and butter/margarine’ (exp (βadj) = 1·15, 95 % CI 1·11, 1·19) and ‘Coffee and tea’ (exp (βadj) = 1·06, 95 % CI 1·02, 1·10) breakfast patterns; ‘Western’ lunch pattern (exp (βadj) = 1·04, 95 % CI 1·01, 1·08) and to the ‘Beans, rice and processed juice’ dinner pattern (exp (βadj) = 1·10, 95 % CI 1·06, 1·14). Having meals at the campus was associated with lower adherence to the ‘Sausages, whole wheat bread and cheese’ breakfast pattern (exp (βadj) = 0·93, 95 % CI 0·89, 0·97), ‘Traditional’ lunch pattern (exp (βadj) = 0·96, 95 % CI 0·93, 0·99) and to the ‘White bread and butter/margarine’ (exp (βadj) = 0·96, 95 % CI 0·93, 0·99) and ‘White meat, eggs and natural juice’ (exp (βadj) = 0·96, 95 % CI 0·93, 0·99) dinner pattern. The food environment at campus may influence students’ DP. Recognising meal eating patterns is important to support healthy eating promotion strategies on campus. Adjustments in the University Canteen menu could contribute to healthier eating choices among students.
To compare diet quality and its association with excess body weight (EBW: overweight/obesity), central adiposity (CA) and CVD risk factors (CVDR) among adolescents from Brazil and USA.
Data from two cross-sectional surveys: Health Survey of São Paulo (ISA-Nutrition) and Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latino Youth (SOL-Youth). Dietary intake was assessed from 24-h recalls, and diet quality using the Alternate Healthy Eating Index-2010 (AHEI) developed in the USA and the Revised Brazilian Healthy Eating Index (BHEI-R). CVDR was defined as ≥3 of: obesity, elevated blood pressure, dyslipidaemia, high plasma glucose and insulin resistance. Adjusted OR for EBW, CA and CVDR by diet quality were tested using logistic regression.
São Paulo, Brazil; and Chicago, IL; Miami, FL; Bronx, NY; San Diego, CA.
Adolescents (12–16 years) living in São Paulo (n 189) and USA (n 787).
ISA-Nutrition individuals with EBW (v. without) had marginally lower (unhealthier) scores for whole grains using BHEI-R and sugary beverages using AHEI. SOL-Youth individuals with EBW had lower scores of nuts/legumes using AHEI, and Na using BHEI-R, but higher scores of whole grains and dairy using BHEI-R. In ISA-Nutrition, BHEI-R was inversely associated with EBW (OR = 0·87; 95 % CI 0·80, 0·95) and CVDR (OR = 0·89; 95 % CI 0·80, 0·98). In SOL-Youth, AHEI was inversely associated with EBW (OR = 0·93; 95 % CI 0·87, 0·99).
Dietary improvements should be made by adolescents in both USA and Brazil. Healthier diet quality as measured with the country-specific index was associated with lower odds of EBW in Brazilian and USA-Hispanic/Latino adolescents, and with lower CVDR in Brazilian adolescents.
Pelagic seabird populations have declined strongly worldwide. In the North Atlantic there was a huge reduction in seabird populations following the European colonization of the Azores, Madeira and Canary archipelagos but information on seabird status and distribution for the subtropical region of Cabo Verde is scarce, unavailable or dispersed in grey literature. We compiled and compared the historical and current distribution of all seabird species breeding in the Cabo Verde archipelago, updated their relative abundance, investigated their inland habitat preferences, and reviewed their threats. Currently, the breeding seabird community in Cabo Verde is composed of Bulwer’s Petrel Bulweria bulwerii, White-faced Storm-petrel Pelagodroma marina aedesorum, Cape Verde Shearwater Calonectris edwardsii, Cape Verde Storm-petrel Hydrobates jabejabe, Cape Verde Petrel Pterodroma feae, Boyd's Shearwater Puffinus lherminieri boydi, Brown Booby Sula leucogaster, and Red-billed Tropicbird Phaethon aethereus. One breeding species is currently extinct, the Magnificent Frigatebird Fregata magnificens. The relative abundance of Cape Verde Shearwater, Boyd’s Shearwater, Cape Verde Petrel, and Cape Verde Storm-petrel was determined from counts of their nocturnal calls in Santo Antão, São Vicente, Santa Luzia, Branco, Raso and São Nicolau. Cape Verde Petrel occurred only on mountainous islands (Santo Antão, São Nicolau, Santiago, and Fogo) from mid-to high elevations. Larger species such as the Cape Verde Shearwater and Boyd’s Shearwater exhibited a wider distribution in the archipelago, occurring close to the coastline but at lower densities on populated islands. Small procellariforms such as the Cape Verde Storm-petrel occurred at high densities only on rat-free islets and in steep areas of main islands where introduced cats and rats are unlikely to occur. The main threats to seabird populations in Cabo Verde range from predation by introduced predators, habitat alteration or destruction, and some residual human persecution.
To provide comprehensive information on the epidemiology and burden of respiratory syncytial virus hospitalisation (RSVH) in preterm infants, a pooled analysis was undertaken of seven multicentre, prospective, observational studies from across the Northern Hemisphere (2000–2014). Data from all 320–356 weeks' gestational age (wGA) infants without comorbidity were analysed. RSVH occurred in 534/14 504 (3.7%) infants; equating to a rate of 5.65 per 100 patient-seasons, with the rate in individual wGA groups dependent upon exposure time (P = 0.032). Most RSVHs (60.1%) occurred in December–January. Median age at RSVH was 88 days (interquartile range (IQR): 54–159). Respiratory support was required by 82.0% of infants: oxygen in 70.4% (median 4 (IQR: 2–6) days); non-invasive ventilation in 19.3% (median 3 (IQR: 2–5) days); and mechanical ventilation in 10.2% (median 5 (IQR: 3–7) days). Intensive care unit admission was required by 17.9% of infants (median 6 days (IQR: 2–8) days). Median overall hospital length of stay (LOS) was 5 (IQR: 3–8) days. Hospital resource use was similar across wGA groups except for overall LOS, which was shortest in those born 35 wGA (median 3 vs. 4–6 days for 32–34 wGA; P < 0.001). Strategies to reduce the burden of RSVH in otherwise healthy 32–35 wGA infants are indicated.
Accurate estimates of methane (CH4) production by cattle in different contexts are essential to developing mitigation strategies in different regions. We aimed to: (i) compile a database of CH4 emissions from Brazilian cattle studies, (ii) evaluate prediction precision and accuracy of extant proposed equations for cattle and (iii) develop specialized equations for predicting CH4 emissions from cattle in tropical conditions. Data of nutrient intake, diet composition and CH4 emissions were compiled from in vivo studies using open-circuit respiratory chambers, SF6 technique or the GreenFeed® system. A final dataset containing intake, diet composition, digestibility and CH4 emissions (677 individual animal observations, 40 treatment means) obtained from 38 studies conducted in Brazil was used. The dataset was divided into three groups: all animals (GEN), lactating dairy cows (LAC) and growing cattle and non-lactating dairy cows (GCNL). A total of 54 prediction equations available in the literature were evaluated. A total of 96 multiple linear models were developed for predicting CH4 production (MJ/day). The predictor variables were DM intake (DMI), gross energy (GE) intake, BW, DMI as proportion of BW, NDF concentration, ether extract (EE) concentration, dietary proportion of concentrate and GE digestibility. Model selection criteria were significance (P < 0.05) and variance inflation factor lower than three for all predictors. Each model performance was evaluated by leave-one-out cross-validation. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2006) Tier 2 method performed better for GEN and GCNL than LAC and overpredicted CH4 production for all datasets. Increasing complexity of the newly developed models resulted in greater performance. The GCNL had a greater number of equations with expanded possibilities to correct for diet characteristics such as EE and NDF concentrations and dietary proportion of concentrate. For the LAC dataset, equations based on intake and animal characteristics were developed. The equations developed in the present study can be useful for accurate and precise estimation of CH4 emissions from cattle in tropical conditions. These equations could improve accuracy of greenhouse gas inventories for tropical countries. The results provide a better understanding of the dietary and animal characteristics that influence the production of enteric CH4 in tropical production systems.
Chagas disease (CD) is a neglected disease and endemic in Brazil. In the Brazilian Northeast Region, it affects millions of people. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the spatiotemporal trends of CD mortality in the Northeast of Brazil. This ecological study was designed, in which the unit of analysis was the municipality of the Brazilian northeast. The data source was the Information System of Mortality. It was calculated relative risk from socioeconomic characteristics. Mortality rates were smoothed by the Local Empirical Bayes method. Spatial dependency was analysed by the Global and Local Moran Index. Scan spatial statistics were also used. A total of 11 287 deaths by CD were notified in the study. An expressive parcel of this number was observed among 70-year-olds or more (n = 4381; 38.8%), no schooling (n = 4381; 38.8%), mixed-race (n = 4381; 62.3%), male (n = 6875; 60.9%). It was observed positive spatial autocorrelation, mostly in municipalities of the state of Bahia, Piauí (with high-high clusters), and Maranhão (with low-low clusters). The spatial scan statistics has presented a risk of mortality in 24 purely spatial clusters (P < 0.05). The study has identified the spatial pattern of CD mortality mostly in Bahia and Piauí, highlighting priority areas in planning and control strategies of the health services.
This study aims to identify the risk factors associated with mortality and survival of COVID-19 cases in a state of the Brazilian Northeast. It is a historical cohort with a secondary database of 2070 people that presented flu-like symptoms, sought health assistance in the state and tested positive to COVID-19 until 14 April 2020, only moderate and severe cases were hospitalised. The main outcome was death as a binary variable (yes/no). It also investigated the main factors related to mortality and survival of the disease. Time since the beginning of symptoms until death/end of the survey (14 April 2020) was the time variable of this study. Mortality was analysed by robust Poisson regression, and survival by Kaplan–Meier and Cox regression. From the 2070 people that tested positive to COVID-19, 131 (6.3%) died and 1939 (93.7%) survived, the overall survival probability was 87.7% from the 24th day of infection. Mortality was enhanced by the variables: elderly (HR 3.6; 95% CI 2.3–5.8; P < 0.001), neurological diseases (HR 3.9; 95% CI 1.9–7.8; P < 0.001), pneumopathies (HR 2.6; 95% CI 1.4–4.7; P < 0.001) and cardiovascular diseases (HR 8.9; 95% CI 5.4–14.5; P < 0.001). In conclusion, mortality by COVID-19 in Ceará is similar to countries with a large number of cases of the disease, although deaths occur later. Elderly people and comorbidities presented a greater risk of death.
The energy content of finishing diets offered to feedlot cattle may vary across countries. We assumed that the lower is the energy content of the finishing diet, the shorter can be the adaptation period to high-concentrate diets without negatively impacting rumen health while still improving feedlot performance. This study was designed to determine the effects of adaptation periods of 6, 9, 14 and 21 days on feedlot performance, feeding behaviour, blood gas profile, carcass characteristics and rumen morphometrics of Nellore cattle. The experiment was designed as a completely randomised block, replicated 6 times, in which 96 20-month-old yearling Nellore bulls (391.1 ± 30.9 kg) were fed in 24 pens (4 animals/pen) according to the adaptation period adopted: 6, 9, 14 or 21 days. The adaptation diets contained 70%, 75% and 80.5% concentrate, and the finishing diet contained 86% concentrate. After adaptation, one animal per pen was slaughtered (n = 24) for rumen morphometric evaluations and the remaining 72 animals were harvested after 88 days on feed. Orthogonal contrasts were used to assess linear, quadratic and cubic relationships between days of adaptation and the dependent variable. Overall, as days of adaptation increased, final BW (P = 0.06), average daily gain (ADG) (P = 0.07), hot carcass weight (P = 0.04) and gain to feed ratio (G : F) (P = 0.07) were affected quadratically, in which yearling bulls adapted by 14 days presented greater final BW, ADG, hot carcass weight and improved G : F. No significant (P > 0.10) days of adaptation effect was observed for any of feeding behaviour variables. As days of adaptation increased, the absorptive surface area of the rumen was affected cubically, where yearling bulls adapted by 14 days presented greater absorptive surface area (P = 0.03). Thus, Nellore yearling bulls should be adapted by 14 days because it led to improved feedlot performance and greater development of rumen epithelium without increasing rumenitis scores.
Inga vera subsp. affinis (Fabaceae) is a tree species native to riparian forests in Southeast Brazil and is key for the restoration of deforested areas. The species produce seeds that are highly recalcitrant. Extreme sensitivity to desiccation as well as vivipary are commonly observed in mature seeds, which also tend towards polyembryony. Past research has shown that typical strategies to store seeds are inapplicable to Inga vera as viability is completely lost when seeds are either dried to around 28% water content (wet basis) or stored at 5°C for a few weeks. Here, we examine the feasibility of storing the seeds under hydrated conditions but at reduced water potential. Freshly collected seeds were kept under conventional storage conditions (plastic bags in cold chamber, 5°C) and in polyethylene glycol (PEG) solutions (−1.6 and −2.4 MPa) at 10°C. Seed germination was assessed after various intervals of time, until all seeds had lost viability. Before storage, seeds attained 100% germination and produced an average of 1.8 normal seedlings per seed (due to polyembryony). Storage in PEG at −1.6 MPa maintained 90% germination (radicle protrusion) and one normal seedling per seed on average for more than 200 d. Osmotic storage likely slowed down metabolism within the seed and hence consumption of food reserves. The storage time achieved has practical applications for in situ restoration, but cannot address ex situ germplasm conservation. Extending shelf life for an additional 6 months allows tree nurseries to optimize the production of seedlings so that they can be planted during the wet season.
Remarkable increases in the production of dairy animals have negatively impacted their tolerance to heat stress (HS). The evaluation of the effect of HS on milk yield is based on the direct impact of HS on performance. However, in practical terms, HS also exerts its influence during gestation (indirect effect). The main purpose of this study was to identify and characterize the genotype by environment interaction (G × E) due to HS during the last 60 days of gestation (THI_g) and also the HS postpartum (THI_m) over first lactation milk production of Brazilian Holstein cattle. A total of 389 127 test day milk yield (TD) records from 1572 first lactation Holstein cows born in Brazil (daughters of 1248 dams and 70 sires) and the corresponding temperature–humidity index (THI) obtained between December 2007 and January 2013 were analyzed using different random regression models. Cows in the cold environment (THI_g = 64 to 73) during the last 60 days of gestation produced more milk than those cows in a hot environment (THI_g = 74 to 84), particularly during the first 150 days of lactation (DIM). The heritabilities (h2) of TD were similar throughout DIM for cows in THI_g hot (0.11 to 0.20) or (0.10 to 0.22), while the genetic correlations (rg) for TD between these two environments ranged from 0.11 to 0.52 along the first 250 DIM. The h2 estimates for TD across THI_m were similar for cows in THI_g hot (0.07 to 0.25) and THI_g cold (0.08 to 0.19). The rg estimates ranged from 0.17 to 0.42 along THI_m between TD of cows in cold and hot THI_g. The results were consistent in demonstrating the existence of an additional source of G × E for TD due to THI_g and THI_m. The present study is probably the first to provide evidence of this source of G × E; further research is needed because of its importance when the breeding objective is to select animals that are more tolerant to HS.
This research communication describes the influence of diet, mammary quarter position and milking process on the temperature of teats and udder of cows fed diets containing different lipid sources. Five primiparous cows were fed diets containing cottonseed, sunflower seed, soybeans or soybean oil as a source of lipids and a reference diet without the inclusion of lipid sources in a 5 × 5 Latin Square design. Milk yield was determined in the last five days of each period. Milk samples were collected for SCC analysis on the last two days of each experimental period. The images of the mammary gland were obtained using an infrared camera and were analyzed with appropriate computer software. Milk yield was 14.8% higher for cows fed soybeans as a source of lipids. Diets and somatic cell counts did not influence the temperature of teats and udder. The milking process reduced the temperature of teats and udder by 0.79°C. Rear teats and rear quarters had higher surface temperatures than front teats and fore quarters. Changes in temperature of teats and mammary quarters occurred as a function of the milking process and quarter position. However, the diet and the SCC did not influence the temperature of teats and mammary quarters in this experiment.
To evaluate the surgical techniques, approaches, audiological outcomes and complications of endoscopic stapes surgery.
Systematic searches of the literature were performed in PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus databases, to identify studies of patients who underwent stapes surgery using endoscopic approaches and studies reporting objective post-operative hearing outcomes. The following information was extracted: surgery duration, complications, surgical technique and audiometric results.
Fourteen studies were selected for appraisal, which included a total of 282 ears subjected to endoscopic stapes surgery. Endoscopic stapes surgery seems to provide adequate visualisation of the middle-ear structures, thereby allowing less invasive surgery and potentially equivalent audiological outcomes as compared with a traditional microscopic approach. Other advantages of endoscopic stapes surgery include decreased surgery time, a reduced need for drilling, and auditory results comparable to those of microscopic techniques.
Studies have shown that endoscopic stapes surgery has similar surgical and functional advantages as compared with microscopic surgery.
Clinical history, neuroimaging and lab investigations, and neuropsychological assessments.
A 66-year-old married man was admitted to an Old Age psychiatric ward presenting with a two-year history of desinhibited behaviour, hetero-aggression and a gradual loss of his ability cope with activities of daily living. His Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) score was 20/30 on admission. The symptoms described above raised the working diagnosis of a frontotemporal dementia. Computerized axial tomography was normal. Laboratory and additional examinations were performed. Serological tests for syphilis were positive for both the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test (VDRL) and Treponema pallidum hemaglutination test (TPHA). Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) revealed a positive VDRL (cytology: 2 erythrocytes/μl, 30 leucocytes/μl with 24 mononuclear cells/ μl). Additional tests including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) test were negative. Based on these findings the patient was treated for neurosyphilis according to the IUSTI 2008 European Guidelines on the management of Syphilis: Benzyl penicillin 18 million units i.v. daily, as 3 million units every four hours during 21 days. Two months later, he scored 28/30 at the MMSE but showing only slight improvement at the executive function battery.
Neurosyphilis remains a differential diagnosis for a wide variety of psychiatric syndromes, including dementia. However, the incidence of neurosyphilis presenting initially with frontotemporal impairment is unclear. High-risk groups such as patients with neuropsychiatric diseases should be routinely screened with serological tests in order to prevent morbidity and help to eliminate syphilis.
Bipolar disorder (BPD) and alcoholism are strongly comorbid and both have significant genetic influences but no consistent genetic vulnerability has been found. We aimed to find bipolar-alcoholism vulnerability genes.
A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 510 patients with bipolar disorder (BPD), of whom 143 met Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) alcoholism diagnoses, and 506 ancestrally matched supernormal controls. We genotyped 372K genetic markers on an Affymetrix 500K-array. Chi-square analysis of allelic association using PLINK, and permutation testing for gene-wise association of genes previously associated with alcoholism-related phenotypes using COMBASSOC, were performed.
No marker met genomewide significance. Gene-wise analyses of markers clustering near genes already implicated in alcoholism, but which were not associated in non-alcoholic BPD, were: Cadherin-11 (CDH11, p = 6 × 10-4), Exportin 7 (XPO7), neuromedin-U receptor 2 (NMUR2), collagen type XI-alpha 2 (COL11A2) and Semaphorin-5A (SEMA5A).
These genes replicated prior genetic reports implicating “connectivity” (adhesion, migration and neuronal signalling) genes in addictions and comorbid BPD. Connectivity genes regulate neuronal connections during development and play roles in later neuroadaptive and mnemonic processes. These processes may influence addiction vulnerability, as seen clinically in denial, cognitive impairment, and repetitive substance misuse and relapse behaviour. We propose that we have identified genes i) increasing susceptibility to alcoholism that could be unmasked or released by the presence of bipolar affective disorder; ii) and genes increasing susceptibility to affective disorder that also predispose to secondary alcoholism. We were limited by small sample size. Larger future studies are needed.
In meridional European countries such as Portugal, informal caregivers are almost always close relatives, either key-relatives (those more involved) or not. There are few systematic comparisons between the experience of key-relatives/primary caregivers (PC) and other/secondary caregivers (SC) in psychogeriatrics. We present some preliminary data from the FAMIDEM (Families of People with Dementia) survey.
Non-randomised cross-sectional study comparing two related samples of caregivers (PC versus SC) of 41 patients with DSM-IV dementia from outpatient practices in Lisbon (Portugal). Caregivers’ assessments included: Zarit Burden Interview, Caregiver Activity Survey (CAS), Positive Aspects of Caregiving, GHQ-12, Social Network Questionnaire and Dementia Knowledge Questionnaire.
Patients’ mean age was 78,7 years (SD 7,9). 24 (58,5%) were women and 58,5% had Alzheimer disease.PC were older than SC (p=0,000) and tended to live with the patient (p=0,000). They reported less emocional support (p=0,021) but higher objective burden-CAS (p=0,002). Regarding all other outcome variables, significant differences between groups were not found. Within the global sample, comparing spousals (n=23) and adult children/other relatives (n=59) yielded interestingly different preliminary results, eg higher GHQ-12 levels (p=0,010).
The experience of caregiving is possibly different regarding PC and SC, but further research is warranted in order to define who really is at risk. Being a spouse may be much more determinant, although most spouses are PC as well. for the moment, it seems prudent not to exclude SC from risk assessments. the final FAMIDEM results, even lacking generalizability, will probably provide interesting clues.
The authors present some results of an ongoing research on the introduction of psychoactive drugs in Portugal during the 1950's.
This study analyses medical papers published in the 1950s on the issue of psychoactive drugs in Portugal. Our research focused on some of the main medical journals and articles published by some of the most important Portuguese psychiatrists. Discussions on the validity of psychoactive drugs and the introduction of psychoactive drugs in therapy are analysed.
We aim at contributing to the history of psychoactive drugs in therapy, as well as to the history of psychoactive drug reception in Portugal and its relation with the problem of deinstitutionalization.
Qualitative documental analysis of medical papers published in Portuguese general medicine journals, such as A Medicina C-rânea, O Médico, Jornal do Médico, as well as in some specialized psychiatry journals. Systematization of confronting arguments. The introduction of psychoactive drugs in Portugal underwent several discussions on their validity, efficacy, safety and effects in the process of patient deinstitutionalization.
In Portugal, the reception of psychoactive drugs proceeded quickly after its industrialization, and was accompanied by some theoretical discussions. In the beginning of the 1960s, the use of psychoactive drugs is clearer and discussions are less divergent.