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Nipah virus (NiV) outbreak occurred in Kozhikode district, Kerala, India in 2018 with a case fatality rate of 91% (21/23). In 2019, a single case with full recovery occurred in Ernakulam district. We described the response and control measures by the Indian Council of Medical Research and Kerala State Government for the 2019 NiV outbreak. The establishment of Point of Care assays and monoclonal antibodies administration facility for early diagnosis, response and treatment, intensified contact tracing activities, bio-risk management and hospital infection control training of healthcare workers contributed to effective control and containment of NiV outbreak in Ernakulam.
Occurrence of drought under rainfed conditions is the foremost factor responsible for yield reduction in soybean. Developing soybean cultivars with an inherent ability to withstand drought would immensely benefit the soybean production in rainfed areas. In the present study, F2 derived mapping populations were developed by crossing drought tolerant (PK 1180, SL 46) and susceptible (UPSL 298, PK 1169) genotypes to investigate the inheritance of seedling survival drought mechanisms and to identify simple-sequence repeat (SSR) markers associated with them, using bulked segregant analysis. Parents as well as a F2 derived mapping population were screened for drought tolerance based on seedling survivability under controlled conditions. Segregation analysis of F2 population derived from a cross between PK 1180 × UPSL 298 was previously shown to have a 3:1 tolerant to susceptible ratio and a probability of 0.61 at a χ2(3:1) value of 0.258. This was confirmed in another F2 population derived from a cross between PK 1169 × SL 46 with a χ2(3:1) value of 0.145 obtained at a probability of 0.70. One SSR marker Satt277 showed polymorphism between contracting bulks (tolerant and susceptible) out of 50 polymorphic markers identified during parental polymorphism. Single marker analysis suggested that the marker, Satt277 is linked to seedling survival drought tolerance and is located on chromosome linkage group C2 (chr 6) with a map distance of 3.40 cM. The tolerant genotypes identified could be used as a donor in soybean improvement programs. The marker identified can be used in marker-assisted selection while screening large collection of germplasm.
The eastern Arabian Sea is influenced by both the advection of upwelled water from the western Arabian Sea and winter convective mixing. Therefore, sediments collected from the eastern Arabian Sea can help to understand the long-term seasonal hydrographic changes. We used the planktonic foraminifera census and stable isotopic ratio (δ18O) from sediments drilled during the International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 355 to reconstruct surface hydrographic changes in the eastern Arabian Sea during the last 350 kyr. The increased abundance of Globigerina bulloides suggests enhanced advection of upwelled water during the latter half of MIS7 and the beginning of MIS6, as a result of a strengthened summer monsoon. A large drop in upwelling and/or advection of upwelled water from the western Arabian Sea is inferred during the subsequent interval of MIS6, based on the rare presence of G. bulloides. The comparable relative abundance of Neogloboquadrina dutertrei, G. bulloides and Globigerinoides ruber suggests that during the early part of MIS5, hydrographic conditions were similar to today. The upwelling decreased and winter convection increased with the progress of the glacial interval. A good coherence between planktonic foraminiferal assemblage-based monsoon stacks from both the eastern and western Arabian Sea suggests a coeval response of the entire northern Arabian Sea to the glacial–interglacial changes. The glacial–interglacial difference in δ18Osw-ivc was at a maximum with 4–5 psu change in salinity during Termination 2 and 3, and a minimum during Termination 4. The significantly reduced regional contribution to the glacial–interglacial change in δ18Osw-ivc during Termination 4 suggests a lesser change in the monsoon.
Introduction: Acute aortic syndrome (AAS) is a time sensitive aortic catastrophe that is often misdiagnosed. There are currently no Canadian guidelines to aid in diagnosis. Our goal was to adapt the existing American Heart Association (AHA) and European Society of Cardiology (ESC) diagnostic algorithms for AAS into a Canadian evidence based best practices algorithm targeted for emergency medicine physicians. Methods: We chose to adapt existing high-quality clinical practice guidelines (CPG) previously developed by the AHA/ESC using the GRADE ADOLOPMENT approach. We created a National Advisory Committee consisting of 21 members from across Canada including academic, community and remote/rural emergency physicians/nurses, cardiothoracic and cardiovascular surgeons, cardiac anesthesiologists, critical care physicians, cardiologist, radiologists and patient representatives. The Advisory Committee communicated through multiple teleconference meetings, emails and a one-day in person meeting. The panel prioritized questions and outcomes, using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach to assess evidence and make recommendations. The algorithm was prepared and revised through feedback and discussions and through an iterative process until consensus was achieved. Results: The diagnostic algorithm is comprised of an updated pre test probability assessment tool with further testing recommendations based on risk level. The updated tool incorporates likelihood of an alternative diagnosis and point of care ultrasound. The final best practice diagnostic algorithm defined risk levels as Low (0.5% no further testing), Moderate (0.6-5% further testing required) and High ( >5% computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, trans esophageal echocardiography). During the consensus and feedback processes, we addressed a number of issues and concerns. D-dimer can be used to reduce probability of AAS in an intermediate risk group, but should not be used in a low or high-risk group. Ultrasound was incorporated as a bedside clinical examination option in pre test probability assessment for aortic insufficiency, abdominal/thoracic aortic aneurysms. Conclusion: We have created the first Canadian best practice diagnostic algorithm for AAS. We hope this diagnostic algorithm will standardize and improve diagnosis of AAS in all emergency departments across Canada.
Nano-patterned surfaces have potential applications in the development of efficient solar cells through multiple internal reflections and may be used to fulfil the energy demand of rural India. Therefore, the basic understanding of growth mechanism of patterns under ion irradiation is much required. Here, the ripple patterns are grown on Si (100) surfaces for two specific ion irradiation conditions. First, the two set of samples (namely set-A and set-B) of Si (100) are irradiated by 50 keVAr+ ion beam at oblique (60°) and normal incidence, respectively, using ion fluence of 5×1016 ions/ cm2. The aim of this first stage irradiation at two different angles is the creation of different depth locations of amorphous/crystalline (a/c) interface while keeping the free surface similar in surface features, which is a crucial parameter in surface growth. Further, the sequential second stage irradiation is carried out at 60° for the same energy of Ar beam for the fluences 3×1017 to 9×1017 ions/cm2 to see the evolution of ripple patterns. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) study shows that the ripple pattern ordering is better in set-A rather than set-B. Lateral correlation length of each ripple structure surface is computed by autocorrelation function while roughness exponent is measured with height-height correlation function. Fractals behaviors of patterned on Si (100) surface are found to be sensitive to the two stage irradiation approach. The understanding of the mechanism of nano-patterns formation may be useful to develop efficient solar systems for the needs of energy in rural India.
Perforations of the tympanic membrane are treated with various surgical techniques and materials. This study aimed to determine the efficacy of platelet-rich plasma during underlay myringoplasty.
The study included 40 patients. Autologous platelet-rich plasma was applied in-between temporalis fascia graft and tympanic membrane remnant during underlay myringoplasty in group 1 (n = 20). The outcome was evaluated after three months and compared with group 2 (n = 20), a control group that underwent routine underlay tympanoplasty.
After three months’ follow up, graft uptake was 95 per cent in group 1 and 85 per cent in group 2 (p < 0.03). Mean hearing threshold gain was 18.62 dB in group 1 and 13.15 dB in group 2. This difference was statistically significant (p < 0.01).
Platelet-rich plasma, with its ease of preparation technique, availability, low cost, autologous nature and good graft uptake rate, justifies its use in tympanoplasty type I procedures.
We present results of our studies for a sample of Galactic globular star clusters with the aim of deriving relative proper motions. We used CCD archival data observed with Wide Field Imager (WFI) mounted on ESO 2.2 m telescope at La Silla, Chile. Astrometric software designed by Anderson et al. is used to derive relative proper motions. The vector point diagrams show clear separation of field stars from the cluster stars. We used proper motions to determine membership probabilities and to produce color-magnitude diagrams with most probable cluster member stars. Our membership catalogue can be used to study the membership status of the peculiar stars including various variables reported in the literature.
The nonlinear interaction of kinetic Alfvén waves (KAWs) with other possible plasma modes is considered to be responsible for the observed solar wind turbulent spectrum. In the present paper, a new channel of interaction between a KAW and an obliquely propagating Alfvén wave (AW) has been proposed. The governing dynamical equations are derived and the nonlinear interaction between the two wave modes KAW and AW is studied. The growth rate of modulational instability has been calculated. The nonlinear evolution of KAW filamentation and turbulent spectra has also been discussed. In the inertial range, energy cascade follows nearly Kolmogorov scaling, and after inertial range it follows −2.5 scaling in dispersive range. The obtained results indicate that the proposed mechanism may be responsible for transferring the energy from smaller wavenumbers to larger wavenumbers in the solar wind plasmas. The relevance of the present study with recent Cluster spacecraft observations has also been pointed out.
The paper is concerned with the analytical study of nonlinear coupling of slow Alfvén wave (SW) with ion acoustic waves (IAWs) in high-β and low-β plasmas. Here the pump wave (SW) number density gets perturbed in the presence of IAW. The model equations of IAW and SW turn out to be the modified Zakharov system of equations when the ponderomotive nonlinearities are incorporated in the IAW and SW dynamics. Growth rate of modulational instability has been calculated. The relevance of these investigations for solar wind plasma and solar coronal plasma has also been discussed.
Field experiments were conducted for the three consecutive cropping seasons of 2003–05, 2004–06 and 2005–07 at the Indian Institute of Sugarcane Research, Lucknow, India, to explore the feasibility of planting sugarcane in autumn as a relay intercrop in standing rice. The cropping systems evaluated were: i) rice-potato-spring sugarcane; ii) rice + autumn sugarcane (planted as a relay intercrop in every sixth row devoid (skipped) of transplanted rice + potato after rice; iii) rice-autumn sugarcane (planted without preparatory tillage) + potato; and iv) rice-autumn sugarcane (planted with preparatory tillage) + potato. In each case, sugarcane was planted in rows 90 cm apart. Rice was transplanted in rows at 20-cm row spacing when followed by potato or sugarcane, but at 18-cm row spacing when intended for sugarcane planting as a relay intercrop in late September. The germination (60.4%) of cane buds, tillers (323 000 ha−1) and number (149 000 ha−1), length (225 cm), girth (2.44 cm) and weight (747 g) of millable canes were markedly better when autumn sugarcane was planted with rice as a relay intercrop in comparison to other cropping systems. Similarly, this cropping system produced the maximum cane (111.4 t ha−1) and sugar (13.2 t ha−1) along with sugarcane equivalent yield (216.4 t ha−1). In turn, relay intercropping system with maximum cane production efficiency of 420 kg ha−1day−1 fetched the highest economic returns (Rs. 258 ha−1day−1) and benefit:cost ratio (1.5). Compared with the rice-potato-spring sugarcane cropping system, the relay intercrop of autumn sugarcane in standing rice produced 35.4% more cane and 38.3% more sugar with 24.1% higher returns besides 79.1% energy saving. This practice will not only benefit cane growers and sugar mill owners in tropical and sub-tropical India, but also in other parts of the world where rice and sugarcane are extensively cultivated.
On-farm nutrient management practices were evaluated in the irrigated rice-wheat cropping system (RWCS) in northwestern India. Large farmers used comparatively higher doses of nutrients than small and medium farmers for both rice and wheat crops. On average, a field is treated with organic manure after every 15 years for rice and 53 years for wheat. Nitrogen use was generally more than the recommended dose for both crops. Phosphorus use in wheat was nearly as per recommendation, while in rice it was below the recommended dose. Potassium use was almost nil; however, the use of Zn (particularly in rice) is becoming common. Use of biofertilizers was negligible. Overall, farmers applied higher doses of organic manures, K, Zn and biofertilizers in rice than wheat, and there was increasing trend in their use with increase in the size of land holdings. Grain yield increased significantly with increase in the size of land holding in rice but remained almost same in wheat. This study generated comprehensive data on nutrient use pattern in the RWCS, thus providing necessary input to researchers, planners and developmental agencies who wish to enhance food security.
The arid zone of northwestern India is a unique adaptation zone for crop plants because of its pervasive severe moisture stress and high temperatures. Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) is a major cereal in this zone as it represents approximately 25% of the total acreage of the crop in the country. Pearl millet hybrid cultivars, which have gained widespread acceptance from farmers elsewhere in the country, have not been adopted in the arid zone. Farmers continue to sow their traditional landraces because the yield advantage of current hybrids is not expressed in this zone, and the risk of failure in poor years with the hybrids is unacceptably high. The International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics and the Indian Council of Agricultural Research have been collaborating to understand the unique nature of pearl millet in the arid zone since the late 1980s. This collaboration has produced a better understanding of how arid zone farmers manage their germplasm, of the unique features of this invaluable resource and of a range of ways of using this germplasm to produce well-adapted new varieties and hybrids that will meet the requirements of the farmers of the arid zone. It has been shown that new cultivars for the arid zone need to be based on parental materials, including traditional landraces that are specifically adapted to the arid zone. This paper summarizes the main lessons of nearly 20 years of this collaborative research.
In the hilly areas of eastern Gujarat, western Madhya Pradesh and southern Rajasthan, in western India, farmers are very resource-poor and cultivate small and fragmented land holdings. Maize is their main rainy season (kharif) cereal and it is grown as a rainfed crop in low-fertility fields, often on sloping land that is vulnerable to soil erosion. Its productivity is very low, averaging below 1 t ha−1. New farm technologies to increase this productivity have to be low cost to be attractive to farmers who have limited access to purchased inputs and few means to purchase them. From observations of local farming practices, intercropping of maize with legumes was identified as an attractive option because the only additional input needed is seed of the legume crop. Participatory research was conducted on intercropping of maize with improved varieties of horsegram (Macrotyloma uniflorum). Many farmers who tried this intercropping adopted it in subsequent years, while others preferred to grow the new horsegram varieties as a sole crop. Farmers reported that less weeding was required in the intercrop as the horsegram smothered weeds. All farmers used the dry stover from the horsegram as a fodder for their animals. Farmers used the whole seed as dal, which provided additional protein in their diet. Farmers also sold the grain, but it fetched a low price in the poorly developed market for horsegram. Previously intercropping had been tried with local landraces, but the acceptance of intercropping was higher with new varieties such as AK-42 that yielded over 60% more grain. Participatory trials in which only one entry was compared with the local variety did not show a difference between AK-21 and AK-42 as in all cases both were preferred over the local variety. When they were directly compared with each other, farmers' perceptions showed a significant preference for AK-42. Variety IVH-2 was found to be better than AK-42: it matured 15 days earlier, better matching the maturity of the maize, had superior grain quality and yielded about the same. The greater uptake of improved horsegram varieties for sole and intercropping is likely to be limited by the lack of seed supply.
Both stover and grain are important considerations in the adoption of the new pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) cultivars in crop–livestock farming system in north-west India. Local landrace germplasm contains many of the traits needed to breed new cultivars, which met such requirements. We evaluated 169 pearl millet landraces to assess their potential for breeding new open-pollinated varieties, and measured heterosis in landrace testcrosses to evaluate their potential for topcross hybrids breeding. There were significant differences among landraces in their total biomass, grain yield and stover yield. A high accumulation of biomass, followed by its efficient partitioning, was crucial in determining grain productivity under arid zone. There was also no trade-off between stover and grain productivity and several landraces outperformed check cultivars in both grain and stover yields. The manifestation of heterosis in the landrace-based topcross hybrids varied for different traits. Significant heterosis for biomass, grain yield and stover yield was observed in specific male-sterile seed parent × landrace-based pollinator combinations. Utilization of landraces in variety development and topcross hybrids breeding programmes targeting north-western India or similar regions are discussed.
The landraces of rice (Oryza sativa L.) possess wide diversity, which needs to be properly characterized for their use in genetic improvement. Replicated field studies were conducted in 1998, 1999 and 2000 at two sites in Nepal to determine diversity in 183 landraces of rice adapted to the lowlands and the hills in Nepal. Fourteen improved genotypes were also used for comparison. Thirteen agronomic traits were investigated. Shannon–Weaver diversity index (H) and Simpson's index of diversity (D) were estimated to determine the level of genetic richness among the landraces. The landraces differed significantly for all traits. Except for plant height and maturity, at least one of the landraces compared well with the performance of improved cultivars. A principal component analysis separated the lowland- and hill-adapted landraces into two broad groups.
Outbreaks of buffalopox or pox-like infections affecting buffaloes, cows and humans have been recorded in many parts of the world. Since the first outbreak in India, a large number of epidemics have occurred. Unlike in the previous years, generalized forms of the disease are now rare; however, there are severe local forms of the disease affecting the udder and teats, leading to mastitis thereby undermining the productivity of milk animals. The causative agent buffalopox virus (BPXV) is a member of the Orthopoxvirus, and is closely related to Vaccinia virus (VACV), the type-species of the genus. Earlier studies with restriction fragment length polymorphism and recent investigations involving sequencing of the genes that are essential in viral pathogenesis have shown that BPXV is phylogenetically very closely related to VACV and may be considered as a clade of the latter. The review discusses the epidemiology, novel diagnostic methods for the disease, and molecular biology of the virus, and infers genetic relationships of BPXV with other members of the genus.
Size dependence of the low frequency vibrational spectra of ZnO nanocrystals prepared using chemical method has been investigated. Optical transmission spectra of the ZnO colloid solution exhibit a shift in the onset of the absorption band edge from 332 to 350 nm due to particle growth. X-ray diffraction analysis of the prepared ZnO nanocrystals exhibit peaks corresponding to the hexagonal wurtzite structure. Two peaks with unusually very high intensity were observed in the low frequency (∼ 10- 25 cm-1) Raman spectra of these nanocrystals. The peak position of these phonon modes shifted towards lower frequencies as the size of the nanocrystals increases and assigned to the confinement of acoustic phonons in ZnO nanocrystals.
Intercropping of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) with clusterbean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) is a common practice in the arid zone of northwestern India. Field experiments were conducted for two years to examine the performance of two contrasting genotypes of each of these crops grown both as sole crops and as intercrops using all possible genotypic combinations of the pearl millet with the clusterbean. The seed yields of both crops were always lower in intercropping than in sole cropping, though the degree of reduction in the seed yield of each intercrop component was influenced greatly by the genotype of its companion crop. The seed yield of both clusterbean genotypes was reduced more when intercropped with the tall and late-maturing pearl millet, MH 179, than with the medium-statured and early-maturing HHB 67. On the other hand, the two clusterbean cultivars had similar effects on intercropped pearl millet. As a result, the highest land equivalent ratios (LERs) were obtained with intercrops containing pearl millet HHB 67 rather than MH 179, while the genotype of clusterbean had little overall effect on LER. The results obtained are discussed in the context of developing cultivars for intercropping.