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Prior research has shown that buoyant jets and plumes ‘puff’ at a frequency that depends on the balance of momentum and buoyancy fluxes at the inlet, as parametrized by the Richardson number. Experiments have revealed the existence of scaling relations between the Strouhal number of the puffing and the inlet Richardson number, but geometry-specific relations are required when the characteristic length is taken to be the diameter (for round inlets) or width (for planar inlets). Similar to earlier studies of rectangular buoyant jets and plumes, in the present study we use the hydraulic radius of the inlet as the characteristic length to obtain a single Strouhal–Richardson scaling relation for a variety of inlet geometries over Richardson numbers that span three orders of magnitude. In particular, we use adaptive mesh numerical simulations to compute puffing Strouhal numbers for circular, rectangular (with three different aspect ratios), triangular and annular high-temperature buoyant jets and plumes over a range of Richardson numbers. We then combine these results with prior experimental data for round, planar and rectangular buoyant jets and plumes to propose a new scaling relation that describes puffing Strouhal numbers for various inlet shapes and for hydraulic Richardson numbers spanning over four orders of magnitude. This empirically motivated scaling relation is also shown to be in good agreement with prior results from global linear stability analyses.
Reduction of odor-induced anxiety through a presentation of an odor has not heretofore been described.
Case report: A 69-year-old right-handed male with a five year history of generalized anxiety disorder, presented with a one and a half month history of hypersensitivity to odors of multiple synthetic chemicals manifest by the perception that these odors were more intense and unpleasant inducing nausea, abdominal cramping, coughing, a need to “get away from the smell”, and panic with intense anxiety. These symptoms would occur whenever he was exposed to these smells, 20 to 25 times a day, and would persist for 10 to 15 minutes after the exposure. When odors induced the above symptoms, exposure to the aroma of cinnamon immediately alleviated these symptoms. He now continues using cinnamon odor whenever the odor induced anxiety and associated symptoms arise. This remedy has been effective over the course of treatment, for almost two years.
Abnormalities on examination: Three per second titubation. Archimedean Spiral Test: Saw tooth pattern with macrographia. Anxious, circumstantial, overly inclusive. Unable to determine how to put on shoe covers. Impaired voluntary upward gave, but intact vertical doll’s eyes. Left torticollis. Bilateral finger to nose dysmetria. Low amplitude, high frequency tremor on extension of both upper extremities. Areflexic. Olfactory Testing: hyposmic. MRI of brain with and without infusion: mild generalized volume loss.
There are myriad mechanisms whereby odor may have reduced the odor-induced anxiety. Since aroma induced anxiogeneis is usually confined to a specific odor, it does not preclude other odors from acting in an anxiolytic manner. The combination of exposure simultaneously of anxiolytic and anxiogenic odors may have acted to increase the threshold of the anxiety producing odor, inhibiting perception of the anxiogenic odor and thus precipitation of anxiety. The two odors could have combined in an additive fashion, changing the olfactory characteristics of the anxiety provoking odor such that it no longer was perceived as the same odor and thus no anxiety. The anxiolytic/anxiogenic odor mixture could have overwhelmed the anxiogenic odor, thus creating the perception of only anxiolytic odor. On a central basis, the anxiolysis and anxiogenesis may have been induced to occur coincidently with anxiolysis superseding anxiogenesis. Alternatively, the odors may have acted as a distractor, changing the focus of attention from anxiogenic odor to a different odor which does not have the same anxiety provoking effect. Maybe because the patient already has demonstrated a heightened odor emotion linkage, he may be more susceptible to any other odor emotion effects. Trial of odors in those with odor induced anxiety warrants consideration.
Demodex canis infestation in dogs remains one of the main challenges in veterinary dermatology. The exact pathogenesis of canine demodicosis is unknown but an aberration in immune status is considered very significant. No studies have underpinned the nexus between induction of demodicosis and neural immunosuppressive pathways so far. We have evaluated the involvement of cholinergic pathways in association with cytokines regulation as an insight into the immuno-pathogenesis of canine demodicosis in the present study. Remarkable elevations in circulatory immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin-10 and cholinesterase activity were observed in dogs with demodicosis. Simultaneously, remarkable reduction in circulatory pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-alpha level was observed in dogs with demodicosis. Findings of the present study evidently suggest that Demodex mites might be affecting the cholinergic pathways to induce immunosuppression in their host and then proliferate incessantly in skin microenvironment to cause demodicosis.
Biofortification (delivery of micronutrients via micronutrient-dense crops) can be achieved through plant breeding and offers a cost-effective and sustainable approach to fighting micronutrient malnutrition. The present study was conducted to facilitate the initiation of a breeding programme to improve the concentration of iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) seeds. The experiment was conducted with 64 diverse peanut genotypes for 2 years in eight different environments at the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Patancheru, India to assess the genetic variation for Fe and Zn concentrations in peanut seeds and their heritability and correlations with other traits. Significant differences were observed among the genotypes and environments for Fe (33–68 mg/kg), Zn (44–95 mg/kg), protein (150–310 mg/g) and oil (410–610 mg/g) concentration in seeds and their heritability was high, thus indicating the possibility of improving them through breeding. As seen in other plants, a significant positive association between concentrations of Fe and Zn was observed. Trade-offs between pod yield and Fe and Zn concentrations were not observed and the same was also true for oil content. Besides being high yielding, genotypes ICGV 06099 (57 mg/kg Fe and 81 mg/kg Zn) and ICGV 06040 (56 mg/kg Fe and 80 mg/kg Zn) had stable performance for Fe and Zn concentrations across environments. These are the ideal choices for use as parents in a breeding programme and in developing mapping populations.
To describe a case of superficial temporal artery pseudoaneurysm occurring as a rare complication of parotid surgery (to the authors' knowledge, the first such case reported), to review the aetiology of superficial temporal artery pseudoaneurysm, and to highlight pseudoaneurysm as a cause of facial swelling after parotidectomy.
A literature search of the PubMed and EMBASE databases was carried out using the Medical Subject Heading key words ‘superficial temporal artery’, ‘aneurysm’, ‘pseudoaneurysm’ and ‘parotid’.
No previously reported cases of superficial temporal artery aneurysm or pseudoaneurysm following parotid surgery were identified.
Pseudoaneurysm of the superficial temporal artery is a rare complication of parotid surgery which has not previously been reported.
Live specimens of benthic foraminiferal species Rosalina leei were subjected to a combination of temperature (25°C, 30°C and 35°C) and salinity (25‰, 30‰ and 35‰) to assess its differential response to the annual range of seawater temperature and salinity reported at the sampling site. A total of 216 specimens were used for the experiment. Within the range of temperature and salinity, to which R. leei specimens were subjected as part of the present experiment, growth increased with increasing salinity, whereas increase in seawater temperature resulted in retarded growth. Maximum growth was reported in the specimens kept at 25°C temperature and 35‰ salinity while the rest of the specimens maintained in 30‰ and 25‰ saline water, showed comparatively less growth. The specimens kept at 30°C and 35°C temperature and different salinities showed much less growth as compared to the specimens maintained at 25°C temperature. However, none of the R. leei specimens subjected to the present experiment reproduced during the course of the experiment. The absence of reproduction under the present set of temperature and salinity conditions, probably indicates that R. leei reproduces at a very narrow range of temperature and salinity which is different from the temperature and salinity conditions in the present experiment. It is further inferred that under the present set of temperature–salinity conditions, 25°C temperature and 35‰ saline water is most suitable for the growth of R. leei. Results are significant as the responses of benthic foraminifera to different temperatures and salinity are being used for palaeoclimatic reconstruction.
For sub-5 nm oxides there are two different stages for breakdown; soft breakdown (SBD) and hard breakdown (HBD). It has been shown that both SBD and HBD exhibit the same statistics. Therefore, the physical mechanism governing them is the same. The major difference between them is the energy transferred from the capacitor to the localized conducting path. In this paper, a simple equivalent circuit is proposed to explain the effect of the measurement technique, oxide thickness, and test structure area on the detection of soft breakdown. Also an inelastic quantum tunneling model is proposed to discuss the current-voltage characteristics after SBD. The model is also successful in explaining the temperature dependence of SBD IV characteristics.
We report the initial results of one year of continuous observations of the Sun‘s internal structure from the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) on board SOHO. The results have been obtained by inverting frequencies of p and f modes determined with two different methods of averaging over split multiplets. Small systematic differences between the two frequency sets depend primarily on mode frequencies, and, thus, did not significantly affect the inversions. A preliminary study of the systematic effects resulting from asymmetry of oscillation power peaks has also shown no significant influence on the inversion results. The inferred sound-speed profile is in general agreement with the previous data from MDI and ground-based networks. In the energy-generating core, the resolution is substantially improved, and the inversion results indicate a sharp negative perturbation of the sound speed in the core, tending to a positive value near the center. High-precision measurements of the f-mode frequencies have been used to determine the seismic radius of the Sun. The global asphericity estimated from frequency variation across the split mode multiplets has been found to be small, and is consistent with the asphericity during the previous activity minimum. Variations of the solar frequencies during the first year of MDI observations have also been detected.
In his opening address at the conference Dr. Tim Brown posed the line asymmetry problem between velocity and intensity as a puzzle in helioseismology that has been resisting theoretical explanation for many years. It was the observations of Duvall et al. (1993) that for the first time indicated that the power spectrum of solar acoustic modes show varying amounts of asymmetry. In particular, the velocity and intensity power spectra revealed an opposite sense of asymmetry. Many doubted the correctness of the experiment and thought it to be a puzzling result (Abrams & Kumar, 1996). Many authors have investigated this problem theoretically and have found that there is an inherent asymmetry whenever there is a localized source exciting the solar oscillations (Gabriel, 1995; Roxburgh & Vorontsov, 1995; Abrams & Kumar, 1996; Nigam et al. 1997). This problem has important implications in helioseismology where the eigenfrequencies are generally determined by assuming that the power spectrum was symmetric and can be fitted by a Lorentzian. This leads to systematic errors in the determination of frequencies and, thus, affects the results of inversions (Rhodes et al. 1997). In this paper we offer an explanation for the difference in parity of the two asymmetries and estimate the depth and type of the sources that are responsible for exciting the solar p-modes.
The authors present their initial experience of a new sterile medical grade cyanoacrylate adhesive (Indermil) in otolaryngeal and head and neck surgery.
Thirty-three patients who underwent a variety of head and neck operations consented to have their skin incisions closed using the adhesive and 10 of those also underwent repair of the tympanic membrane, either as part of tympanoplasty or mastoid surgery. The history of the use of this class of adhesive is presented with an explanation of the chemical properties of these compounds. Advantages of using cyanoacrylate adhesives and future possible applications in otolaryngology and head and neck surgery are discussed.
The Medium-l Program of the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) instrument on board SOHO provides continuous observations of oscillation modes of angular degree, l, from 0 to ∼ 300. The initial results show that the noise in the Medium-l oscillation power spectrum is substantially lower than in ground-based measurements. This enables us to detect lower amplitude modes and, thus, to extend the range of measured mode frequencies. The MDI observations also reveal the asymmetry of oscillation spectral lines. The line asymmetries agree with the theory of mode excitation by acoustic sources localized in the upper convective boundary layer. The sound-speed profile inferred from the mean frequencies gives evidence for a sharp variation at the edge of the energy-generating core. In a thin layer just beneath the convection zone, helium appears to be less abundant than predicted by theory. Inverting the multiplet frequency splittings from MDI, we detect significant rotational shear in this thin layer.
Deafness is known to be associated with certain autoimmune disorders. This article describes a hitherto unreported possible association between pyoderma gangrenosum and progressive bilateral sensorineural deafness.
Abnormal sensitivity to environmental sounds is a short-term feature often observed following insertion of grommets. Here we describe a child with this symptom who was found to have Williams syndrome, a condition in which hyperacusis is observed in 95 per cent of patients.
A one to ten adduct of C60 and 2-methylaziridine was prepared and copolymerized with Novolac, Epon and Bisphenol A to obtain three dimensional polymers containing C60 with low coefficients of friction and good wear properties, which bode well for their potential use as solid lubricants.
Three patients who developed a post-cricoid carcinoma 5–21 years after radiotherapy for carcinoma of the larynx are presented. These patients received radiotherapy when they were young. It is suggested that alternative forms of treatment, especially partial laryngectomy with the aid of a laser should be considered in the primary management of small tumours of the larynx of young patients.
Residual water vapour present in the vacuum system has been observed to play a dominant oxidising role in the 250 keV D+ induced radiolysis of polyimide (Kapton-H). The partial pressure (pp) of water in the vacuum system decreases sharply as the D+ beam impinges the polymeric surface, but soon after, it recovers to its initial value as the accumulated dose increases. Emission of CO2 is observed which has its maximum at a time when the H2O partial pressure is at a minimum. The CO2 level also returns to its original level with time. This complementary variation of CO2 and H2O confirms that absorbed and adsorbed water molecules are radiolysed by the ion beam and initiate oxidation of the radiolytically evolved CO to yield CO2 on and within the ion implanted surface of the polyimide. Further, the small enhancement in the 28 amu peak (N2 + CO), which exhibits no maximum/minimum over the entire implantation time, can be understood in terms of the evolution of N2 from the imide ring as a result of radiolysis of this nitrogen containing polymers.
Groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) are generally considered to be self-pollinated, but natural hybrids due to outcrossing have been observed in cv. Robut 33-1. Selections in segregating generations of these natural hybrids identified stable lines with large yield potentials in more than one environment. The role of natural hybrids in generating useful additonal variability is discussed.
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