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Technological and mathematical advances have provided opportunities to investigate new approaches for the holistic quantification of complex biological systems. One objective of these approaches, including the multi-inverse deterministic approach proposed in this paper, is to deepen the understanding of biological systems through the structural development of a useful, best-fitted inverse mechanistic model. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the capacity of a deterministic approach, that is, the multi-inverse approach (MIA), to yield meaningful quantitative nutritional information. To this end, a case study addressing the effect of diet composition on sheep weight was performed using data from a previous experiment on saccharina (a sugarcane byproduct), and an inverse deterministic model (named Paracoa) was developed. The MIA successfully revealed an increase in the final weight of sheep with an increase in the percentage of corn in the diet. Although the soluble fraction also increased with increasing corn percentage, the effective nonsoluble degradation increased fourfold, indicating that the increased weight gain resulted from the nonsoluble substrate. A profile likelihood analysis showed that the potential best-fitted model had identifiable parameters, and that the parameter relationships were affected by the type of data, number of parameters and model structure. It is necessary to apply the MIA to larger and/or more complex datasets to obtain a clearer understanding of its potential.
There is a substantial proportion of patients who drop out of treatment before they receive minimally adequate care. They tend to have worse health outcomes than those who complete treatment. Our main goal is to describe the frequency and determinants of dropout from treatment for mental disorders in low-, middle-, and high-income countries.
Respondents from 13 low- or middle-income countries (N = 60 224) and 15 in high-income countries (N = 77 303) were screened for mental and substance use disorders. Cross-tabulations were used to examine the distribution of treatment and dropout rates for those who screened positive. The timing of dropout was examined using Kaplan–Meier curves. Predictors of dropout were examined with survival analysis using a logistic link function.
Dropout rates are high, both in high-income (30%) and low/middle-income (45%) countries. Dropout mostly occurs during the first two visits. It is higher in general medical rather than in specialist settings (nearly 60% v. 20% in lower income settings). It is also higher for mild and moderate than for severe presentations. The lack of financial protection for mental health services is associated with overall increased dropout from care.
Extending financial protection and coverage for mental disorders may reduce dropout. Efficiency can be improved by managing the milder clinical presentations at the entry point to the mental health system, providing adequate training, support and specialist supervision for non-specialists, and streamlining referral to psychiatrists for more severe cases.
To study whether there are personality characteristics that discriminate between IPV women and non-abused control women, taking into account the effect of emotional state (depressive symptoms).
A total of 176 women victim of IPV and 193 non-abused control women were assessed with the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology (DAPP-BQ; Livesley, 1990), the Beck Depression Inventory -II (BDI-II; Beck, 1996), and the Index of Spouse Abuse (ISA; Hudson & McIntosh, 1981). Women victim of IPV were recruited from Domestic Violence Centers, and non-abused control women were recruited from Primary Care Centers and Mental Health Services. A two way analysis of variance (IPV * Depression) were used for detecting differences in personality traits taking into account the effect of depression (BDI ≥ 17).
After controlling for depression, IPV victims scored higher than control women in submissiveness (F=6.41; p=0.01), cognitive distortion (F=4.35; p=0.04), intimacy problems (F=27.02; p< 0.001), suspiciousness (F=5.02; p=0.03) and self-harm (F=4.93; p=0.03), and lower in rejection (F=14.66; p< 0.001).
IPV victims showed high submission, low hostility, intimacy problems, suspiciousness, tendency to depersonalization or derealization, and suicidal ideation and attempts, as a result of chronic abuse. Some of these aspects could be explained by the presence of PTSD, more than by pre-existing personality characteristics. Traumatic and chronic stress can alter functional aspects of the brain and lead to the development of dysfunctional cognitive and behavioral characteristics that may be considered in the psychotherapeutic approach.
The goal of this research was to explore the use of PCR as a marker of inflammation and CVD in patients with Schizophrenia.
A cross-sectional analysis of the BSA administrative claim database was conducted including all men and women, >18 years, with a schizophrenia spectrum disorders (by DSM-IV criteria) diagnosis. PCR measurement together with socio-demographics, evolution, medical history, 10-years CVD risk (Framingham equation) and biochemistry data was extracted for analysis.
705 patients [53.0% men, 48.2 ± 15.8 years (mean ± SD), 5.9 ± 3.2 years of evolution, 79.7% on atypical drugs] met criteria for analysis. Mean 10-year CVD risk was high; 11.9% ± 5.7% and mean PCR levels were 2.6 + 2.5 mg/L with 30.4% showing values above normal's (≥ 3 mg/L). Unadjusted PCR slightly correlated with CVD risk; r = 0.171, p < 0.001. After adjusting by age, sex, evolution, smoking and anti-inflammatory drugs treatment, PCR was linearly associated with 10-year CVD risk stratified by its level of risk (low, moderate, high/very high); respectively, 2.3 (95% CI: 2.1–2.5), 3.1 (2.6–3.5) and 3.7 (3.2–4.1) mg/L; F = 13.5, p < 0.001. Patients with known CVD showed also higher PCR levels; 3.7 (2.9–4.5) vs. 2.5 (2.4–2.7) mg/L, p = 0.008, and higher probability of values above normal's; Odds Ratio = 4.71 (2.01–11.04), p < 0.001.
High PCR levels (above normals) were associated with both known CVD and high/very high 10-year risk of CVD event in patients with schizophrenia. Then, PCR might be a marker of inflammation and CVD in this psychiatric disorder.
The aim of this study was to identify risk factors in early postpartum that predict postpartum depression (PPD) at 6-8 weeks.
A prospective cohort of 309 women was studied between the 2nd-3rd days postpartum and at 6-8 weeks postpartum. Initially we administered a general information questionnaire that included obstetrical variables and history of personal and family affective disorders. Between the 2nd and 3rd days postpartum they filled out the Spanish version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Spielberg Anxiety Trait and State Inventory (STAI-R/S), Neuroticism Dimension (EPQ), St Paul Ramsey Questionnaire (life events) and Duke Social Support Scale. At 6-8 weeks postpartum they filled out again the EPDS. Women who scored ≥10 were screened as having PPD.
The incidence of PPD at 6-8 weeks was 14.6%. After Bonferroni correction, univariated analysis showed that previous personal history of depression (p<0.001), high neuroticism (p<0.001), low social support (p<0.002) and high EPDS (p<0.001) in the immediate postpartum were associated with PPD. Logistical regression analysis identified previous personal history of depression and high initial level of depression (OR=14.6; 95%CI=4.8-12.2; p<0.001) as risk factors for PPD. The absence of signification of the Hosmer-Lemersshow test (x2 =9.654; df=8; p=0.290) indicated the goodness-of-fit of the prediction model.
A previous history of depression and EPDS≥10 in the immediate postpartum allow to identify women with high risk of PPD before leaving the Obstetric Ward.
This study has been supported in part by grants: Instituto Carlos III: GO3/184; FIS: PI041783 and FIS 05/2565.
To examine whether the postpartum depression (PPD) subgroup with positive antithyroid antibodies (Ab+) compared with the PPD subgroup without positive presence of Ab (Ab -) have a different psycho-social and psychopathological characteristics.
One hundred three (N=103) patients with PPD according with DSM-IV criteria were included. Autoimmune status of the thyroid (Thyroperoxidasa antibodies, Thyroglobulin antibodies), severity of depression and anxiety (EPDS and 21-item Hamilton and STAI-S scales), psychosocial variables (Early Trauma Inventory, Saint Paul Ramsey Questionnaire, Marital Adjustment Test) were assessed joint with other several demographics and reproductive variables.
The presence of childhood sexual abuse in PPD women increase the probability of Ab(+) (OR= 2,528 ; 95% CI =1,00-6,39). The levels of Thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb) titers have a strongly correlation (p<0,000) with the levels of the Early Trauma Inventory.
The results of our study give a link between early stress, the immune system, and postpartum depression.The implication of the immunitary system in the etiopathogenesis of the PPD through the long lasting sensitization of the inflammatory response system and the endocrine system in front to stress behind the CNS and their transmisors and receptors activation is discussed.
To design a scale to measure perceived reasons to stay in violent partner relationships, and to carry out a preliminar analysis of its psychometric properties.
A 44 dicotomic items (true/false) self-report scale was designed (more a last open response question), elaborated according to published studies and open interviews with battered women. The questionnaire was administered to a pilot sample of 10 women to test its viability and comprehensibility. The questionnaire was then administered to a sample of 132 battered women. Exploratory factorial analysis was used to establish the underlying empirical structure. Internal consistency was calculated by mean of Cronbach's alfa coefficient.
The factor analysis identified two empirical factors: external factor (situational factor) and internal factor (psychological factors). Cronbach's alphas were 0.856 and 0.811, respectively.
The Block Escape in Intimate Partner Violence Scale is a reliable and easily comprehensible instrument mesuring percibed reasons of permanence with the aggressor. Its usefulness in both setting, clinical and social, will allow design with great effectiveness intervention strategies suitable for each case.
This study was supported in part by grant-58/05 from the Ministerio de Trabajo y Asuntos Sociales. Instituto de la Mujer.
Few studies have evaluated personality traits as a risk factor of postpartum depression (PPD). The Vulnerable Personality Style Questionnaire (VPSQ; Boyce et al. 2001), is a 9-item self-report scale developed to evaluate personality vulnerability to PPD with satisfactory psychometric properties. It assesses 9 personality dimensions: Coping, Nervy, Timidity, Sensitivity, Worrier, Obsessive, Volatility Organized and Expressive.
To study the vulnerable personality style in a Spanish postpartum sample.
A case-control study: 145 PPD women visited at the Psychiatry Perinatal Unit were compared to 203 healthy women from a postpartum population based study. All women were assessed with the VPSQ (Spanish adaptation), the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and the Structured Clinical Interview (DSM-IV) axis I. Personality traits were evaluated after full clinical remission. The study was approved by the Institution board.
Univariated analysis showed that women with PPD obtained higher scores (p<.000) in seven VPSQ personality dimensions: Coping, Nervy, Timidity, Sensitivity, Worrier, Obsessive, and Volatility, as well as the VPSQ total score (p<.000). Personal history of depression (p<.000) was also associated with PPD. In the logistic regression analysis; an increase of one point on the VPSQ total score increased the OR in 1.151 fold (95%CI:1.095-1.210) the association with PPD. Other variables associated were age and personal history of depression. The Hosmer-Lemershow test (p=.706) indicated the goodness-of-fit of the model.
Women with PPD had higher scores in the Vulnerable Personality Style Questionnaire. They were more nervous, timid, sensitive, obsessive, worried, angry and cope poorly than healthy postpartum women.
To examine the postpartum thyroid dysfunction (PPTD) and positive thyroid antibodies (Ab+) frequency in the Postpartum Depression (PPD) and to investigate if the PPD patients subgroup with PPTD and/or Ab+ have different characteristics.
Eighty one (N=81) patients with PPD, according with DSM-IV criteria, were included. Thyroid function (Free T3, Free T4,TSH), autoimmune status of the thyroid (Thyroperoxidasa antibodies, Thyroglobulin antibodies) and severity of depression (EPDS and 21-item Hamilton scales), were assessed joint with other several demographics, psycho-social and reproductive variables.
Twenty per cent of the patients with PPD had positive thyroid antibodies and 14% present PPTD. Prior history of early stressors in the PPD patients were significantly related with the presence of Ab+: the presence of childhood maltreatments and/or sexual abuse increased thirteen times the probability of Ab+ (OR: 13,01, 95% CI, 2.01-84.02). Greater number of total stressors were associated with Ab+ (p< 0,030), and Ab+ women showed a higher average of total stressors (2,1) than antibody negative women (1,52). Depressed women with PPTD had positive correlation with previous depressive episodes (p< 0,008).
The depressed postpartum women with dysregulation of pituitary-thyroid axis have more early childhood stressors and previous depressive episode. The implication of the inmunitary system and the HPT axis in the etiopathogenesis of the PPD through the activation of the response in front to stress is discussed.
Metabolic Syndrome (MS) is constituted by a set of specific metabolic alterations being postulated that the main dysfunction is insulin resistance. Estimates point to higher prevalence of MS in bipolar patients, between 30 to 35%. Cost-effective screening methods, not recurring to blood test, have been researched.
Analyse knowledge and importance given to MS in bipolar patients. Test the viability of MS screening without blood tests.
Observational, cross-sectional study. Random sample of 15 adult bipolar patients, in euthymic phase. Semi-structured interview, YMRS, HAMD were applied. MS diagnosis investigated according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. MS screening was defined positive if blood pressure ≥ 130/85 or anti-hypertensive medication and abdominal perimeter > 90 in males or > 80 in females. A questionnaire about knowledge, attitudes and concerns on MS was applied.
14 patients completed the investigation protocol. Five (36%) met IDF criteria for metabolic syndrome. Screening sensitivity was 80% and specificity 78%. Twelve patients (80%) were overweigh or obese. Mean IMC in patients that met IDF criteria for MS was 30 while in the other group mean IMC was 26. Only 3 (20%) have ever heard about MS, but the majority of the patients were concerned, in decreasing order, about weight gain, blood pressure cholesterol and hyperglycemia control.
Although limited by small sample size, this study strengthens the idea that MS screening can be effective in clinical practice, it also indicates the need to educate BP patients about MS and to prevent overweight.
The prevalence of mood disorders (anxiety and depression) during pregnancy seems to be similar to the women of the same group without pregnancy. Women with recurrent depression and euthimic women who discontinued antidepressants medication during pregnancy are particularly at high risk for depressive illness. Data about perinatal effects of SSRI antidepressants are gradually accumulating and are controversial. Two meta-analyses and some controlled studies don't find increased risk for major malformations in SSRI-exposed newborn. However, other studies find an increased risk of congenital malformations, poor birth outcomes and neonatal complications.
Neonatal morbidity in infant newborn of women treated with antidepressant drugs.
We examine the relation between the pharmacological treatment of the maternal anxiety/depression during the pregnancy and acute morbidity in infant newborns.
Materials and Methods
Study group of 66 infant newborn of pregnant women with a diagnoses of major depressive episode or defined anxiety disorders according to DSM-IV, who were in treatment with antidepressant drugs during pregnancy. Control group: 120 newborn of healthy pregnant women, who did not receive any treatment, and were contemporary of the same gestational age and sex. Criteria of exclusion: demonstrated toxic consumption (alcohol, cocaine, cannabis, opiates, drug of synthesis). Studied variables: Type of childbirth and analgesia; weight and age of gestation; pH of umbilical artery and Apgar test; presence of malformations; morbidity; feeding; withdrawal syndrome.
Infant newborn of mothers exposed to the antidepressant treatment suffered from more pathology than those of the control group (16/66 vs. 14/114; 24.2% vs.12.3%; p=0.038). Two smaller malformations in the study group were observed, a preauricular appendix (group A) and one moderate pielocilicilar ectasy (group C), both in mothers who received paroxetine (2/60; 3.3% vs. 0/114; 0%, p=0.05, Fisher p=0.118, NS). Only one infant newborn displayed compatible clinical signs with moderate withdrawal syndrome (irritability, vomits) from a mother treated with venlafaxine. No case of convulsions was observed. Breast feeding was less frequent in the group of antidepressant treated mothers (38/66, 57.6% vs. 86/116, 74,1%, p=0.032).
The treatment with antidepressant drugs during pregnancy is necessary for some women. The clinician must weigh the relative risks of various treatment options and take into account individual patient wishes. Although the antidepressant drugs suppose an increased risk for the newborn, it could be assumable for the benefit that represents maintain the mother in an euthimic situation.
We propose to discuss the clinical management, as well as, the accuracy of the psychiatric and obstetric controls to minimize the neonatal complications.
Suicide and suicidal behaviours are a growing concern among adolescents.
Describe discriminating characteristics of adolescents with suicidal behaviours followed by our psychiatric consultations.
A cross-sectional sample of 100 adolescents (aged 12 to 21), from the adolescent psychiatry and youth suicide consultations, at Hospital Santa Maria Psychiatry Department, were submitted to a semi-structured interview. The sample was divided in two groups: with and without suicidal behaviour (the first being defined has previous suicide attempt, parasuicidal gestures or self-mutilation). Demographic, psychosocial and psychopathological data was taken and compared.
98 completed protocol. Suicidal behaviour group included 48 subjects. Age, years of education, family type, sex differences, psychosocial difficulties (school, family, peers, affective), therapeutic objectives (exception on family relations) were not statistically discriminating. Suicidal ideation as consultation motive, emergency room referral, previous attempts of follow-up, not having as objective improvement of family relationships, were highly associated to the suicidal behaviour group (p≤0.001). A non significant tendency was observed towards depressive syndrome in the latter.
Identifying adolescents at risk for suicidal behaviours isn't an easy task, most characteristics are not discriminating. The most effective way seems to be asking directly about suicidal ideas. Awareness should increase in emergency room referrals motivated by suicidal ideas, in adolescents who tried multiple follow-ups and that seem to be disappointed by family support.
Pregnancy and postpartum both imply high risk for developing psychiatric disorders in women.
To study the relationship between life events (LE) and social support degree (SS) during pregnancy and depressive symptoms in early postpartum period.
A cross-sectional study of 309 consecutive Spanish women, evaluated the second day postpartum. They were all over 18 years old and have signed the informed consent. We excluded: illiteracy, cognitive impairment or severe medical illness, psychiatric disorders during pregnancy and decease of the newborn. We collected socio-demographic and obstetrical data, as well as family and personal psychiatric history, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), LE (Saint Paul Ramsey) and SS (DUKE-UNK).
Mean age (SD) was 31.6 (4.7). Most of women were married, had intermediated or high level of education. Sixty-one percent were primiparous. Twenty-six percent had family history and 22% had personal psychiatric history. Mean (SD) of LE was 0.95 (0.89) and of SS was 53.1 (7.6). The prevalence of depressive symptoms according to EPDS scores was 18%. This subgroup of depressed women had more psychiatric family history (p=0.046), less LE (p< 0.001) and more SS during pregnancy (p=0.048). Logistic regression analysis showed that SS was the only significant variable (OR=1.085; 95%CI=0.997-0.994; p=0.001). LE did not achieve statistical significance (OR=1.085; 95%CI=0.997-1.180; p=0.059).
Low social support degree during pregnancy is associated with depressive symptoms during immediate postpartum.
This study has been done in part with grants Instituto Carlos III: G03/184, FIS: PI04178; 05/2565.
Although it is well know that the substance use during pregnancy has a negative impact on mother and child health, there are few data on pregnancy - related substance use as a risk factor for postpartum depression and child outcomes.
Aims: To determine maternal and child outcomes at 8 and 32 weeks postpartum of women who reported substance use during pregnancy.
This is a cohort study of 1804 Caucasian women in postpartum. Exclusion criteria: psychiatric disorders during pregnancy. Women were evaluated at 2-3 days, 8 and 32 weeks postpartum. Socio-demographic, obstetric, personal and family psychiatric history and substance use during pregnancy; the Edimburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS) were assessed. All women with EPDS>9 at 8 and 32 weeks were evaluated by a structured interview (DIGS) for DSM-III major depression.
The mean (SD) age was 31.7 (4.6). Forty-six percent of them were primiparous. Thirty-one percent has a family and 16% a psychiatry history. Fifty percent of women reported substance use during pregnancy: 42% caffeine, 21.6% nicotine, 8% alcohol and 0.6% cannabis. Incidence of major postpartum depression was: 12.7%. Incidence of: Apgar scores < 7 at 5 min after birth:0.4%, gestational age at delivery < 37 weeks:7.3%, birth weigt < 2.5 Kg:7.3%, and congenital malformations:1.4%.
In the presentation, the maternal and child perinatal outcomes of women exposed to licit and ilicit drugs will be summarize and will include a discussion of the future clinical and research implications. This work has been done in part with Grants: GO3/184;FIS:PI04178;PI041635,PI041783,PI041779,PI041758,PI041761,PI041791,PI041766,PI041782,RD06/0001/1009; CIBER-SAM.
Studying inpatient clinical population's features allows a better understanding of readmissions. Factors associated with higher levels of readmission may give clues concerning better treatment planning and follow-up.
To detect psychosocial and clinic factors associated with readmissions in an inpatient general psychiatric population.
107 patients consecutively admitted to an inpatient unit were characterized in terms of psychosocial, clinical, treatment and discharge plan features. Readmission was defined as the number of previous admittances in the last two years.
Patients characteristics: Average age 44 (SD: 16); 58% female; 10 (SD:5) years of education; average disease duration of 128 (SD:115) months. Main diagnosis: 30,8% schizophrenia; 14% bipolar I disorder; 13,1% major depression; 11,2% recurrent major depression; 5,6% cluster B personality; 3,8% bipolar II disorder and 2,9% schizoaffective disorder. From more to less frequent diagnosis implicated in readmissions were schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, recurrent major depression, bipolar I, bipolar II and major depression episode. Readmissions were not associated with inpatient treatment or disease duration, nor toxics or axis II diagnosis. Nonetheless, beginning a depot antipsychotic medication was related to an increase in previous admissions.
These are preliminary results of a small sample, but they point towards the usefulness of a systematic evaluation of inpatient populations, mainly in what concerns complex clinical situations like major pathology readmissions.
There is no empirical research on the occurrence of postnatal psychiatric morbidity in Spanish population. To determine the prevalence rate of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders in postpartum Spanish mothers.
A two-phase cross-sectional epidemiological study. Women consecutively attending in the routine postnatal check-up (at six weeks after delivery) in the Department of Obstetric and Gynaecology of the Clinic Hospital during one year were included. In the first phase, 1453 women were screened with the EPDS. In the second phase, based upon EPDS outcomes, participants were stratified and randomly selected within each stratum for clinical evaluation with the Structured Clinical Interview (SCID) for DSM-IV to determine psychiatric status. Weighted prevalence and its 95% Confidence Intervals (95%CI) were obtained for DSM-IV diagnostic groups.
The overall 6-weeks prevalence rate for postpartum psychiatric disorders was 18.1% (95% CI 15.0-21.8). The most prevalent DSM-IV diagnostic group was mood disorders (9.8%; 95% CI 7.9-12.1), follow-up by adjustment disorders group (4.3%; 95% CI 3.0-6.3), anxiety diagnostic group (3.9%; 95% CI 2.5-5.8) and “other” disorders group (1.1%; 95% CI: 0.3-3.8%).
This results shows the heterogeneity of postnatal psychiatric morbidity. We found that DSM-IV diagnosis of mood disorders in postpartum women were more prevalent than anxiety disorders, in contrast with recent studies in postnatal community women. Clinical and research evaluation of mental health in postpartum women should include a full range of mental disorders.
This study has been supported in part by grant 13/00 from Ministery of Work and Social Affairs, Institute of Women, Spain.
The objective of this study was to analyze clinical and personality differences in three groups of patients with eating disorders: binge eating disorder (BED), bulimia nervosa- purging type (BN-P) and bulimia nervosa-non purging type (BN-NP).
The participants were 102 female patients (34 BED, 34 BN-P and 34 BN-NP), mean age 28.7. Assessment measures included the following tests: EDI-2, BITE, EAT-40, SCL-90-R and TCI-R, and other clinical and psychopathological indices that were collected via semi-structured interview.
When compared all three groups, BED were the oldest group, showed more frequent familial history of obesity and current or lifetime obesity. Regarding psychopathology, BN-P patients showed the most pathological scores, followed by BN-NP patients and BED patients showing the least pathological scores. Specifically, BN-P patients showed statistically higher scores than BED patients on SCL-90-R Paranoid Ideation, EAT-40 total score, EDI-2 Impulsivity subscale, and BITE Severity subscale. No statistically significant differences were observed among groups, on personality traits. A two-step cluster analysis procedure was conducted, to determine the clinical proximity among the three diagnostic groups. The relationship between cluster classification and diagnosis was statistically different (p<0.001), so we can assume that the present classification maybe does not classify accurately eating disorders.
Even when BED patients present differential characteristics with respect to family and personal antecedents when compared to BN patients, clinical and psychopathological overlapping with BN-NP makes them similar. Likewise, our results suggest deficiencies in the current nosological system, since it does not group patients’ subgroups which are homogeneous enough.
Comorbidity has been defined as the coexistence of somatic and psychiatric diseases with diferent physiopatology in the same person, and it can appear simultaneously to the schizophrenia or during the patient's lifetime. There are two types of comorbidity: episodical or taking place during the lifetime of the patient. We can diffferenciate between comorbidity itself (in cluster, dependent or associated) to the so-called pseudo-comorbidity. Besides, comorbidity has been classified as a co-syndrome and it is considered a prognosis indicator of this disease, which can determine an increase in the rates related to relapses, worse response to treatment, less capacity to cope with social situations, and suicide in patients suffering from schizophrenia.
177 schizophrenic patients were assessed for affective symptoms and suicide behaviour. 24.3% were suffered for depression. 35% had a previous record of autolytic attempts. The rate of suicide history were higher among depressed schizophrenics (50%) than non-depressed schizophrenics (20%) (p<0,05).
We point out the clinic importance of suicide in schizophrenic patients suffering from depression. Moreover, the study shows the necessity to carry out longitudinal studies to recognize indicators of depression in advance and establish the diagnosis of depression, and, also, to acknowledge the importance of the gender factor in the depression of schizophrenic patients.