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There is a long history of exploitation of the South American river turtle Podocnemis expansa. Conservation efforts for this species started in the 1960s but best practices were not established, and population trends and the number of nesting females protected remained unknown. In 2014 we formed a working group to discuss conservation strategies and to compile population data across the species’ range. We analysed the spatial pattern of its abundance in relation to human and natural factors using multiple regression analyses. We found that > 85 conservation programmes are protecting 147,000 nesting females, primarily in Brazil. The top six sites harbour > 100,000 females and should be prioritized for conservation action. Abundance declines with latitude and we found no evidence of human pressure on current turtle abundance patterns. It is presently not possible to estimate the global population trend because the species is not monitored continuously across the Amazon basin. The number of females is increasing at some localities and decreasing at others. However, the current size of the protected population is well below the historical population size estimated from past levels of human consumption, which demonstrates the need for concerted global conservation action. The data and management recommendations compiled here provide the basis for a regional monitoring programme among South American countries.
We report four cases of Taenia saginata taeniasis in different urban communities of Aragua state, Venezuela. After subsequent treatment with praziquantel and a saline purge, adult tapeworms were collected from all four patients and demonstrated to be T. saginata by morphological and molecular characterization. The finding of T. saginata in four distinct and separate urban municipalities of the Aragua state indicates the pertinence of rigorous meat inspection, and the importance of establishing parasite prevalence in human and bovine Venezuelan populations.
To investigate whether amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) identified with visual memory tests conveys an increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease (risk-AD) and if the risk-AD differs from that associated with aMCI based on verbal memory tests.
4,771 participants aged 70.76 (SD = 6.74, 45.4% females) from five community-based studies, each a member of the international COSMIC consortium and from a different country, were classified as having normal cognition (NC) or one of visual, verbal, or combined (visual and verbal) aMCI using international criteria and followed for an average of 2.48 years. Hazard ratios (HR) and individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis analyzed the risk-AD with age, sex, education, single/multiple domain aMCI, and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores as covariates.
All aMCI groups (n = 760) had a greater risk-AD than NC (n = 4,011; HR range = 3.66 – 9.25). The risk-AD was not different between visual (n = 208, 17 converters) and verbal aMCI (n = 449, 29 converters, HR = 1.70, 95%CI: 0.88, 3.27, p = 0.111). Combined aMCI (n = 103, 12 converters, HR = 2.34, 95%CI: 1.13, 4.84, p = 0.023) had a higher risk-AD than verbal aMCI. Age and MMSE scores were related to the risk-AD. The IPD meta-analyses replicated these results, though with slightly lower HR estimates (HR range = 3.68, 7.43) for aMCI vs. NC.
Although verbal aMCI was most common, a significant proportion of participants had visual-only or combined visual and verbal aMCI. Compared with verbal aMCI, the risk-AD was the same for visual aMCI and higher for combined aMCI. Our results highlight the importance of including both verbal and visual memory tests in neuropsychological assessments to more reliably identify aMCI.
According to the World Health Organization (hereinafter, WHO), 38 million people die each year as a consequence of non-communicable diseases (hereinafter, NCDs). NCDs are mainly caused by diet-related factors, but also by physical inactivity and abuse of certain substances. In particular, overweight and obesity reportedly affect more than 10% of men and 14% of women globally and kill as many as 2.8 million people every year.
Within the framework of linear and regular celestial mechanics, we revise a recent method of Belen'kii (1981). We generalize some of his results, giving a new regularizing function.
We make an application to the zonal earth satellite, considering the hamiltonian function through the harmonic J4. After the angular variable u has been removed, we introduce a new time and we reduce the problem to a linear equation.
Hypothyroidism is a common complication when radiotherapy is part of the treatment for head and neck tumours. This study aimed to show the incidence of hypothyroidism and possible risk factors in these patients.
Factors related to the population, tumour, treatment and occurrence of hypothyroidism were analysed in 241 patients diagnosed with head and neck carcinoma.
Approximately 53 per cent of patients were diagnosed with radiation-induced hypothyroidism. Its occurrence was related to: tumour location, laryngeal surgery type, neck dissection type, post-operative complications, cervical radiotherapy and radiotherapy unit type (linear particle accelerator or telecobalt therapy technology).
Control of thyroid function should be standardised for several years after treatment, particularly in patients with risk factors, such as those treated with telecobalt therapy, those with post-operative complications and for whom the thyroid parenchyma is included in the irradiated area (laryngeal or pharyngeal location and bilateral cervical radiation).
The objective of this study was to estimate the relationship between serum vitamin D (VitD) status and tuberculosis (TB) infection conversion (TBIC), measured by the tuberculin skin test (TST) and an interferon-gamma release assay, the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) test, in the contacts of pulmonary TB patients in Castellon (Spain) in a prospective cohort study from 2010 to 2012. Initially, the participants were negative to latent TB infection after a screening that included TST and QFT-GIT tests, and other examinations. A baseline determination of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] was obtained by chemiluminescence immunoassay. After 8–10 weeks, participants were screened for a second time to determine TB infection conversion (TBIC). Poisson regression models were used in the statistical analysis. Of the 247 participants in the cohort, 198 (80·2%) were screened twice and 18 (9·1%) were TBIC cases. The means of VitD concentration in the TBIC cases and the non-cases were 20·7±11·9 and 27·2±11·4 ng/ml (P = 0·028), respectively. Adjusted for high exposure and TB sputum acid-fast bacilli (AFB)-positive index case, higher serum VitD concentration was associated with low incidence of TBIC (Ptrend = 0·005), and an increase of 1 ng/ml VitD concentration decreased the incidence of TBIC by 6% (relative risk 0·94, 95% confidence interval 0·90–0·99, P = 0·015). The results suggest that sufficient VitD level could be a protective factor of TBIC.
In this chapter, we apply the expectancy-value model of motivation, particularly the family socialization aspect of the model (Eccles (Parsons) et al., 1983; Eccles, 1994, 2007; Wigfield & Eccles, 2002) to address a number of key questions regarding gender differences in adult attainment, in particular educational attainment. When some individuals in the work force of today were children, what kinds of expectations did they have for themselves? What expectations did their parents have for them? Did these expectations vary for girls and boys? Were parents’ expectations about their children’s future education related to the actual education that these adolescents later attained in midlife? How did the child’s academic ability and characteristics of the family figure into this picture? We present original empirical findings, drawing on data collected for a Swedish longitudinal study that spans from childhood to middle adulthood. In line with the expectancy-value model of motivation, the family’s socioeconomic status (SES) was identified as an important predictor of several outcomes. Consistent with the model, for both genders, the family’s SES and parental educational expectations in middle adolescence predicted middle adult educational attainment. The importance of grades differed by gender in that the mathematics grade was a statistically significant predictor of middle adult educational attainment for males, while for females grades in Swedish were a statistically significant predictor of middle adult educational attainment. In this chapter, we situated these study findings in the wider pertinent scholarly literature and discussed the implications of our results as they might relate to efforts to promote equitable and optimal life chances for the current generation of European girls and boys.
The crystal structure of the novel metal organic framework (MOF) Zn(C3H5NO2S)2 is described. This MOF can serve as a model for active sites in metalloproteins, on diverse activities such as structural or catalytic functions. Each half of the amino acid act as a bidentate ligand to one Zn and as a monodentate ligand to another Zn, while the disulphide bond presents an important structural function, stabilizing the crystal packing. The structure has been obtained ab initio from synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data. The compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic system (space group P212121), with a = 20.0906(7), b = 9.5842(3), c = 5.018 89(13), and V = 966.40(5) Å3, with Z = 4. The structure was determined using a direct space approach, by means of the Monte Carlo technique, followed by Rietveld refinement.
This paper presents limits for stability of projection type schemes when using high order pressure-velocity pairs of same degree. Two high order h/p variational methods encompassing continuous and discontinuous Galerkin formulations are used to explain previously observed lower limits on the time step for projection type schemes to be stable , when h- or p-refinement strategies are considered. In addition, the analysis included in this work shows that these stability limits do not depend only on the time step but on the product of the latter and the kinematic viscosity, which is of particular importance in the study of high Reynolds number flows. We show that high order methods prove advantageous in stabilising the simulations when small time steps and low kinematic viscosities are used.
Drawing upon this analysis, we demonstrate how the effects of this instability can be reduced in the discontinuous scheme by introducing a stabilisation term into the global system. Finally, we show that these lower limits are compatible with Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) type restrictions, given that a sufficiently high polynomial order or a mall enough mesh spacing is selected.
Optical properties of ZnO-CdTe electrochemically prepared on a core-shell nanostructure (NS) were studied. Numerical simulations based on effective medium approximation give higher absorption than ZnO-CdS samples and a sensitive dependence on CdTe content. The absorption edges for deep black samples found by transmittance (T(λ)) and diffuse reflectance (Rdiff(λ)) measurements were at 1.33eV and 1.55eV, respectively. A split-off band edge was also found by Rdiff(λ) at ∼2.5eV. The red shift observed in T(λ), previously observed in ZnO-CdS, and may confirm the enhancement of sub-bandgap absorption due to the NS nature of samples.
Wc report the observation of giant magnctorcsistance in granular systems prepared by either Melt-spinning or sputtering. For Melt-spun CoxCu1-x alloys, with x varying between 5 and 30%, Magnctoresitancc amplitudes of 20% in 50 kOc at 5 K were obtained, similar to those reported for the same alloys prepared by sputtering. For sputtered (Ni80Fe20)xAg1-x alloys, three different contributions to the magnetorcsisiancc have been clearly identified: The spin-valve (or giant) Magnctorcsistance, scattering on magnetic fluctuations, and anisotropie Magnetorcsistancc. These three contributions have their own dependences on the size of the magnetic particles, on the degree of intermixing between NiFe and Ag, and on the temperature. In the third scries of samples, sputtered (Co70Fe30)xAg1-x, very large magnctorcsistance amplitude has been observed (AR/R as high as 20% at room temperature in 10 kOc and 60% at 10 K).
Understanding the morphology of catalytically active materials has been approached successfully in past decades using field electron microscopy in scanning and transmission modes. In this respect, some simulated TEM measurements for unsupported promoted molybdenum di-sulfide (MoS2/Co) provided some insights about molecular structure in those catalytic layered transition metal sulfides (LTMS). However, due to poor resolution, lack of color enhancement, and other factors, sections of those materials observed under TEM do not resolve the structure by itself; in particular about the localization of cobalt atoms for promoted MoS2 unsupported catalyst. This work concludes an epitaxial growth of MoS2 slabs over (111)-Co9S8 crystallographic plane, with a stacking degree size of 6 slabs. Results presented in here are obtained using experimental HRTEM and TEM simulations using the multi-slice method with a slice thickness of 25 Å and projected potential, where ai and bi are coefficients to be determined.
Locating cobalt promoters on catalytically MoS2 structures is a challenging task to achieve; this is due to the size on those MoS2 nanostructures. Previous reports in the literature indicate that specific locations for Co in MoS2 slabs are (1010)-plane creating either a sulfur-Co or Molybdenum-Co termination edge, due to lower energy required for the permutation Mo, S and Co to occur. We present results obtained from Density Functional Theory study done on the interface between MoS2 and Co9S8 crystal structures; the interface show an interesting thiocubane cluster and it is suspected to be the responsible for Mo-S-Co bonding to exist, along with HDS reaction. In order to understand electronic properties on thiocubane Density of States and Mulliken Population Analysis calculations were implemented using Cambridge Serial Total Energy Package (CASTEP). Results indicate a strong electron donation from Co to Mo through intermediate sulfur atom bonded to both metals while an enhanced metallic character is also found.
In this paper we report on the morphology of InSb layers grown by atomic layer molecular beam epitaxy (ALMBE) onto InP substrates at low temperatures (330<T<400°C), comparing the nature and densities of defects with those found in ALMBE InSb films grown over InSb/InP buffer layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The main types of defects for ALMBE direct layers are threading dislocations and stacking faults with similar defect densities along both á110ñ directions. The inclusion of the intermediate InSb/InP MBE grown buffer layers leads to lower threading dislocation densities but higher and anisotropic stacking fault distribution. Moreover, different types of three-dimensional defects appear, which are associated with pyramidal or truncated pyramidal hillocks on the surface. These defects, consisting in twins associations are originated at the InSb/InP MBE interface and they are induced by an anomalous growth of InSb layers. In all the cases, the strain caused by the large lattice mismatch is accommodated by means of a pure edge-type misfit dislocation network placed at the interface.
We have explored a new technology based on chemically induced phase separation that yields porous epoxies and cyanurates with a closed cell morphology and micrometer sized pores with a narrow pore size distribution. When the precursor monomers are cured in the presence of a low molecular weight liquid, the desired morphology results from a phase separation and a chemical quench. After phase separation, the porosity is achieved by thermal removal of the secondary liquid phase, specifically by diffusion through the crosslinked matrix. In respect to the thermodynamics and kinetics, the origin of the phase separation process can be identified as nucleation and growth. The influence of internal and external reaction parameters, such as chemical nature of the low molecular weight liquid, its concentration and the curing temperature on the final morphology are presented. Thus, the morphology can be controlled ranging from a monomodal to bimodal pore size distribution with pore sizes inbetween 1 to 10 μm. These porous thermosets are characterized by a significantly lower density, without any loss in thermal stability compared to the neat matrix. Such new materials demonstrate great interest for lowering the dielectric constant and for improving the fundamental understanding of the role of voids in stress relaxation and toughening.