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On the future of the giant South American river turtle Podocnemis expansa

  • German Forero-Medina (a1), Camila R. Ferrara (a2), Richard C. Vogt (a3), Camila K. Fagundes (a2), Rafael Antônio M. Balestra (a4), Paulo C. M. Andrade (a5), Roberto Lacava (a6), Rafael Bernhard (a7), Alison J. Lipman (a8), Ana Julia Lenz (a9), Arnaldo Ferrer (a10), Arsenio Calle (a11), Andres F. Aponte (a12), Bayron R. Calle-Rendón (a13), Cássia Santos Camilo (a7), Elis Perrone (a14), Esteban Miraña (a13), Fabio A. G. Cunha (a3), Eva Loja (a15), Jennifer Del Rio (a16), Jorge Luiz Vera Fernandez (a17), Omar E. Hermández (a18), Rafael Del Aguila (a19), Rafael Pino (a20), Ruben Cueva (a21), Sindy Martinez (a22), Virgínia Campos Diniz Bernardes (a3), Lila Sainz (a23) and Brian D. Horne (a24)...


There is a long history of exploitation of the South American river turtle Podocnemis expansa. Conservation efforts for this species started in the 1960s but best practices were not established, and population trends and the number of nesting females protected remained unknown. In 2014 we formed a working group to discuss conservation strategies and to compile population data across the species’ range. We analysed the spatial pattern of its abundance in relation to human and natural factors using multiple regression analyses. We found that > 85 conservation programmes are protecting 147,000 nesting females, primarily in Brazil. The top six sites harbour > 100,000 females and should be prioritized for conservation action. Abundance declines with latitude and we found no evidence of human pressure on current turtle abundance patterns. It is presently not possible to estimate the global population trend because the species is not monitored continuously across the Amazon basin. The number of females is increasing at some localities and decreasing at others. However, the current size of the protected population is well below the historical population size estimated from past levels of human consumption, which demonstrates the need for concerted global conservation action. The data and management recommendations compiled here provide the basis for a regional monitoring programme among South American countries.

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This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (, which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Also at: University of Florida, Gainesville, USA

Also at: Asociación PANI, Rio Caquetá, Colombia

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