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A matched case-control study was conducted in Bangladesh by enrolling case smallholdings of cattle affected with anthrax in the period of October 2010 to December 2014. The cases were initially reported by mass media and/or in surveillance reports from authorities concerned in the country. In total, 43 case smallholdings were enrolled. For each case, a control was matched by similarity in herd-size and rearing of animals, selected from a distantly located (within 3–10 km) place but within the same sub-district of the case farm. Data collected by administering a prototype questionnaire were analysed by matched-pair analysis and multivariable conditional logistic regression. Out of the 43 smallholdings, 41 were located in three adjoining districts: Pabna, Sirajganj and Tangail, apparently forming a spatial cluster, could be termed ‘anthrax hot spot’ in Bangladesh. Sick animal on farm or a nearby farm slaughtered in the recent past (odds ratio (OR) 12.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6–93.4, P = 0.016)), history of heavy rains occurring in the last 2 weeks preceding an outbreak (OR 13.1, 95% CI 1.2–147.1, P = 0.037) and disposing of dead animal into nearby water body (OR 11.9, 95% CI 1.0–145.3, P = 0.052) were independent risk factors for anthrax in cattle in the country.
Although hypofractionated radiotherapy has been standardised in early breast cancer, even in post-mastectomy no such consensus has been developed for locally advanced breast cancer (LABC), probably due to complex planning and field matching. This study is directed towards dosimetric evaluation and comparison of toxicity, response and disease-free survival (DFS) comparison between hypofractionation and conventional radiotherapy in post-mastectomy LABC.
In total, 222 female breast cancer patients were randomly assigned to be treated with either hypofractionated radiotherapy (n = 120) delivering 40 Gy in 15 fractions over 3 weeks or conventional radiotherapy (n = 102) with 50 Gy in 25 fractions over 5 weeks after modified radical mastectomy (MRM) along with neoadjuvant and/or adjuvant chemotherapy. All patients were planned with treatment planning software and assessed regularly during and after treatment.
Median follow-up period was 178 weeks in conventional arm (CRA) and 182 weeks in hypofractionation arm (HFA). There exists a dosimetric difference between the two arms of treatment, in spite of similar dose coverage [planning treatment volume (PTV) D90 92·04% in CRA versus 92·5% in HFA; p = 0·49], average dose in HFA is less than that of CRA (p < 0·001); so is the maximum clinical target volume (CTV) dose (p < 0·001). Similarly, average lung dose in HFA arm is significantly lower than CRA (9·9 versus 10·84; p = 0·06), but the V20Gy of lung and V30Gy of heart had no difference. The toxicity of radiation was comparable with similar mean time to produce toxicity [CRA: 7 W, HFA: 10 W; hazard ratio 0·64, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0·28–1·45]. Three-year recurrence event was alike in two arms (CRA: 4·9%, HFA: 5·8%; p = 0·76). Mean DFS in CRA is 230 weeks and that of HFA is 235 weeks with hazard ratio 1·01 (95% CI = 0·32–3·19; p = 0·987).
Though biologically effective dose (BED) in hypofractionation is lesser than that of conventional fractionation, there are indistinguishable toxicity, locoregional recurrence, distant failure rate and DFS between the two modalities.
Duck production has the potential to play a major role in agricultural economy. Asian countries alone contribute 84.2% of total duck meat produced in the world. Driven by the demand of processed foods among consumers, the global duck meat market is expected to grow at a steady pace, reaching a value of about $11.23 billion in the coming years. Duck meat has higher muscle fibre content in breast meat compared to chicken, and is considered as red meat. Moreover, due to a higher fat content (13.8%) than chicken and a stronger gamey flavour, duck meat can be less appreciated by the consumer. Development and diversification of ready-to-eat duck meat products is expected to increase consumption levels. Hence, the status of duck meat production, physicochemical properties, processing, including traditional products, and development of novel value-added ready-to-eat products from spent duck meat is discussed in detail to explore its importance as an alternative to chicken.
One problem in incremental product development is that geometric models are limited in their ability to explore radical alternative design variants. In this publication, a function modeling approach is suggested to increase the amount and variety of explored alternatives, since function models (FM) provide greater model flexibility. An enhanced function-means (EF-M) model capable of representing the constraints of the design space as well as alternative designs is created through a reverse engineering process. This model is then used as a basis for the development of a new product variant. This work describes the EF-M model's capabilities for representing the design space and integrating novel solutions into the existing product structure and explains how these capabilities support the exploration of alternative design variants. First-order analyses are executed, and the EF-M model is used to capture and represent already existing design information for further analyses. Based on these findings, a design space exploration approach is developed. It positions the FM as a connection between legacy and novel designs and, through this, allows for the exploration of more diverse product concepts. This approach is based on three steps – decomposition, design, and embodiment – and builds on the capabilities of EF-M to model alternative solutions for different requirements. While the embodiment step of creating the novel product's geometry is still a topic for future research, the design space exploration concept can be used to enable wider, more methodological, and potentially automated design space exploration.
We describe a study of the E–W-trending South Wagad Fault (SWF) complex at the eastern part of the Kachchh Rift Basin (KRB) in Western India. This basin was filled during Late Cretaceous time, and is presently undergoing tectonic inversion. During the late stage of the inversion cycle, all the principal rift faults were reactivated as transpressional strike-slip faults. The SWF complex shows wrench geometry of an anastomosing en échelon fault, where contractional and extensional segments and offsets alternate along the Principal Deformation Zone (PDZ). Geometric analysis of different segments of the SWF shows that several conjugate faults, which are a combination of R synthetic and R’ antithetic, propagate at a short distance along the PDZ and interact, generating significant fault slip partitioning. Surface morphology of the fault zone revealed three deformation zones: a 500 m to 1 km wide single fault zone; a 5–6 km wide double fault zone; and a c. 500 m wide diffuse fault zone. The single fault zone is represented by a higher stress accumulation which is located close to the epicentre of the 2001 Bhuj earthquake of Mw 7.7. The double fault zone represents moderate stress at releasing bends bounded by two fault branches. The diffuse fault zone represents a low-stress zone where several fault branches join together. Our findings are well corroborated with the available geological and seismological data.
The work presents a comparative study on GaN/AlGaN type-II heterostructures grown on c-plane Al2O3 and Si (111) substrates by Plasma Assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy. The in-depth structural characterizations of these samples were performed by High-Resolution X-Ray Diffraction, X-ray Reflectivity and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy. The in-plane and out-of plane strains were determined from measured c- and a-lattice parameters of the epilayers from reciprocal space mapping of both symmetric triple axis (002) and asymmetric grazing incidence (105) double axis mode. The mosaicity parameters like tilt and correlation lengths were also calculated from reciprocal space mapping. Moreover, the twist angle was measured from skew symmetric off axis scan of (102), (103), and (105) planes along with (002) symmetric plane. The defect density were measured from the full width at half maxima of skew symmetric scan of (002) and (102) reflection planes. Also, the strained states of all the layers were analyzed and corresponding Al mole fraction was calculated based on anisotropic elastic theory. The thicknesses of the layers were measured from simulation of the nominal structure by fitting with X-ray Reflectivity experimental curves and also by comparing with cross sectional Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy micrographs.
A plasmonic back reflector has been fabricated for light-trapping application in thin film Si photovoltaic devices. The back reflector comprises of a 2D array of self-organized Ag NPs separated from a planar Ag mirror by a ZnO layer deposited by atomic-layer deposition. The diffuse reflectance and parasitic absorption losses can be modulated by varying the ZnO thickness. A maximum diffuse reflectance peak value of 30% at 950 nm, with a bandwidth of 400nm, is observed for ∼100 nm diameter NPs at a distance of 50 nm from the Ag mirror. Finite-difference time-domain simulations of a 100nm Ag sphere near a mirror were used to understand the experimentally observed trends in diffuse reflectance and parasitic absorption, with distance from the mirror. Particles very close to the mirror can couple to delocalized surface plasmons or exhibit Fano resonance effects, thereby increasing parasitic absorption. Particles situated away from the mirror are influenced by driving-field effects due to the interaction of incident and reflected photons, which modulate the scattering cross-section.
The drive to reduce the thickness of solar cells is putting ever greater demands on light-trapping techniques. Techniques are required to improve absorption of light within the semiconductor, while not adversely affecting the electrical properties of the device. Conventional diffraction gratings can scatter visible and near-infrared photons into large angles, which get trapped in the silicon layer by total internal reflection. However, diffraction gratings typically have large feature sizes and so increase the overall surface area of a solar cell compared to the planar case. A periodic arrangement of metal nanoparticles acts as a diffraction grating, but an over-coated semiconductor will have a similar surface area to a planar layer due a combination of a low particle height and low surface coverage.
Random arrays of identical metal nanoparticles feature Lorentzian scattering peaks that can be tuned by modifying the size and shape of the particle. Periodic arrays have much more complicated scattering peaks, due to the enhancement and suppression of scattering at different wavelengths caused by the constructive and destructive interference between each nanoparticle. In effect the scattering spectrum of the individual nanoparticle is modified by the diffractive orders of the array, and so both parameters must be optimized together.
We have studied periodic arrays of metal nanoparticles fabricated using electron-beam lithography, and characterised their reflectance properties. The optical properties of the fabricated arrays were found to be in good agreement with finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations. Au and Al nanoparticles are found to have a strong scattering effect and Al nanoparticles are also shown to exhibit an anti-reflection effect in combination with scattering. This work is focused on verifying that FDTD simulations can accurately model metal nanoparticle arrays and then extending the simulations to determine the previously unknown transmittance characteristics of metal nanoparticle arrays on silicon.
Phosphorus (P) doped ultra thin n+-layer is formed on crystalline silicon (c-Si) at low substrate temperatures of 80 – 350 °C using radicals generated by the catalytic reaction of phosphine (PH3) with a tungsten catalyzer heated at 1300 °C. The sheet carrier concentration obtained by Hall effect is in the range between 3×1012cm-2 and 8×1012cm-2. The distribution of P atoms obtained by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) indicates that P atoms locate within the depth of 4 nm from surface and the profile has almost the same distribution independent of any doping conditions such as substrate temperature or radical exposure time. The sheet carrier concentration is 1.15 – 2.12% of the amount of P atoms incorporated through the radical doping. The ratio of activated donors increases with substrate temperature during the radical doping, suggesting that P-related species bonded on the c-Si surface require thermal energy for their activation. Using the n+-layer formed by radical doping, the reduction of surface recombination velocity for n-type c-Si wafer is attempted. The effective minority carrier lifetime of the n-type c-Si sample covered with 6-nm-thick intrinsic amorphous Si (i-a-Si) layers on both side increases from 32 μs to1576 μs by the radical doping of P atoms to n-type c-Si surface, suggesting that the radical doping can be utilized for the formation of passivation layers on a-Si/ n-c-Si hetero-interface.
The Lambertian limit represents a benchmark for the enhancement of the effective path length in solar cells, which is important as soon as the absorption length exceeds the absorber thickness. In previous publications it has been shown that either extremely thick or extremely thin solar cells can be driven close to this limit by exploiting up to date photon management. In this contribution we show that the Lambertian limit can also be achieved with thin-film solar cells based on amorphous silicon for practically relevant absorber thicknesses. Departing from superstrates, which are currently incorporated into state-of-the-art thin-film solar cells, we show that their topology has simply to be downscaled to typical feature sizes of about 100 nm in order to achieve this goal. By systematically studying the impact of the modulation height and the lateral feature sizes of the incorporated textures and of the absorber thickness we are able to deduce intuitive guidelines how to approach the Lambertian limit in randomly textured thin-film solar cells.
We report on our systematic study of light trapping effects using Ag/ZnO BRs for nc-Si:H solar cells. The texture of Ag and ZnO was optimized to achieve enhancement in photocurrent. The light trapping effect on photocurrent enhancement in solar cells was carefully investigated. Comparing to single-junction solar cells deposited on flat stainless steel substrates, the gain in Jsc by using Ag/ZnO BRs is 57% for nc-Si:H solar cells. This gain in Jsc is much higher than what has been achieved by advanced light trapping approaches using photonic structures or plasmonic light trapping reported in the literature. We achieved a Jsc of 29-30 mA/cm2 in a nc-Si:H single-junction solar cell with an intrinsic layer thickness of ∼2.5 μm. We compared the quantum efficiency of single-junction cells to the classical limit of fully randomized scattering and found that there is a 6-7 mA/cm2 difference between the measured Jsc and the classical limit, in which 3-4 mA/cm2 is in the long wavelength region. However, by taking into consideration the losses from reflection of the top contact, absorption in the doped layers, and imperfect reflection in the BRs, the difference disappears. This implies we have reached the practical limit if the scattering from randomly textured substrates is the only mechanism of light trapping. Therefore, we believe future research for improving photocurrent should be directed toward reducing (i) reflection loss by the top contact, the absorption in ZnO and at the Ag/ZnO interface, and (ii) p layer absorption.
Surface plasmon enhanced InAs/GaAs quantum dot solar cells are reported. Light trapping by metallic nanostructures offers the potential to realize high efficient quantum dot based intermediate band solar cells. Both Au and Ag nanoparticles spherical metal nanoparticles are synthesized by the salt reduction method. The large area coupling of metal nanoparticles and quantum dot solar cell surface is carried out by using 1,3-propanedithiol as linker molecules. The conversion efficiency of the solar cells has been increased from 9.5% to 11.6% after deposition of Au nanoparticles and from 9.5 to 10.9% after incorporating Ag nanoparticles. The conversion efficiency enhancement is mainly as a result of improved photocurrent due to enhanced forward scattering from the plasmonic nanostructures.
Highly efficient Pt-TiO2 composite photoelectrodes were synthesized by combining two novel deposition methods: ACVD and a room temperature RF (radio frequency) magnetron sputtering method. A room temperature RF magnetron sputtering method allowed uniform deposition of Pt nanoparticles (NPs) onto the as-synthesized nanostructured columnar TiO2 films by ACVD. Pt NP sizes from 0.5 to 3 nm demonstrating a high particle density (>1012 cm−2) could be achieved by varying deposition time with constant pressure and power intensity. As-synthesized Pt-TiO2 films were used as photoanodes for water photolysis. Pt nanoparticles deposited onto the TiO2 film for 20s produced the highest photocurrent (7.92 mA/cm2 to 9.49 mA/cm2) and maximized the energy conversion efficiency (16.2 % to 21.2 %) under UV illumination. However, as the size of Pt particles increased, more trapping sites for photogenerated electron-hole pairs decreased photoreaction.
A compact, single element concentrator comprising a near linear array of prisms has been designed to simultaneously split and concentrate the solar spectrum. Laterally aligned solar cells with different bandgaps are devised to be fabricated on a common Si substrate, with each cell absorbing a different spectral band optimized for highest overall power conversion efficiency. Epitaxial Ge on Si is used as a low cost virtual substrate for III-V materials growth. Assuming no optical loss for the prism concentrator, no shadowing and perfect carrier collection for the solar cells, simulations show that 39% efficiency can be achieved for a parallel four-junction (4PJ) InGaP-GaAs-Si-Ge cell under 200X concentration, and higher efficiency is possible with more junctions.
Thin film silicon solar cells are an attractive option for the production of sustainable energy but their low response at long wavelengths requires additional measures for absorption enhancement. The most successful concepts are based on light scattering interface textures whose understanding is greatly facilitated by considering a superposition of periodic textures that diffract the light into oblique angles, ideally beyond the critical angle of total internal reflection. Because the thickness of the active layers is on the same scale as the wavelength, interference of diffracted waves gives rise to resonance phenomena. We discuss the absorption enhancement in terms of a perturbation approach using the modal structure of a corresponding device with flat interfaces.
Reported is the photoluminescence enhancement due to surface plasmon from the metallic nanoparticles that are linked to the surface of a GaAs capped InAs quantum dots. In this study, spherical silver (Ag) nanoparticles are investigated where the different densities of Ag nanoparticles are deposited on four InAs/GaAs quantum dot samples. The PL enhancement due to Ag nanoparticles has been observed to be improved with increasing nanoparticle density. The photoluminescence enhancement is interpreted in terms of enhanced scattering from the surface plasmon excited in the Ag nanoparticles.
Low dimensional structures like quantum dots (QDs) offers the the ability to tune the absorption properties of standard semiconductor materials. However, QDs are relatively weak light absorbers and hence may benefit significantly from coupling with plasmonic modes in nearby metal structures. In the case of a Si QD absorber layer for photovoltaic applications, enhanced absorption would lead to improved power conversion efficiency. Silver metal nanoparticles (MNPs) were deposited on Si QD structures using the self-assembly method of evaporation and annealing. Room temperature photoluminescence (PL) measurements were used to study the surface plasmon (SP) enhanced emission from the samples. The results were compared to conventional metal back reflectors. Enhanced surface plasmon coupled emission (SPCE) from Si QDs in the vicinity of silver metal nanoparticles (MNPs) is observed with a good correlation between the enhancement and the resonance excitation. Quenching was observed from the same emitter layers placed in close proximity to thin flat silver reflector layers, indicating the importance of the spacer layer between a metal layer and the quantum dots in optimising enhancement. The results have implications for the design of SP-enhanced QD solar cells.
The use of plasmonic nanoparticles as light scattering elements for light trapping in solar cells is studied. From theoretical considerations it follows that Ag particles with a diameter on the order of 100 nm possess ideal light scattering properties. It is demonstrated that these particles can be fabricated using the selective aerosol deposition technique. Because this newly developed technique provides excellent control over critical parameters such as particle size and surface coverage it is a valuable tool for optimizing plasmonic solar cells. The initial experiments show that embedding Ag particles with a diameter of 180 nm into amorphous silicon solar cells enhances the current output.
A thin metal film with nano-apertures, called “nano-mesh electrode,” generates near-field lights near the electrode. We investigated carrier excitations in semiconductors by the near-field light. Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method revealed that when the infrared light irradiates the Au nano-mesh electrode on Ge, near-field lights are generated and absorbed in the surface region of the Ge. In order to measure the photocurrent involved by near-filed lights, we fabricated a Schottky cell and applied a Au nano-mesh electrode on the n-type Ge. The efficiency of the Schottky cell with the Au nano-mesh electrode improved in infrared region compared to plain the Au-film Schottky cell. The agreement between theoretical simulations and experiments indicates that near-field lights enhance the carrier excitation in the semiconductor.
Comparative studies have been carried out on the performance of the photovoltaic devices with dissimilar shapes of the InN nanostructures fabricated on p-Si (100). The devices fabricated with the nanodots show a superior performance compared to the devices fabricated with the nanorods. The discussions have been carried out on the superior junction property, larger effective junction area and inherent random pyramidal topographical texture of the cell fabricated with nanodots. Such single junction devices exhibit a promising fill factor and external quantum efficiency of 38% and 27%, respectively, under concentrated AM1.5 illumination.