Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Tectonic evolution and stress pattern of South Wagad Fault at the Kachchh Rift Basin in western India

  • G. C. KOTHYARI (a1), R. K. DUMKA (a1), A. P. SINGH (a1), G. CHAUHAN (a2), M. G. THAKKAR (a2) and S. K. BISWAS (a3)...

Abstract

We describe a study of the E–W-trending South Wagad Fault (SWF) complex at the eastern part of the Kachchh Rift Basin (KRB) in Western India. This basin was filled during Late Cretaceous time, and is presently undergoing tectonic inversion. During the late stage of the inversion cycle, all the principal rift faults were reactivated as transpressional strike-slip faults. The SWF complex shows wrench geometry of an anastomosing en échelon fault, where contractional and extensional segments and offsets alternate along the Principal Deformation Zone (PDZ). Geometric analysis of different segments of the SWF shows that several conjugate faults, which are a combination of R synthetic and R’ antithetic, propagate at a short distance along the PDZ and interact, generating significant fault slip partitioning. Surface morphology of the fault zone revealed three deformation zones: a 500 m to 1 km wide single fault zone; a 5–6 km wide double fault zone; and a c. 500 m wide diffuse fault zone. The single fault zone is represented by a higher stress accumulation which is located close to the epicentre of the 2001 Bhuj earthquake of M w 7.7. The double fault zone represents moderate stress at releasing bends bounded by two fault branches. The diffuse fault zone represents a low-stress zone where several fault branches join together. Our findings are well corroborated with the available geological and seismological data.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: kothyarigirish_k@rediffmail.com

References

Hide All
Avouac, J. P., Tapponier, P., Bai, M., You, H. & Wang, G. 1993. Active thrusting and folding along the northern Tien Shan and Late Cenozoic rotation of the Tarim relative to Dzungaria and Kazakhstan. Journal of Geophysical Research 98, 6755–804.
Bilham, R. 1999. Slip parameters for the Rann of Kachchh, India, 16 June 1819 earthquake quantified from contemporary accounts. In Coastal Tectonics (eds Stewart, I. S. & Vita-Finzi, C.), pp. 295318. Geological Society of London, Special Publication no. 146.
Biswas, S. K. 1971. The Miliolite rocks of Kutch and Kathiawar (western India). Sedimentary Geology 5, 147–64.
Biswas, S. K. 1980. Structure of Kutch Kathiawar region, Western India. Proceedings of the 3rd Indian Geological Congress. Pune, pp. 255–72.
Biswas, S. K. 1982. Rift basins in western margin of India with special reference to hydrocarbon prospect. AAPG Bulletin 66 (10), 1497–513.
Biswas, S K. 1987. Regional tectonic framework, structure and evolution of the western marginal basins of India. Tectonophysics 135, 302–27.
Biswas, S. K. 1993. Geology of Kutch. KDM Institute of Petroleum Exploration, Dehradune, 450 pp.
Biswas, S. K. 1999. A review on the evolution of rift basins in India during Gondwana with special reference to Western Indian basins and their hydrocarbon prospects. In Gondwana Assembly: New issues and Perspectives (eds Sahni, A. & Loyal, R. S.), pp. 5376. New Delhi: Indian National Science Academy.
Biswas, S. K. 2005. A review of structure and tectonics of Kutch basin, western India with special reference to earthquakes. Current Science 88 (10), 1592–600.
Biswas, S. K. & Khattri, K. N. 2002. A geological study of earthquakes in Kachchh, Gujarat, India. Journal of the Geological Society of India 60, 131–42.
Burbank, D. & Anderson, R. 2001. Tectonic Geomorphology. Oxford: Blackwell Science, 247 pp.
Chatton, M., Malavieille, J., Dominguez, S., Manighetti, I., Romano, C., Beauprêtre, S., Garembois, S. & Larroque, C. 2012. Interaction between slip events, erosion and sedimentation along an active strike-slip fault: insights from analog models. EGU General Assembly. Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vienna (Austria).
Chen, Y.-G., Lai, K.-Y., Lee, Y.-H., Suppe, J., Chen, W.-S., Lin, Y.-N.N., Wang, Y., Hung, J.-H. & Kuo, Y. T. 2007. Coseismic fold scarps and their kinematic behavior in the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake Taiwan. Journal of Geophysical Research 112, B03S02, http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2006JB004388.
Chung, W. P. & Gao, H. 1995. Source parameters of the Anjar earthquake of July 21, 1956, India, and its seismotectonic implications for the Kutch rift basin. Tectonophysics 242, 281–92.
Cloos, H. 1930. Zur experimentellen Tektonik. Die Naturwissenschaften 18, 741–7.
Coltorti, M. & Ollier, C. D. 1999. The significance of high planation surface in the Andes of Ecuador. In Uplift, Erosion and Stability: Perspectives on Long-Term Landscape Development (eds Smith, B. J., Whalley, W. B. & Warke, P. A.), pp. 239–53. Geological Society of London, Special Publication no. 162.
Cotton, C. A. 1950. Tectonic scarps and fault valleys. Geological Society of America Bulletin 61 (7), 717–58.
Cunningham, W. D. 1993. Strike-slip faults in the southernmost Andes and the development of the Patagonian orocline. Tectonics 12, 169–86.
Cunningham, W. D. & Mann, P. 2007. Tectonics of strike–slip restraining and releasing bends. In Tectonics of Strike-Slip Restraining and Releasing Bends (eds Cunningham, W. D. & Mann, P.), pp. 112. Geological Society of London, Special Publication no. 290.
Dolan, J. F. & Haravitch, B. D. 2014. How well do surface measurements track slip at depth in large strike-slip earthquakes? The importance of fault structural maturity in controlling on-fault slip versus off-fault surface deformation. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 388, 3847.
Dumka, R. K. & Rastogi, B. K. 2013. Crustal strain in the Rupture zone of 2001 Bhuj Earthquake. Institute of Seismological Research, Annual Report 2012-2013-45-46P.
Fedden, F. B. 1984. Geology of Kathiawar peninsular. Geological Survey of India, Memoir 21 (2), 41–8.
Fossen, H. 2010. Structural Geology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gawthorpe, R. L. & Leeder, M. R. 2000. Tectono-sedimentary evolution of active extensional basins. Basin Research 12 (3–4), 195218.
Goyal, B., Thakkar, M. G. & Bhandari, S. 2015. Quaternary tectonic deformations and geomorphic setup of Samakhiali alluvial plain, Eastern Kachchh, Western India. Journal of the Geological Society of India 86 (4), 399411.
Grapes, R. & Wellman, H. 1988. The Wairarapa Fault. Wellington, New Zealand: Victoria University of Wellington.
Graveleau, F. & Dominguez, S. 2008. Analogue modelling of the interactions between tectonics, erosion and sedimentation in foreland thrust belts. Comptes Rendus Geoscience 340 (5), 324–33.
Graveleau, F., Strak, V., Dominguez, S., Malavieille, J., Manighetti, I. & Petit, C. 2015. Experimental modelling of tectonics–erosion–sedimentation interactions in compressional, extensional, and strike–slip settings. Geomorphology 244, 146–68.
Johnston, A. C. 1996. Seismic moment assessment of earthquakes in stable continental regions. II. Historical seismicity. Geophysical Journal International 125, 639–78.
Katz, Y., Weinberger, R. & Aydin, A. 2004. Geometry and kinematic evolution of Riedel shear structures, Capitol Reef National Park, Utah. Journal of Structural Geology 26, 491501.
Keller, E. A. & Pinter, N. 2001. Active Tectonics. Earthquakes, Uplift, and Landscape. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Keller, E. A., Zepeda, R. L., Rockwell, T. K., Ku, T. L. & Dinklage, W. S. 1998. Active tectonics at Wheeler Ridge, southern San Joaquin Valley, California. Geological Society of America Bulletin 110 (3), 298310.
Kennan, L., Lamb, S. H. & Hoke, L. 1997. High-altitude palaeosurfaces in the Bolivian Andes: evidence for late Cenozoic surface uplift. In Palaeosurfaces: Recognition, Reconstruction and Palaeoenvironmental Interpretation (ed. Widdowson, M.), pp. 307–23. Geological Society of London, Special Publication no. 120.
Kothyari, G. C., Rastogi, B. K., Morthekai, P., Dumka, R. K. & Kandergula, R. S. 2016. Active segmentation assessment of the tectonically active South Wagad Fault in Kachchh, Western Peninsular India. Geomorphology 253, 491507.
Mandal, P., Rastogi, B. K., Satyanarayana, H. V. S., Kousalya, M., Vijayraghavan, R., Satyamurty, C., Raju, I. P., Sarma, A. N. S. & Kumar, N. 2004. Characterization of the causative fault system for the 2001 Bhuj earthquake of Mw 7.7. Tectonophysics 378, 105121.
Mandal, P., Satymurty, C. & Raju, I. P. 2009. Iterative de-convolution of the local waveforms: Characterization of the seismic source in Kachchh, India. Tectonophysics 478, 143–57.
Mohan, K., Rastogi, B. K. & Chaudhary, P. 2015. Magnetotelluric studies in the epicenter zone of 2001, Bhuj earthquake. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 98, 7584.
Moore, J. M. 1979. Tectonics of the Najd transcurrent fault system, Saudi Arabia. Journal of the Geological Society of London 136, 441–54.
Morley, C. K., Nelson, R. A., Pattoon, T. I. & Munn, S. G. 1990. Transfer zone in East African rift system and their relevance in hydrocarbon. AAPG Bulletin 74, 465–80.
Oldham, R. D. 1926. The Cutch (Kachh) earthquake of 16th June 1819 with a revision of the great earthquake of 12th June 1897. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India 46, 71147.
Pesci, A., Giordano, T. & Teza, G. 2009. Improving strain rate estimation from velocity data of non-permanent GPS stations; the central Apennines study case (Italy). GPS Solution 13, 249–61.
Petit, C., Gunnell, Y., Gonga-Saholiariliva, N., Meyer, B. & Séguinot, J. 2009. Faceted spurs at normal fault scarps: Insights from numerical modeling. Journal of Geophysical Research 114, doi: 10.1029/2008JB005955.
Rajendran, C. P. & Rajendran, K. 2001. Characteristics of deformation and past seismicity associated with the 1819 Kachchh earthquake, northwestern India. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 91, 407–26.
Rajendran, C. P., Rajendran, K. M., Thakkar, M. G. & Bhanu, G. 2008. Assessing the previous activity at the source zone of the 2001 Bhuj earthquake based on the near-source and distant paleoseismological indicators. Journal of Geophysical Research 113, B05311, doi: 10.1029/2006JB004845.
Rajendran, K., Rajendran, C. P., Thakkar, M. G. & Tuttle, M. P. 2001. 2001 Kachchh (Bhuj) earthquake: coseismic surface features and their significance. Current Science 80 (11), 1397–405.
Rao, N. C., Rao, P. N. & Rastogi, B. K. 2013. Evidence for right-lateral strike-slip environment in the Kutch basin of northwestern India from moment tensor inversion studies. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 64 (2013), 158–67.
Rastogi, B. K., Mandal, P. & Biswas, S. K. 2014. Sesimogenesis of earthquakes occurring in the ancient rift basin of Kachchh, Western India. In Intraplate Earthquakes (ed. Talwani, P.), pp. 126–61. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Riedel, W. 1929. Zur Mechanik geologischer Brucherscheinungen. Zentralblatt fur Mineralogie Abteilung B, 354–68.
Sieh, K. E. & Jahns, R. H. 1984. Holocene activity of the San Andreas fault at Wallace Creek, California. Geological Society of America Bulletin 95 (8), 883–96.
Singh, A. P., Rao, I. G., Kumar, S. & Kayal, J. R. 2015. Seismic source characteristics in Kachchh and Sauashtra regions of Western India: b-value and fractal mapping of aftershock sequence. Natural Hazard 77 (1), 3349.
Singh, A. P., Zhao, L., Kumar, S. & Mishra, S. 2016. Inversion for earthquake focal mechanism and regional stress in the Kachchh Rift basin, western India: tectonic implications. Journal of Asian Earth Science 117, 269–83.
Strak, V., Dominguez, S., Petit, C., Meyer, B. & Loget, N. 2011. Interactions between tectonics and erosion during normal fault growth: Insights from experimental modelling. Tectonophysics 513 (1–4), 119.
Talwani, P. & Gangopadhyay, A. 2003. Seismogenesis of intraplate earthquakes. Indo-US Workshop on Seismicity & Geodynamics, 6–10 October 2003. Hyderabad, India: NGRI, pp. 1617.
Tchalenko, J. S. 1968. The evolution of kink bands and the development of compression textures in sheared clays. Tectonophysics 6, 159–74.
Tchalenko, J. S. 1970. Similarities between shear zones of different magnitudes. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America 81, 1625–40.
Vassallo, R., Ritz, J. F., Braucher, R., Jolivet, M., Carretier, S., Larroque, C., Chauvet, A., Sue, C., Todbileg, M., Bourles, D. L., Arzahnikova, N. & Arzahnikov, S. 2007. Transpressional tectonics and stream terraces of the Gobi-Altay, Mongolia. Tectonics 26, TC5013, doi: 10.1029/2006TC002081.
Wesson, R. L., Helley, E. J., Lajoie, K. R. & Wentworth, C. M. 1975. Faults and future earthquakes. In Studies for Seismic Zonation of the San Francisco Bay Region (ed. Borchardt, R. D.), pp. 530. Washington DC: United States Geological Survey.
Wilcox, R. E., Harding, T. P. & Seely, D. R. 1973. Basic wrench tectonics. AAPG Bulletin 57, 7496.
Woodcock, N. H. & Fischer, M. 1986. Strike-slip duplexes. Journal of Structural Geology 8, 725–35.
Ziegler, P. A. 1992. Geodynamics of rifting and implications in hydrocarbon habitat. Tectonophysics 215, 221–53.

Keywords

Tectonic evolution and stress pattern of South Wagad Fault at the Kachchh Rift Basin in western India

  • G. C. KOTHYARI (a1), R. K. DUMKA (a1), A. P. SINGH (a1), G. CHAUHAN (a2), M. G. THAKKAR (a2) and S. K. BISWAS (a3)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed