Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Risk factors associated with anthrax in cattle on smallholdings

  • P. K. BISWAS (a1), M. Z. ISLAM (a1), S. K. SHIL (a2), R. K. CHAKRABORTY (a3), S. S. U. AHMED (a4) and J. P. CHRISTENSEN (a5)...

Summary

Unprecedented high rates of anthrax outbreaks have been observed recently in cattle and humans in Bangladesh, with 607 human cases in 2010. By enrolling 15 case and 15 control cattle smallholdings in the spatial zone in July–September 2010, we conducted a case-control study, data of which were analysed by matched-pair analysis and multivariable conditional logistic regression. Feeding animals with uprooted and unwashed grass [odds ratio (OR) 41·2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3·7–458·8, P=0·003], and feeding water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) (OR 22·2, 95% CI 1·2–418·7, P=0·039) were independent risk factors for anthrax in cattle.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Risk factors associated with anthrax in cattle on smallholdings
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Risk factors associated with anthrax in cattle on smallholdings
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Risk factors associated with anthrax in cattle on smallholdings
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Author for correspondence: Dr P. K. Biswas, Department of Microbiology, Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chittagong, Bangladesh. (Email: biswaspk2000@yahoo.com)

References

Hide All
1. Hanna, PC, Ireland, JA. Understanding Bacillus anthracis pathogenesis. Trends in Microbiology 1999; 7: 180182.
2. Bales, ME, et al. Epidemiologic response to anthrax outbreaks: field investigation, 1950–2001. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2002; 8: 11631174.
3. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. Anthrax in animals (http://www.fao.org/ag/magazine/0112sp.htm), Rome, 2001. Accessed 5 December 2010.
4. World Organization for Animal Health (OIE).Anthrax. In: The Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals . Paris: OIE, 2008, pp. 135144.
5. Aikembayev, AM, et al. Historical distribution and molecular diversity of Bacillus anthracis, Kazakhstan. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2010; 16: 789796.
6. Lindeque, PM, Turnbull, PCB. Ecology and epidemiology of anthrax in the Etosha National Park, Namibia. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 1994; 61: 7183.
7. Hugh-Jones, M. 1996–97 Global anthrax report. Journal of Applied Microbiology 1999; 87: 189191.
8. Macher, A. Industry-related outbreak of human anthrax, Massachusetts, 1868. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2002; 8: 1182.
9. Mongoh, MN, et al. Risk factors associated with anthrax outbreak in animals in North Dakota, 2005: A retrospective case-control study. Public Health Reports 2008; 123: 352359.
10. Durrheim, DN, et al. Epidemiologic questions from anthrax outbreak, hunter valley, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2009; 15: 840842.
11. Fasanella, A, et al. Severe anthrax outbreaks in Italy in 2004: considerations on factors involved in the spread of infection. New Microbiologica 2010; 33: 8386.
12. Lewerin, SS, et al. Anthrax outbreak in a Swedish beef cattle herd – 1st case in 27 years: Case report. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2010; 52: 7.
13. World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). World Animal Health information database (WAHID) Interface (http://web.oie.int/wahis/public.php?page=home), Paris, 2011. Accessed 23 August 2011.
14. Vijaikumar, M, Thappa, DM, Karthikeyan, K. Cutaneous anthrax: an endemic outbreak in South India. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics 2002; 48: 225226.
15. Rao, GR, et al. An outbreak of cutaneous anthrax in a non-endemic district – Visakhapatnam in Andhra Pradesh. Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology 2005; 71: 102105.
16. Ray, TK, Hutin, YJ, Murhekar, MV. Cutaneous anthrax, West Bengal, India, 2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2009; 15: 497499.
17. International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B).Cutaneous anthrax outbreaks in two districts of North-Western Bangladesh, August–October, 2009. Health and Science Bulletin 2009; 7: 18.
18. Institute of Epidemiology, Disease Control & Research (IEDCR) & National Influenza Centre (NIC), Bangladesh. Anthrax update on 28 October 2010 (http://www.iedcr.org/images/Healthmessages/Anthrax_Update_last.pdf), Dhaka, 2010. Accessed 30 November 2010.
19. Institute of Epidemiology, Disease Control & Research (IEDCR) & National Influenza Centre (NIC), Bangladesh. Anthrax clinical guideline – guideline for management of cutaneous anthrax – case definition (http://www.iedcr.org/images/Healthmessages/Anthrax_Clinical%20guideline.pdf), Dhaka, 2010. Accessed 30 November 2010.
20. Kamal, MM. A review on cattle reproduction in Bangladesh. International Journal of Dairy Science 2010; 5: 245252.
21. Gracey, JF, Collins, DS, Huey, RJ. Meat Hygiene, 10th edn. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders, 1999, 768 pp.
22. Saile, E, Koehler, TM. Bacillus anthracis multiplication, persistence, and genetic exchange in the rhizosphere of grass plants. Applied Microbiology 2006; 72: 31683174.
23. Prakash, V. Status of vultures in Keoladeo National Park, Bharatpur, Rajasthan, with special reference to population crash in Gyps species. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 1999; 96: 365378.
24. Pain, D, et al. Causes and effects of temporospatial declines of Gyps vultures in Asia. Conservation Biology 2003; 17: 661671.
25. Oaks, JL, et al. Diclofenac residues as the cause of vulture population decline in Pakistan. Nature 2004; 427: 630633.
26. International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B). Combined team of ICDDR,B and government of Bangladesh investigators reveal dynamics of anthrax outbreaks in Bangladesh during 2009–2010 (http://www.icddrb.org/media-centre/news/2203-combined-team), Dhaka, 2010. Accessed 25 August 2011.

Keywords

Risk factors associated with anthrax in cattle on smallholdings

  • P. K. BISWAS (a1), M. Z. ISLAM (a1), S. K. SHIL (a2), R. K. CHAKRABORTY (a3), S. S. U. AHMED (a4) and J. P. CHRISTENSEN (a5)...

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed