To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
To determine the impact of pre-operative intratympanic gentamicin injection on the recovery of patients undergoing translabyrinthine resection of vestibular schwannomas.
This prospective, case–control pilot study included eight patients undergoing surgical labyrinthectomy, divided into two groups: four patients who received pre-operative intratympanic gentamicin and four patients who did not. The post-operative six-canal video head impulse test responses and length of in-patient stay were assessed.
The average length of stay was shorter for patients who received intratympanic gentamicin (6.75 days; range, 6–7 days) than for those who did not (9.5 days; range, 8–11 days) (p = 0.0073). Additionally, the gentamicin group had normal post-operative video head impulse test responses in the contralateral ear, while the non-gentamicin group did not.
Pre-operative intratympanic gentamicin improves the recovery following vestibular schwannoma resection, eliminating, as per the video head impulse test, the impact of labyrinthectomy on the contralateral labyrinth.
To examine when cochlear fibrosis occurs following a translabyrinthine approach for vestibular schwannoma resection, and to determine the safest time window for potential cochlear implantation in cases with a preserved cochlear nerve.
This study retrospectively reviewed the post-operative magnetic resonance imaging scans of patients undergoing a translabyrinthine approach for vestibular schwannoma resection, assessing the fluid signal within the cochlea. Cochleae were graded based on the Isaacson et al. system (from grade 0 – no obstruction, to grade 4 – complete obliteration).
Thirty-nine patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The cochleae showed no evidence of obliteration in: 75 per cent of patients at six months, 38.5 per cent at one year and 27 per cent beyond one year. Most changes happened between 6 and 12 months after vestibular schwannoma resection, with cases of an unobstructed cochlear decreasing dramatically, from 75 per cent to 38.5 per cent, within this time.
The progress of cochlear obliteration that occurred between 6 and 12 months following vestibular schwannoma resection indicates that the first 6 months provides a safer time window for cochlear patency.
The late Pleistocene Big Timber glacier of west-central Montana was used as the test case for a model which calculates the mass balance of a paleoglacier using glacial flow theory. Application of Glen’s flow law to a detailed reconstruction of the glacier provided an estimate of the component of mass flux due to internal deformation. Assuming basal slip to be zero where mass flux due to deformation was a maximum, the mass flux at the equilibrium-line altitude (ELA) an ablation gradient of 3.0 ± 0.6 mm/m, and an accumulation gradient of 1.0 ± 0.2 mm/m were determined. Application of the continuity model above and below the ELA generated a second estimate of mass flux at discrete points along the glacier. The difference between deformation flux and continuity flux yields a first approximation of slip, which is highly variable along the glacier. Since the mass-balance gradients are climatically controlled, this model provides information on the paleoclimatic setting of the glacier. The low gradients indicate that, during the last glacial maximum, the east side of the central Rocky Mountains experienced a cold, dry environment much like that of modern-day glaciers in the Brooks Range of Alaska.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the association between personality factors and age-related longitudinal cognitive performance, and explore interactions of stress-proneness with apolipoprotein E (APOE) ɛ4, a prevalent risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Methods: A total of 510 neuropsychiatrically healthy residents of Maricopa County recruited through media ads (mean age 57.6±10.6 years; 70% women; mean education 15.8±2.4 years; 213 APOE ɛ4 carriers) had neuropsychological testing every 2 years (mean duration follow-up 9.1±4.4 years), and the complete Neuroticism Extraversion Openness Personality Inventory-Revised. Several tests were administered within each of the following cognitive domains: memory, executive skills, language, visuospatial skills, and general cognition. Primary effects on cognitive trajectories and APOE ɛ4 interactions were ascertained with quadratic models. Results: With personality factors treated as continuous variables, Neuroticism was associated with greater decline, and Conscientiousness associated with reduced decline consistently across tests in memory and executive domains. With personality factors trichotomized, the associations of Neuroticism and Conscientiousness were again highly consistent across tests within memory and to a lesser degree executive domains. While age-related memory decline was greater in APOE ɛ4 carriers as a group than ɛ4 noncarriers, verbal memory decline was mitigated in ɛ4 carriers with higher Conscientiousness, and visuospatial perception and memory decline was mitigated in ɛ4 carriers with higher Openness. Conclusions: Neuroticism and Conscientiousness were associated with changes in longitudinal performances on tests sensitive to memory and executive skills. APOE interactions were less consistent. Our findings are consistent with previous studies that have suggested that personality factors, particularly Neuroticism and Conscientiousness are associated with cognitive aging patterns. (JINS, 2016, 22, 765–776)
Between December 2010 and July 2011, 252 cases of STEC O157 PT8 stx1 + 2 infection were reported in England, Scotland and Wales. This was the largest outbreak of STEC reported in England and the second largest in the UK to date. Eighty cases were hospitalized, with two cases of haemolytic uraemic syndrome and one death reported. Routine investigative data were used to generate a hypothesis but the subsequent case-control study was inconclusive. A second, more detailed, hypothesis generation exercise identified consumption or handling of vegetables as a potential mode of transmission. A second case-control study demonstrated that cases were more likely than controls to live in households whose members handled or prepared leeks bought unwrapped [odds ratio (OR) 40, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2·08-769·4], and potatoes bought in sacks (OR 13·13, 95% CI 1·19-145·3). This appears to be the first outbreak of STEC O157 infection linked to the handling of leeks.
This was a prospective longitudinal multisite study of the effects of prenatal cocaine and/or opiate exposure on temperament in 4-month-olds of the Maternal Lifestyle Study (N = 958: 366 cocaine exposed, 37 opiate exposed, 33 exposed to both drugs, 522 matched comparison). The study evaluated positivity and negativity during The Behavior Assessment of Infant Temperament (Garcia Coll et al., 1988). Parents rated temperament (Infant Behavior Questionnaire; Rothbart, 1981). Cocaine-exposed infants showed less positivity overall, mainly during activity and threshold items, more negativity during sociability items, and less negativity during irritability and threshold items. Latent profile analysis indicated individual temperament patterns were best described by three groups: low/moderate overall reactivity, high social negative reactivity, and high nonsocial negative reactivity. Infants with heavy cocaine exposure were more likely in high social negative reactivity profile, were less negative during threshold items, and required longer soothing intervention. Cocaine- and opiate-exposed infants scored lower on Infant Behavior Questionnaire smiling and laughter and duration of orienting scales. Opiate-exposed infants were rated as less respondent to soothing. By including a multitask measure of temperament we were able to show context-specific behavioral dysregulation in prenatally cocaine-exposed infants. The findings indicate flatter temperament may be specific to nonsocial contexts, whereas social interactions may be more distressing for cocaine-exposed infants.
Western ragweed is problematic in Oklahoma pasture and rangeland. There are no labeled PRE herbicides for western ragweed control in pastures to allow ranchers the flexibility of extending the spray season or the ability to spray before emergence of sensitive crops in bordering fields. Field studies were conducted in four locations during a 2-yr period to determine the effects of applying aminopyralid PRE for control of western ragweed. Good to excellent control of western ragweed was obtained when aminopyralid rates of 89 g ae ha−1 or greater were applied PRE. Control was season long and equal to that obtained with a formulated mixture of 2,4-D and aminopyralid applied POST at a rate of 457 + 57 g ae ha−1. Sward height at time of PRE application had little to no effect on the efficacy of the treatment, but time after application before a significant rainfall event did influence the aminopyralid rate needed to achieve acceptable PRE control.
Decompression of the endolymphatic sac for Ménière's disease gives unpredictable results. This may be because the sac is difficult to identify and decompress accurately without causing surgical trauma.
In order to test this idea, transmastoid decompression was simulated in 5 cadaver half heads and the anatomy of the endolymphatic sac was reviewed in a further 14 specimens.
The endolymphatic sac was found and confirmed by histology in all five simulated decompressions. A newly described feature, a trapezoid thickening of dura, was a useful guide. The review showed that the sac was constant proximally, but variable distally. The posterior semicircular canal, posterior fossa dura and sigmoid sinus are at risk during dissection.
The endolymphatic sac may be identified on inspection by an overlying patch of dura, thereby reducing exploratory dissection. It is best to decompress the sac as far proximally as possible, whilst protecting the posterior semicircular canal.
The risk of vitamin D insufficiency is increased in persons having limited sunlight exposure and dietary vitamin D. Supplementation compliance might be improved with larger doses taken less often, but this may increase the potential for side effects. The objective of the present study was to determine whether a weekly or weekly/monthly regimen of vitamin D supplementation is as effective as daily supplementation without increasing the risk of side effects. Participants were forty-eight healthy adults who were randomly assigned for 3 months to placebo or one of three supplementation regimens: 50 μg/d (2000 IU/d, analysed dose 70 μg/d), 250 μg/week (10 000 IU/week, analysed dose 331 μg/week) or 1250 μg/week (50 000 IU/week, analysed dose 1544 μg/week) for 4 weeks and then 1250 μg/month for 2 months. Daily and weekly doses were equally effective at increasing serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, which was significantly greater than baseline in all the supplemented groups after 30 d of treatment. Subjects in the 1250 μg treatment group, who had a BMI >26 kg/m2, had a steady increase in urinary Ca in the first 3 weeks of supplementation, and, overall, the relative risk of hypercalciuria was higher in the 1250 μg group than in the placebo group (P= 0·01). Although vitamin D supplementation remains a controversial issue, these data document that supplementing with ≤ 250 μg/week ( ≤ 10 000 IU/week) can improve or maintain vitamin D status in healthy populations without the risk of hypercalciuria, but 24 h urinary Ca excretion should be evaluated in healthy persons receiving vitamin D3 supplementation in weekly single doses of 1250 μg (50 000 IU).
Dietary intake of linoleic acid (LA) has increased dramatically during the twentieth century and is associated with a greater prevalence of obesity. Vegetable oils are recognised as suitable alternatives to fish oil (FO) in feed for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) but introduce high amounts of LA in the salmon fillet. The effect on fish consumers of such a replacement remains to be elucidated. Here, we investigate the effect of excessive dietary LA from soyabean oil (SO) on endocannabinoid levels in Atlantic salmon and mice, and study the metabolic effects in mice when SO replaces FO in feed for Atlantic salmon. Atlantic salmon were fed FO and SO for 6 months, and the salmon fillet was used to produce feed for mice. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed diets of 35 % of energy as fat based on FO- and SO-enriched salmon for 16 weeks. We found that replacing FO with SO in feed for Atlantic salmon increased LA, arachidonic acid (AA), decreased EPA and DHA, elevated the endocannabinoids 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and anandamide (AEA), and increased TAG accumulation in the salmon liver. In mice, the SO salmon diet increased LA and AA and decreased EPA and DHA in the liver and erythrocyte phospholipids, and elevated 2-AG and AEA associated with increased feed efficiency, weight gain and adipose tissue inflammation compared with mice fed the FO salmon diet. In conclusion, excessive dietary LA elevates endocannabinoids in the liver of salmon and mice, and increases weight gain and counteracts the anti-inflammatory properties of EPA and DHA in mice.
In this study, we present a small-size implantable RF antenna (biosensor) which is made of fully biocompatible material, cubic silicon carbide. Silicon Carbide is one of the few semiconducting materials that combine biocompatibility and sensing potentiality. The hypothesis of a SiC based antenna, to be used for glucose monitoring, is that the changes in the medium surrounding the antenna affect the antenna properties such as input impedance and resonance frequency, and these changes can be used to estimate the patient’s plasma glucose level. An all-SiC patch antenna has been designed, simulated and fabricated with a target frequency of operation of 10 GHz. A Cu patch antenna was fabricated on SiC to serve as a reference antenna. The all-SiC antenna was realized by growing a poly-crystalline 3C-SiC film using CVD on a thick oxide layer that had been coated with poly-Si to serve as a growth template. A semi-insulating 4H-SiC substrate was used to minimize RF losses during operation.
Although the American contribution to business education is well-known, that of other nations has been largely overlooked. In this article, Professor Locke reviews the very different history of business education in Germany, which he traces from its early twentieth-century origins to the present. He concludes that, while the German model no longer has the international reputation it did before World War II, it continues to promote solid economic growth.
A consideration of Rakesh Khurana's From Higher Aims to Hired Hands: The Social Transformation of American Business Schools and the Unfulfilled Promise of Management as a Profession (Princeton, 2007).
Khurana's book is an examination of the development of the university-based business school in the United States from the nineteenth century to today. He asserts that while the original goal of these schools was to train a professional class of managers in the mold of doctors or lawyers, university business schools no longer strive for this ideal. Instead, Khurana believes that business schools have become purveyors of a product –the MBA–sold to student-consumers. People should therefore not be surprised at corporate misconduct when managers are considered responsible only to shareholders. Khurana calls for a renewal of the professional ideal in the business school, in which future business leaders are trained to take their place as moral leaders in society. We asked each of the following authors to comment on the book and see if business education underwent a similar transition in other countries.