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The CoCrNiMox (x = 0, 0.1, and 0.2 in molar ratio) medium entropy alloys (MEAs) were fabricated by vacuum arc melting, followed by cold rolling and annealing treatments. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were employed to characterize the microstructures. It has been shown that the CoCrNi MEA has a single FCC phase and the Mo-containing MEAs contain (Cr, Mo)-rich σ precipitates. In addition, the Mo addition caused significant grain refinement, due to the fact that the presence of σ phase exerts a strong pinning effect on the grain boundary migration. The hardness testing results indicate an increment in Vickers hardness from 187.5 ± 4.5 Hv of CoCrNi alloy to 309.5 ± 10.3 Hv of CoCrNiMo0.2 alloy. The yield strength and ultimate tensile strength also increase from 339 ± 2 to 644 ± 5 MPa and from 810 ± 5 to 1071 ± 17 MPa, respectively, but the elongation drops from 88.4 ± 4.0% to 29.5 ± 7.6%. The grain refinement and the precipitation of σ phase make synergistic contribution to the reinforcement of Mo-containing CoCrNi-based MEAs. The details and explanations in this study may guide the future design and research of the CoCrNi-based quaternary alloys with enhanced properties.
Monochamus alternatus Hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) warrants attention as a dominant transmission vector of the pinewood nematode, and it exhibits tolerance to high temperature. Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) family members, including inducible HSP70 and heat shock cognate protein 70 (HSC70), are major contributors to the molecular chaperone networks of insects under heat stress. In this regard, we specifically cloned and characterized three MaltHSP70s and three MaltHSC70s. Bioinformatics analysis on the deduced amino acid sequences showed these genes, having close genetic relationships with HSP70s of Coleopteran species, collectively shared conserved signature structures and ATPase domains. Subcellular localization prediction revealed the HSP70s of M. alternatus were located not only in the cytoplasm and endoplasmic reticulum but also in the nucleus and mitochondria. The transcript levels of MaltHSP70s and MaltHSC70s in each state were significantly upregulated by exposure to 35–50°C for early 3 h, while MaltHSP70s reached a peak after exposure to 45°C for 2–3 h in contrast to less-upregulated MaltHSC70s. In terms of MaltHSP70s, the expression threshold in females was lower than that in males. Also, both fat bodies and Malpighian tubules were the tissues most sensitive to heat stress in M. alternatus larvae. Lastly, the ATPase activity of recombinant MaltHSP70-2 in vitro remained stable at 25–40°C, and this recombinant availably enhanced the thermotolerance of Escherichia coli. Overall, our findings unraveled HSP70s might be the intrinsic mediators of the strong heat tolerance of M. alternatus due to their stabilized structure and bioactivity.
The present study was conducted to evaluate the impact of dietary fully oxidised β-carotene (OxBC, C40H60O15) supplementation during the perinatal period on immune status and productivity in a sow model. At day 85 of pregnancy, 150 sows were allocated to one of three dietary treatments with fifty sows per treatment. The three experimental diets were supplemented with 0, 4 or 8 mg/kg OxBC in the basal diet. The feeding trial was conducted from gestation day 85 until day 21 of lactation. Dietary OxBC supplementation greatly enhanced colostrum IgM, IgA and IgG levels, and the IgM and IgG content of 14-d milk. Dietary OxBC supplementation decreased the TNF-α and IL-8 levels in colostrum, as well as the TNF-α and IL-18 levels in 14-d milk. There was also a tendency towards an increase in the soluble CD14 level in 14-d milk. Although dietary treatments did not affect average daily feed intake nor backfat thickness loss during lactation, dietary OxBC supplementation tended to enhance litter weight and individual piglet weight at weaning. There was a trend towards increased lactose concentration in 14-d milk with increasing dietary OxBC. It is concluded that dietary supplementation with OxBC during the perinatal period enhances the lactose concentration of sow milk and the immune status of sows, which is reflected by improved cytokine status and immunoglobulin concentrations in colostrum and milk, and thus tending to increase litter weight and individual piglet weight at weaning. The results also provide a scientific nutritional reference for perinatal mothers due to the biological similarity between pigs and humans.
One critical issue in network real-time kinematic (NRTK) is the interpolation of atmospheric delay for user stations. Some classic interpolation algorithms, such as linear interpolation method (LIM), ignore the strong correlation between tropospheric delay and height factors, and the interpolation accuracy is poor in areas with large height difference. To solve this problem, a troposphere modelling method based on error compensation, namely ECDIM (Error Compensation-Based DIM), is proposed, and this method can be applied to both conventional single Delaunay triangulated network (DTN) and multi-station scenarios. The results of California Real Time Network (CRTN) with large height difference show that compared with LIM, the overall modelling accuracy with ECDIM has been improved by 50.1% to 67.3%, and especially for low elevation satellites (e.g., 10–20 degree), the accuracy is increased from tens of centimetres to a few centimetres. At user end, the positioning error in up direction with LIM has an obvious systematic deviation, and the fix rate of epoch is relatively low. This situation has been improved significantly after using ECDIM. The results of Tianjin Continuously Operating Reference System (TJCORS) show that in areas with small height difference, both methods have achieved high precision interpolation accuracy, and the positioning accuracy with ECDIM in up direction is improved by 21.2% compared with LIM.
This article has two main objectives. First, we aim to revisit debates about the structure of Song Dynasty faction lists and the relationship between eleventh- and twelfth century factional politics on the basis of a large-scale network analysis of co-occurrence ties reported in the prose collections of those contemporary to the events. Second, we aim to innovate methodologically by developing a series of approaches to compare historical networks of different sizes with regard to overall network metrics as well as the significance of particular attributes such as native and workplace in their makeup. The probabilistic and sampling methods developed here should be applicable for various kinds of historical network analysis. The corresponding data can be found here: https://doi.org/10.17026/dans-xtf-z3au.
Starch content is an important trait in barley. To evaluate the genetic diversity and identify molecular markers of starch content in barley, 40 cultivated barley genotypes collected from different regions, including genotypes whose starch content is at either the high or low end of the spectrum (15), were used in this study. All the genotypes were re-sequenced by the double-digest-restriction associated DNA sequencing method, and a total of 299,103 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were obtained. The genotypes were divided into four sub-populations based on FASTSTRUCTURE, principal component analysis and neighbour-joining tree analysis. All four sub-populations had a high linkage disequilibrium, especially group 3, whose members were recently bred for malting in the Jiangsu coastal area. The starch content of the barley lines was evaluated during three growing seasons (2014–2017), and the average values of starch content across the three growing seasons at the low and high ends were 51.5 and 55.0%, respectively. The starch content was affected by population structure, the barley in group 2 had a low starch content, while the barley in group 4 had a high starch content. Twenty-six SNP markers were identified as being significantly associated with starch content (P ⩽ 0.001) based on the average values across the three growing seasons using the mixed linear model method. These SNP markers were located on chromosomes 1H and 4H, and were considered loci of qSC1-1 and qSC4-1, respectively. The major identified QTLs for starch content are helpful for further research on carbohydrates and for barley breeding.
The isolation of male and female gametes is an effective method to study the fertilization mechanisms of higher plants. An osmotic shock method was used to rupture pollen grains of Allium tuberosum Roxb and release the pollen contents, including generative cells, which were mass collected. The pollinated styles were cut following 3 h of in vivo growth, and cultured in medium for 6–8 h, during which time pollen tubes grew out of the cut end of the style. After pollen tubes were transferred into a solution containing 6% mannitol, tubes burst and released pairs of sperm cells. Ovules of A. tuberosum were incubated in an enzyme solution for 30 min, and then dissected to remove the integuments. Following transfer to a dissecting solution free of enzymes, each nucellus was cut in the middle, and squeezed gently on the micropylar end, resulting in the liberation of the egg, zygote and proembryo from ovules at selected stages. These cells can be used to explore fertilization and embryonic development using molecular biological methods for each cell type and development stage.
In recent years, banded leaf sheath blight in maize (Zea mays L.) has become an important disease that seriously affects quality and yield. This paper aims to evaluate the sensitivity of Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn to thifluzamide on maize, to clarify the effect of seed coating using a thifluzamide suspension agent on safety and physiological indicators and to determine the effectiveness of control of banded leaf sheath blight in the field. In this study, the thifluzamide sensitivity of 102 strains of R. solani in maize from Shandong was determined using the mycelial growth rate method; the average half-maximal effective concentration value (EC50) was 0.086 ± 0.004 μg/ml and displayed a unimodal frequency distribution, indicating that thifluzamide had strong inhibitory activity on the mycelial growth of R. solani in maize. In an indoor pot test, the root activities under 24 g a.i./100 kg seed were found to increase by 78.01%, compared with the control. Similarly, chlorophyll content increased most significantly at this dose, by 32.3%. Thifluzamide (FS) could significantly increase the per-plot yield. Among the examined dosages, 48 g a.i./100 kg seed had the most significant treatment effect, with the yield rate increasing by 15.7% and 14.1%, respectively, in 2017 and 2018 compared with the control. The field effectiveness against banded leaf sheath blight in maize was highest at the dosage of 48 g a.i./100 kg seed for a seed dressing with thifluzamide (FS). These results indicate that thifluzamide has enormous potential for controlling banded leaf sheath blight in maize.
Studies have indicated that psychological stress impairs human fertility and that various stressors can induce apoptosis of testicular cells. However, the mechanisms by which psychological stress on males reduces semen quality and stressors induce apoptosis in testicular cells are largely unclear. Using a psychological (restraint) stress mouse model, we tested whether male psychological stress triggers apoptosis of spermatozoa and spermatogenic cells through activating tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α signalling. Wild-type or TNF-α−/− male mice were restrained for 48 h before examination for apoptosis and expression of TNF-α and TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) in spermatozoa, epididymis, seminiferous tubules and spermatogenic cells. The results showed that male restraint significantly decreased fertilization rate and mitochondrial membrane potential, while increasing levels of malondialdehyde, active caspase-3, TNF-α and TNFR1 in spermatozoa. Male restraint also increased apoptosis and expression of TNF-α and TNFR1 in caudae epididymides, seminiferous tubules and spermatogenic cells. Sperm quality was also significantly impaired when spermatozoa were recovered 35 days after male restraint. The restraint-induced damage to spermatozoa, epididymis and seminiferous tubules was significantly ameliorated in TNF-α−/− mice. Furthermore, incubation with soluble TNF-α significantly reduced sperm motility and fertilizing potential. Taken together, the results demonstrated that male psychological stress induces apoptosis in spermatozoa and spermatogenic cells through activating the TNF-α system and that the stress-induced apoptosis in spermatogenic cells can be translated into impaired quality in future spermatozoa.
This study aimed to classify the pre-auricular sinus before performing radical dissection, so as to achieve optimal aesthetic results.
The recent five-year clinical data of 53 patients with a congenital pre-auricular sinus and infection treated in the hospital were reviewed. According to the sinus course, pre-auricular and post-auricular types were defined, and regional dissection was performed using the modified supra-auricular or post-auricular approach.
All patients achieved primary intention healing of the incision, and were followed up for six months to five years. No recurrence was found, and the incision scar was completely concealed.
Surgical approaches for regional dissection might be adopted based on the different types of pre-auricular sinuses, and further radical dissection might be performed to achieve optimal aesthetic results.
-dimensional holomorphic map defined in a neighborhood of the origin such that the origin is an isolated fixed point of all of its iterates, and let
denote the number of periodic orbits of
hidden at the origin. Gorbovickis gives an efficient way of computing
for a large class of holomorphic maps. Inspired by Gorbovickis’ work, we establish a similar method for computing
for a much larger class of holomorphic germs, in particular, having arbitrary Jordan matrices as their linear parts. Moreover, we also give another proof of the result of Gorbovickis [On multi-dimensional Fatou bifurcation. Bull. Sci. Math.138(3)(2014) 356–375] using our method.
l-Carnitine is essential for mitochondrial β-oxidation and has been used as a lipid-lowering feed additive in humans and farmed animals. d-Carnitine is an optical isomer of l-carnitine and dl-carnitine has been widely used in animal feeds. However, the functional differences between l- and d-carnitine are difficult to study because of the endogenous l-carnitine background. In the present study, we developed a low-carnitine Nile tilapia model by treating fish with a carnitine synthesis inhibitor, and used this model to investigate the functional differences between l- and d-carnitine in nutrient metabolism in fish. l- or d-carnitine (0·4 g/kg diet) was fed to the low-carnitine tilapia for 6 weeks. l-Carnitine feeding increased the acyl-carnitine concentration from 3522 to 10 822 ng/g and alleviated the lipid deposition from 15·89 to 11·97 % in the liver of low-carnitine tilapia. However, as compared with l-carnitine group, d-carnitine feeding reduced the acyl-carnitine concentration from 10 822 to 5482 ng/g, and increased lipid deposition from 11·97 to 20·21 % and the mRNA expression of the genes involved in β-oxidation and detoxification in the liver. d-Carnitine feeding also induced hepatic inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis. A metabolomic investigation further showed that d-carnitine feeding increased glycolysis, protein metabolism and activity of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. Thus, l-carnitine can be physiologically utilised in fish, whereas d-carnitine is metabolised as a xenobiotic and induces lipotoxicity. d-Carnitine-fed fish demonstrates increases in peroxisomal β-oxidation, glycolysis and amino acid degradation to maintain energy homeostasis. Therefore, d-carnitine is not recommended for use in farmed animals.
Chinese court cases have attained increasing importance in recent studies of Chinese law, but remain insufficiently understood. In this article, I demonstrate why Chinese court cases should be given more weighty consideration in comparative studies involving Chinese law as a comparator, and how such cases, particularly ‘Guiding Cases’ and ‘Gazette Cases’ (which are published in the official Gazette of the Supreme People's Court), should be properly dealt with and assessed in view of the complexity of the court case system in China.
Hierarchically porous poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA)/poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) monolithic composites were fabricated by nonsolvent-induced phase separation (NIPS) method without any template for the first time. A homogeneous hierarchical porous structure with relatively large specific surface area containing both mesopores and macropores was confirmed by pore size distribution plots and scanning electron microscopy images, respectively. Fourier transform infrared analysis (FTIR) revealed that PLLA and PCL were physically blended. Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) analysis further showed that the two components were physically blended but had a slight thermal compatibility. Meanwhile, X-ray diffraction (XRD) tests indicated that the addition of PCL hindered the crystallization of PLLA. Herein, the formation of the mesopores and macropores during the phase separation process was explained from the microscopic point of view according to the results of XRD and DSC. The present monolithic composites with hierarchically porous structures had promising prospect for applications of tissue engineering.
The continental shelf strata provide information regarding sea-level fluctuation and climate changes in the Quaternary period. A 5831.47-km-long high-resolution seismic profile and borehole core (YS01) were acquired to reconstruct the evolutionary history of the strata in South Yellow Sea (SYS) during the late Pleistocene. The strata recorded three transgression events (HI, HII, and HIII) and three stages of paleochannel development (LI, LII, and LIII). Based on the distribution, thickness, and volume of the strata formed in the three transgressions, we concluded that the scale of the three transgressions during the late Pleistocene was HIII, HI, and HII, in descending order. In addition, our data show that the Yellow River extended to the Yellow Sea Trough during the last glacial maximum. The influence of the tectonic framework on sedimentation in the SYS was completely concealed by sea-level changes and sediment supply in the late Pleistocene (~Marine Isotope Stage 5). Since then, the accommodation space, a crucial prerequisite for sedimentation, has been controlled solely by sea-level changes in the SYS. Furthermore, two “source to sink” models of the neritic shelf in the marine and terrestrial environments were established, including high sea-level and shelf-exposure models.