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The objective of this study was to analyze differences in birth weight and overweight/obesity in a Shanghai twin cohort. We also wanted to study their association and explore possible risk factors for the discordance of overweight/obesity within twins. This was an internal case–control study designed for twins. The 2012 Shanghai Twin Registration System baseline survey data of a total of 3417 twin pairs were statistically analyzed using SPSS22 software. Results show that the body mass index (BMI) of the Shanghai twin population increased with age. Twins with a high birth weight had a higher BMI and a higher rate of overweight and obesity; 0- to 6-year-old twins, male twins and dizygotic (DZ) twins had higher rates of overweight/obesity than other groups. The greater the discordant birth weight rate of twins, the more obvious the difference in BMI (p < .05). There was a significant difference in overweight/obesity between twins with a relative difference of birth weight ≥15% in DZ twins (p < .05). DZ twins, male twins and 0- to 6-year-old twins were more likely to be discordant in overweight/obese than others. The discordant birth weight within twins was not a risk factor for discordant overweight/obesity. However, attention should be paid to childhood obesity, and appropriate interventions should be made at the appropriate time. Genetics may play an important role in the occurrence and development of overweight/obesity. In conclusion, discordant growth and development in the uterus early in life may not lead to discordant weight development in the future.
Hypertension represents one of the most common pre-existing conditions and comorbidities in Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. To explore whether hypertension serves as a risk factor for disease severity, a multi-centre, retrospective study was conducted in COVID-19 patients. A total of 498 consecutively hospitalised patients with lab-confirmed COVID-19 in China were enrolled in this cohort. Using logistic regression, we assessed the association between hypertension and the likelihood of severe illness with adjustment for confounders. We observed that more than 16% of the enrolled patients exhibited pre-existing hypertension on admission. More severe COVID-19 cases occurred in individuals with hypertension than those without hypertension (21% vs. 10%, P = 0.007). Hypertension associated with the increased risk of severe illness, which was not modified by other demographic factors, such as age, sex, hospital geological location and blood pressure levels on admission. More attention and treatment should be offered to patients with underlying hypertension, who usually are older, have more comorbidities and more susceptible to cardiac complications.
The Straw-headed Bulbul Pycnonotus zeylanicus is one of South-East Asia’s most threatened songbirds due to relentless demand for the regional cage-bird trade. The species was recently uplisted from ‘Endangered’ to ‘Critically Endangered’ only two years after its previous uplisting. Intriguingly, populations in highly urbanised Singapore appear relatively secure. However, the last Singaporean density estimates, derived from traditional census methods, were obtained nearly two decades ago in 2001. A recent population estimate in 2016 was derived from the census work in 2001 coupled with relative abundance indices from population trends. We thus performed systematic field surveys using the distance sampling method, estimating 573 ± 185 individuals nation-wide, with a break-down of 217 ± 81 on the main island of Singapore and 356 ± 104 birds on the satellite of Pulau Ubin. Taken together, the total population estimate reported here comprises 22.9–57.3% of the global wild population, underscoring the importance of Singapore as a stronghold for the species. In spite of its apparently secure status in Singapore, the species remains susceptible to local and foreign trapping pressures. Based on our assessment, we propose a number of local and regional conservation measures to ensure the continued survival of populations in Singapore.
A magnetic dipole quasi-Yagi antenna based on a dielectric resonator (DR) is proposed in this letter. The dominate TE1δ1 mode of the rectangular DR is used as a magnetic dipole which can be differentially fed by the coplanar strip line (CPS). Thanks to the DR employment, the proposed antenna has several advantages such as compact size and flexible design which means the 3-D dimensions of the DR can be easily adjusted to cater for various applications. Meanwhile, the gain of the proposed DR quasi-Yagi antenna is higher than that of traditional electric dipole counterparts. Furthermore, since the DR driver is horizontally polarized, both the metal strip and DR can be used as a director for enhancing the end-fire gain. To verify the design concept, a prototype operating at the X-band is fabricated and measured. Good agreement between the simulated and measured results can be observed.
Cerebrovascular disease is the most common cause of death in China, and the incidence of ischemic stroke (240 per 100,000 people) is higher than that of hemorrhagic stroke (82 per 100,000 people). More than 80 percent of strokes can be prevented by early control of risk factors. Therefore, identifying and managing high-risk groups is a top priority in preventing stroke. The CHA2DS2-VASc score is a key prediction tool for stratifying stroke risk in individuals with atrial fibrillation (AF) as follows: zero score is low risk; one is intermediate risk; and two is high risk. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the accuracy of the CHA2DS2-VASc scoring system for stratifying ischemic stroke risk in the non-AF population.
We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library in June 2018 for relevant diagnostic studies. Study selection, data extraction, and quality assessment (using the QUADAS-2 criteria) were performed independently by two authors. Methodological variation across the selected studies precluded meta-analysis, so the results were synthesized narratively.
Seven prospective studies involving 50,652 patients (6,760 with ischemic stroke) were included. The treatment threshold ranged from two to four across the studies. Three studies reported diagnostic accuracy at a threshold of two, with a sensitivity above 0.8 and a specificity ranging from 0.32 to 0.68. The diagnostic odds ratio was greater than two (seven studies). The two studies using a treatment threshold of four reported a sensitivity of 0.59 to 0.76 and a specificity of 0.43 to 0.69. One study used a threshold of three, with a sensitivity of 0.79 and a specificity of 0.39.
The CHA2DS2-VASc score may be used to predict ischemic stroke in the non-atrial fibrillation population. Treatment thresholds greater than two provide more optimal diagnostic accuracy, although the predictive performance of the CHA2DS2-VASc score may be better in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease but not AF.
The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of dietary supplemental vitamin D3 (VD3) on P absorption and utilisation as well as its related mechanisms in the small intestine of broilers. A total of 384 1-d-old Arbor Acres male broilers were assigned randomly into four treatments following a completely randomised design with a 2 (dietary non-phytate P (NPP) contents: 0·43 and 0·22 %)×2 (dietary VD3 supplemental levels: 0 and 87·5 μg/kg) factorial arrangement. The experiment lasted for 22 d. The results showed that P contents in serum from the hepatic portal vein and tibia ash of broilers were higher (P<0·05) for 0·43 % NPP than for 0·22 % NPP. The type IIb Na-dependent phosphate cotransporter (NaP-IIb) protein expressions in the duodenum and ileum were higher (P<0·05) also for 0·43 % NPP than 0·22 % NPP. Supplementation of VD3 enhanced (P<0·05) tibia P retention rate and type III Na-dependent phosphate cotransporter (PiT)-1 protein expression in the duodenum of all broilers. Moreover, VD3 supplementation decreased (P<0·002) mortality and increased (P<0·02) serum P content from the hepatic portal vein after 4 h of feeding, tibia ash content, tibia ash P content and protein expressions of NaP-IIb and PiT-1 in the jejunum of broilers fed diet with 0·22 % NPP. Thus, dietary supplemental VD3 promoted intestinal P absorption and bone P utilisation, and this effect might be associated with enhanced PiT-1 levels in the duodenum and PiT-1 and NaP-IIb levels in the jejunum respectively when dietary NPP is limiting.
Palladium (Pd) and gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs) hybridized on two types of carbon supports, graphene and granular activated carbon (GAC), were shown to be promising catalysts for the sustainable hydrodehalogenation of aqueous trichloroethylene (TCE). These catalysts are capable of degrading TCE more rapidly than commercial Pd-on-GAC catalysts. The catalysts were synthesized at room temperature without the use of any environmentally unfriendly chemicals. Pd was chosen for its catalytic potency to break down TCE, while Au acts as a strong promoter of the catalytic activity of Pd. The results indicate that both graphene and GAC are favorable supports for the NPs due to high surface-to-volume ratios, unique surface properties, and the prevention of NP aggregation. The properties of NP catalysts were characterized using electron microscopy and spectroscopy techniques. The TCE degradation results indicate that the GAC-supported catalysts have a higher rate of TCE removal than the commercial Pd-on-GAC catalyst, and the degradation rate is greatly increased when using graphene-supported samples.
Monosized spherical Cu–20% Sn (wt%) alloy particles with diameter ranging from 70.6 to 334.0 μm were prepared by the pulsated orifice ejection method (termed “POEM”). Fully dense without pores and bulk inclusions, the cross-sectional micrographs of the spherical alloy particles indicate an even distribution of Cu and Sn. These spherical Cu–Sn alloy particles exhibit a good spherical shape and a narrow size distribution, suggesting that the liquid Cu–Sn alloy can completely break the balance between the surface tension and the liquid static pressure in the crucible micropores and accurately control the volume of the droplets. Furthermore, the cooling rate of spherical Cu–20% Sn alloy particles is estimated by a Newton’s cooling model. The cooling rate of the Cu–20% Sn alloy particle decreases gradually with the particle diameter increasing. Smaller particles have higher cooling rates and when the particle diameter is less than 70 μm, the cooling rate of particles can reach more than 3.3 × 104 K/s. The secondary dendrite arm spacing has strong dependence on particle diameter which increases gradually with the increase of particle diameter. The results demonstrate that POEM is an effective route for fabrication of high-quality monosized Cu–20% Sn alloy particles.
To investigate the P absorption and gene expression levels of related co-transporters, type IIb sodium-dependent phosphate co-transporter (NaPi-IIb), inorganic phosphate transporter 1 (PiT-1) and inorganic phosphate transporter 2 (PiT-2) in the small intestine of broilers, 450 1-d-old Arbor Acres male broilers were randomly allocated to one of three treatments with ten replicate cages of fifteen birds per cage for each treatment in a completely randomised design. Chickens were fed a diet with no added inorganic P (containing 0·06 % non-phytate P (NPP)) or with either 0·21 or 0·44 % NPP for 21 d. Plasma P concentration in the hepatic portal vein, mRNA and protein expression levels of NaPi-IIb, PiT-1 and PiT-2 were determined at 7, 14 and 21 d of age. The results showed that the concentration of P in plasma in the hepatic portal vein increased as dietary NPP increased (P<0·0001). At 14 and 21 d of age, the increase in dietary NPP inhibited (P<0·003) NaPi-IIb mRNA expression level in the duodenum, as well as PiT-1 mRNA and protein expression levels in the ileum, but promoted NaPi-IIb protein expression level (P<0·002) and PiT-2 mRNA and protein expression levels (P<0·04) in the duodenum. These results suggest that NaPi-IIb, PiT-1 and PiT-2 might be important P transporters in the small intestine of broilers. Higher intestinal P absorption may be achieved by up-regulating the protein expression levels of NaPi-IIb and PiT-2 and down-regulating the protein expression of PiT-1.
The Chinese government has recently expanded the scope of urban social insurance programmes. However, social protection for the labour force of the urban informal sector, which reaches about half the number of urban workers, lags significantly behind. This under-coverage may be due to institutional constraints, particularly the household registration system hukou, and self-selection behaviour related to the limited benefits of social insurance. Drawing on a recent nationwide individual-level survey and city-level statistics, this study examines these two explanations for the under-enrolment on the social insurance programme. First, results suggest that hukou and the intergovernmental fiscal system are major institutional constraints. Second, self-selection behaviour in programme enrolment is verified. Employers in the informal sector are likely to opt out of social insurance. More importantly, employers in the informal sector, with rural or non-local hukou, are likely to opt out of social insurance, which suggests that self-selection behaviour is constrained by institutions. Such findings have important implications for broad theoretical and policy debates on universal social protection.
From continental to regional scales, the zoonosis alveolar echinococcosis (AE) (caused by Echinococcus multilocularis) forms discrete patches of endemicity within which transmission hotspots of much larger prevalence may occur. Since the late 80s, a number of hotspots have been identified in continental Asia, mostly in China, wherein the ecology of intermediate host communities has been described. This is the case in south Gansu, at the eastern border of the Tibetan plateau, in south Ningxia, in the western Tian Shan of Xinjiang, and in the Alay valley of south Kyrgyzstan. Here we present a comparative natural history and characteristics of transmission ecosystems or ecoscapes. On this basis, regional types of transmission and their ecological characteristics have been proposed in a general framework. Combining climatic, land cover and intermediate host species distribution data, we identified and mapped 4 spatially distinct types of transmission ecosystems typified by the presence of one of the following small mammal ‘flagship’ species: Ellobius tancrei, Ochotona curzoniae, Lasiopodomys brandtii or Eospalax fontanierii. Each transmission ecosystem had its own characteristics which can serve as a reference for further in-depth research in the transmission ecology of E. multilocularis. This approach may be used at fine spatial scales to characterize other poorly known transmission systems of the large Eurasian endemic zone, and help in consideration of surveillance systems and interventions.
Most CuIn(SexS1−x)2 (CISS) thin films are deposited via conventional two-stage process. However, a significant problem related to the conventional two-stage process is the separation of CuInSe2 and CuInS2 phases. In this article, single-phase CISS thin films have been successfully prepared by selenizing sulfides of copper and indium. The mixed sulfides of Cu–In precursors were synthesized by coprecipitation method and then partly reduced. The inks containing partly reduced powders and organic binders were deposited onto glass substrate using a spin-coating technique. After coating, the precursor films were selenized to get CISS. X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy data show that the single (112) peak position changed with the variation of Se/S ratio. The absorption energy Egchanges linearly with Se/(Se + S) calculated by ultraviolet–vis absorption spectra. Those results confirm the formation of single-phase CISS with homogenous composition.
To determine the association between major dietary patterns characterized by factor analysis and risk of depression and anxiety symptoms among adolescents.
Diet and symptoms of depression and anxiety were assessed in a cross-sectional survey among students attending junior high school. Dietary patterns were derived from a self-reported FFQ, which consisted of thirty-eight items. Anthropometric measurements were also performed.
Four junior high schools in Bengbu city, China.
A random sample of 5003 adolescents, 11–16 years of age (mean 13·21 years).
Three major dietary patterns were identified in the study based on factor analysis: ‘snack’, ‘animal food’ and ‘traditional’. The prevalence of depression symptoms, anxiety disorders and the coexistence of both were 11·2 % (560/5003), 14·6 % (732/5003) and 12·6 % (629/5003), respectively. After adjustment for potential confounders, adolescents in the highest tertile of snack dietary pattern scores had a higher odds for ‘pure’ psychological symptoms (‘depression without anxiety’, OR = 1·64; 95 % CI 1·30, 2·06; and ‘anxiety without depression’, OR = 1·87; 95 % CI 1·51, 2·31) compared with coexisting depression and anxiety (OR = 1·93; 95 % CI 1·54, 2·43). Similar to snacks, high consumption of animal foods was associated with a higher risk of psychological symptoms. Compared with low consumption, adolescents in the highest tertile of traditional dietary pattern scores had lower odds for ‘pure’ depression (OR = 0·38; 95 % CI 0·30, 0·49), ‘pure’ anxiety (OR = 0·85; 95 % CI 0·69, 1·04) and coexisting anxiety and depression (OR = 0·50; 95 % CI 0·39, 0·63).
Data from Chinese secondary-school adolescents validated findings from adult populations. Dietary patterns should be considered as important predictors of depression and anxiety among adolescents in further studies.
Depression is one of the most pervasive and debilitating psychiatric diseases, and the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of depression have not been elucidated. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) has been implicated in synaptic plasticity underlying learning, memory, and neuropsychiatric disorders. However, whether Cdk5 participates in the development of depressive diseases has not been examined. Using the chronic mild stress (CMS) procedure, we examined the effects of Cdk5/p35 activity in the hippocampus on depressive-like behaviour in rats. We found that CMS increased Cdk5 activity in the hippocampus, accompanied by translocation of neuronal-specific activator p35 from the cytosol to the membrane in the dentate gyrus (DG) subregion. Inhibition of Cdk5 in DG but not in the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) or CA3 hippocampal subregions inhibited the development of depressive-like symptoms. Overexpression of p35 in DG blocked the antidepressant-like effect of venlafaxine in the CMS model. Moreover, the antidepressants venlafaxine and mirtazapine, but not the antipsychotic aripiprazole, reduced Cdk5 activity through the redistribution of p35 from the membrane to the cytosol in DG. Our results showed that the development of depressive-like behaviour is associated with increased Cdk5 activity in the hippocampus and that the Cdk5/p35 complex plays a key role in the regulation of depressive-like behaviour and antidepressant actions.
The rabbit defensin gene NP-1 was introduced into embryonic callus cultures of three maize (Zea mays L.) hybrid lines by particle bombardment, and transgenic plants were obtained. Genomic PCR and DNA dot blot analyses confirmed that the NP-1 gene was integrated into the genome of the regenerated T0 maize plants. Genomic PCR and Southern blotting results revealed that the NP-1 gene was transmitted stably from the T0 to the T1 generation. RNA dot blot analysis verified the transcription of the NP-1 gene in T1 plants. When challenged with northern corn leaf blight (Helminthosporium turcicum Pass), the T1 plants expressing the NP-1 gene showed greatly improved resistance to the fungal disease compared with the wild-type maize plants.