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This article proposes a bandpass filter with three controllable transmission zeros (TZs) using three inductive-coupled stub-loaded resonators (SLRs). Different from other works, the proposed SLR can create one transmission pole and one TZ. With the TZs above the passband, high stopband rejection level is achieved. Moreover, the K-inverters are realized by short-circuit stubs between two adjacent SLRs. A general synthesis method for this kind of filter is described. For verification, a filter centered at 2.44 GHz with 0.18 GHz bandwidth is designed. The measured results show that the filter has three TZs at 3.1, 3.9, and 5 GHz. With those TZs, the filter's stopband rejection level is greatly improved.
Evaluation of Cr, Mn, Fe, Zn and Se in humans is challenged by the potentially high within-individual variability of these elements in biological specimens, which are poorly characterised. This study aimed to evaluate their within-day, between-day and between-month variability in spot samples, first-morning voids and 24-h collections. A total of 529 spot urine samples (including eighty-eight first-morning voids and 24-h collections) were collected from eleven Chinese adult men on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 30, 60 and 90 and analysed for these five elements using inductively coupled plasma-MS. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were utilised to characterise the reproducibility, and their sensitivity and specificity were analysed to assess how well a single measurement classified individuals’ 3-month average exposures. Serial measurements of Zn in spot samples exhibited fair to good reproducibility (creatinine-adjusted ICC = 0·47) over five consecutive days, which became poor when the samples were gathered months apart (creatinine-adjusted ICC = 0·33). The reproducibility of Cr, Mn, Fe and Se in spot samples was poor over periods ranging from days to months (creatinine-adjusted ICC = 0·01–0·12). Two spot samples were sufficient for classifying 60 % of the men who truly had the highest (top 33 %) 3-month average Zn concentrations; for Cr, Mn, Fe and Se, however, at least three specimens were required to achieve similar sensitivities. In conclusion, urinary Cr, Mn, Fe, Zn and Se concentrations showed a strong within-individual variability, and a single measurement is not enough to efficiently characterise individuals’ long-term exposures.
Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder with high heritability and polygenic inheritance. Multimodal neuroimaging studies have also indicated that abnormalities of brain structure and function are a plausible neurobiological characterisation of schizophrenia. However, the polygenic effects of schizophrenia on these imaging endophenotypes have not yet been fully elucidated.
To investigate the effects of polygenic risk for schizophrenia on the brain grey matter volume and functional connectivity, which are disrupted in schizophrenia.
Genomic and neuroimaging data from a large sample of Han Chinese patients with schizophrenia (N = 509) and healthy controls (N = 502) were included in this study. We examined grey matter volume and functional connectivity via structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, respectively. Using the data from a recent meta-analysis of a genome-wide association study that comprised a large number of Chinese people, we calculated a polygenic risk score (PGRS) for each participant.
The imaging genetic analysis revealed that the individual PGRS showed a significantly negative correlation with the hippocampal grey matter volume and hippocampus–medial prefrontal cortex functional connectivity, both of which were lower in the people with schizophrenia than in the controls. We also found that the observed neuroimaging measures showed weak but similar changes in unaffected first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia.
These findings suggested that genetically influenced brain grey matter volume and functional connectivity may provide important clues for understanding the pathological mechanisms of schizophrenia and for the early diagnosis of schizophrenia.
This study investigated the effect of pre-exercise α-lactalbumin ingestion on subsequent endurance exercise performance, muscle pain and mood states. In a two-stage cross-over counterbalance design, eleven male endurance runners (age: 31 (se 2) years, height: 169·5 (se 4·4) cm, weight: 63·6 (se 5·1) kg, V̇O2max: 58·8 (se 6·3) ml/kg per min) consumed two solutions (carbohydrate+α-lactalbumin, CA; carbohydrate+whey protein isolate, CW) 2 h before a self-paced 21-km run. Creatine kinase, IL-6, muscle pain, pressure pain threshold (PPT) and mood states were assessed 2 h before exercise, immediately before exercise (Pre-ex0) and immediately after exercise (Post-ex0). No difference was found in 21-km running performance between two trials (CA v. CW: 115·85 (se 5·20) v. 118·85 (se 5·51) min, P=0·48). Compared with CW, CA led to higher PPT at Pre-ex0 (41·77 (se 2·27) v. 35·56 (se 2·10) N/cm2, P<0·01) and Post-ex0 (38·76 (se 3·23) v. 35·30 (se 3·55) N/cm2, P=0·047). Compared with CW, CA reduced the feeling of fatigue at Post-ex0 (P<0·01); CA also reduced salivary cortisol levels at Post-ex0 (0·72 (se 0·07) v. 0·83 (se 0·13) ng/ml, P<0·01). In conclusion, the ingestion of α-lactalbumin did not improve the 21-km time-trial performance. However, compared with the pre-exercise ingestion of whey protein, that of α-lactalbumin led to superior results during similar levels of endurance exercise: it elevated PPT and reduced the feeling of fatigue and the cortisol levels.
In this paper, we review the status of the multifunctional experimental platform at the National Laboratory of High Power Laser and Physics (NLHPLP). The platform, including the SG-II laser facility, SG-II 9th beam, SG-II upgrade (SG-II UP) facility, and SG-II 5 PW facility, is operational and available for interested scientists studying inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and a broad range of high-energy-density physics. These facilities can provide important experimental capabilities by combining different pulse widths of nanosecond, picosecond, and femtosecond scales. In addition, the SG-II UP facility, consisting of a single petawatt system and an eight-beam nanosecond system, is introduced including several laser technologies that have been developed to ensure the performance of the facility. Recent developments of the SG-II 5 PW facility are also presented.
Specific adipokines, such as adiponectin and resistin, are secreted from adipose tissue and are associated with the development of obesity. Supplementation of dietary SCFA can prevent and reverse high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity. However, it is not clear whether SCFA ameliorate abnormal expression of adiponectin and resistin in the obese state. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of SCFA on adiponectin and resistin’s expressions in diet-induced obese mice, as well as the potential mechanisms associated with DNA methylation. C57BL/6J male mice were fed for 16 weeks with five types of HFD (34·9 % fat by wt., 60 % kJ) – a control HFD and four HFD with acetate (HFD-A), propionate (HFD-P), butyrate (HFD-B) and their admixture (HFD-SCFA). Meanwhile, a low-fat diet (4·3 % fat by wt., 10 % kJ) was used as the control group. The reduced mRNA levels of adiponectin and resistin in the adipose tissue of the HFD-fed mice were significantly reversed by dietary supplementation of acetate, propionate, butyrate or their admixture to the HFD. Moreover, the expressional changes of adiponectin and resistin induced by SCFA were associated with alterations in DNA methylation at their promoters, which was mediated by reducing the expressions of enzyme-catalysed DNA methyltransferase (DNMT1, 3a, 3b) and the methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 2 (MBD2) and suppressing the binding of these enzymes to the promoters of adiponectin and resistin. Our results indicate that SCFA may correct aberrant expressions of adiponectin and resistin in obesity by epigenetic regulation.
Two new species of Nilssoniopteris of the order Bennettitales, Nilssoniopteris hamiensis Zhao and Deng, new species and Nilssoniopteris crassiaxis Zhao and Deng, new species, are established from the Xishanyao Formation (Middle Jurassic) of Sandaoling Coal Mine in Hami, Xinjiang, China, based on leaf macromorphology and cuticular features. Nilssoniopteris hamiensis n. sp. is characterized by its varied leaf shapes and trichome bases of 1–4 cells on the abaxial epidermis. Nilssoniopteris crassiaxis n. sp. is characterized by its broad midrib (especially near the leaf base) and trichome bases of 1–3 cells on the abaxial epidermis. Both species possess unique venation patterns that are not only simple and free, but also forked and merged to form closed loops. These anastomosing veins are even more complicated in N. crassiaxis n. sp. in that the veins can fork once, twice, or even three times, the forked veins can later merge with each other or with an adjacent vein to form a closed loop, which may later further disjoin. The generic diagnosis of Nilssoniopteris is thus accordingly emended, particularly in the venation pattern. In addition, the stratigraphic and geographical distributions of all 45 Jurassic Nilssoniopteris species worldwide have been summarized and analyzed to better understand their brief evolutionary history, indicating that Nilssoniopteris might be able to grow not only in subtropical regions as the living cycads are, but also in warm climatic regions.
Microstructure and pitting corrosion behavior of base metal (BM), heat-affected zone (HAZ), and weld zone (WZ) in the 316L stainless steel weld joint was investigated. The results indicated that WZ, including ferrite and austenite phases, was mainly composed of columnar dendrites, while BM and HAZ exhibited a full-austenite structure with low Σ coincidence site lattice boundaries especially twin boundary primarily. No obvious pitting occurred in WZ, while the millimeter-scale pits were observed in HAZ and BM after immersion test in 6% FeCl3 solution. HAZ had a lower pitting potential than WZ and BM, while not much difference in pitting potential was observed between WZ and BM. Dendrite-selected corrosion occurred in WZ, while grain boundary was the preferable site for pitting corrosion in HAZ and BM. Gain refinement and a decrease in twin boundary volume fraction promoted the pitting corrosion susceptible of HAZ.
Artificial Intelligence (AI) was the inspiration that shaped computing as we know it today. In this article, I explore why and how AI would continue to inspire computing and reinvent it when Moore's Law is running out of steam. At the dawn of computing, Alan Turing proposed that instead of comprising many different specific machines, the computing machinery for AI should be a Universal Digital Computer, modeled after human computers, which carry out calculations with pencil on paper. Based on the belief that a digital computer would be significantly faster, more diligent and patient than a human, he anticipated that AI would be advanced as software. In modern terminology, a universal computer would be designed to understand a language known as an Instruction Set Architecture (ISA), and software would be translated into the ISA. Since then, universal computers have become exponentially faster and more energy efficient through Moore's Law, while software has grown more sophisticated. Even though software has not yet made a machine think, it has been changing how we live fundamentally. The computing revolution started when the software was decoupled from the computing machinery. Since the slowdown of Moore's Law in 2005, the universal computer is no longer improving exponentially in terms of speed and energy efficiency. It has to carry ISA legacy, and cannot be aggressively modified to save energy. Turing's proposition of AI as software is challenged, and the temptation of making many domain-specific AI machines emerges. Thanks to Deep Learning, software can stay decoupled from the computing machinery in the language of linear algebra, which it has in common with supercomputing. A new universal computer for AI understands such language natively to then become a Native Supercomputer. AI has been and will still be the inspiration for computing. The quest to make machines think continues amid the slowdown of Moore's Law. AI might not only maximize the remaining benefits of Moore's Law, but also revive Moore's Law beyond current technology.
The semilocal convergence of a third-order Newton-like method for solving nonlinear equations is considered. Under a weak condition (the so-called γ-condition) on the derivative of the nonlinear operator, we establish a new semilocal convergence theorem for the Newton-like method and also provide an error estimate. Some numerical examples show the applicability and efficiency of our result, in comparison to other semilocal convergence theorems.
be a finite group with
. A characterization of the subgroups with square-free index in
is given. Also, it is shown that a
-arc-transitive graph of square-free order is isomorphic to a complete graph, a complete bipartite graph with a matching deleted or one of
In this paper, we propose an integral equation approach for pricing an American-style Parisian up-and-out call option under the Black–Scholes framework. The main difficulty of pricing this option lies in the determination of its optimal exercise price, which is a three-dimensional surface, instead of a two-dimensional (2-D) curve as is the case for a “one-touch” barrier option. In our approach, we first reduce the 3-D pricing problem to a 2-D one by using the “moving window” technique developed by Zhu and Chen (2013, Pricing Parisian and Parasian options analytically. Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, 37(4): 875-896), then apply the Fourier sine transform to the 2-D problem to obtain two coupled integral equations in terms of two unknown quantities: the option price at the asset barrier and the optimal exercise price. Once the integral equations are solved numerically by using an iterative procedure, the calculation of the option price and the hedging parameters is straightforward from their integral representations. Our approach is validated by a comparison between our results and those of the trusted finite difference method. Numerical results are also provided to show some interesting features of the prices of American-style Parisian up-and-out call options and the behaviour of the associated optimal exercise boundaries.
Elemental mapping at the atomic-scale by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) provides a powerful real-space approach to chemical characterization of crystal structures. However, applications of this powerful technique have been limited by inefficient X-ray emission and collection, which require long acquisition times. Recently, using a lattice-vector translation method, we have shown that rapid atomic-scale elemental mapping using STEM-EDS can be achieved. This method provides atomic-scale elemental maps averaged over crystal areas of ~few 10 nm2 with the acquisition time of ~2 s or less. Here we report the details of this method, and, in particular, investigate the experimental conditions necessary for achieving it. It shows, that in addition to usual conditions required for atomic-scale imaging, a thin specimen is essential for the technique to be successful. Phenomenological modeling shows that the localization of X-ray signals to atomic columns is a key reason. The effect of specimen thickness on the signal delocalization is studied by multislice image simulations. The results show that the X-ray localization can be achieved by choosing a thin specimen, and the thickness of less than about 22 nm is preferred for SrTiO3 in  projection for 200 keV electrons.
To evaluate the effects of different anthropogenic activities on zooplankton and the pelagic ecosystem, we conducted seasonal cruises in 2010 to assess spatial heterogeneity among the mesozooplankton communities of Xiangshan Bay, a subtropical semi-enclosed bay in China. The evaluation included five different areas: a kelp farm, an oyster farm, a fish farm, the thermal discharge area of a power plant, and an artificial reef, and we aimed to identify whether anthropogenic activities dominated spatial variation in the mesozooplankton communities. The results demonstrated clear spatial heterogeneity among the mesozooplankton communities of the studied areas, dominantly driven by natural hydrographic properties, except in the area near the thermal discharge outlet of the power station. In the outlet area, thermal shock caused by the discharge influenced the mesozooplankton community by decreasing abundance and biomass throughout the four seasons, even causing a shift in the dominant species near the outlet during summer from Acartia pacifica to eurythermal and warm water taxa. Unique features of the mesozooplankton community in the oyster farm may be due to the combined effects of oyster culture and the natural environment in the branch harbour. However, kelp and fish culture, and the construction of an artificial reef did not exert any obvious influence on the mesozooplankton communities up to 2010, probably because of the small scale of the aquaculture and a time lag in the rehabilitation effects of the artificial reef. Thus, our results suggested that the dominant factors influencing spatial variations of mesozooplankton communities in Xiangshan Bay were still the natural hydrographic properties, but the thermal discharge was an anthropogenic activity that changed the pelagic ecosystem, and should be supervised.
The object of the present investigations was to evaluate the effect of flash butt welding parameters on microstructures and mechanical properties of HSLA 590CL welded joints in wheel rims by adjusting welding parameters separately. The amount of Widmanstatten ferrites and bainite in the weld metal, and grain size were observed with the adjustment of welding parameters. The tensile strength of welded joints met the strength requirement of wheel rims steels, but the tensile strength and tensile fracture were different in different welding parameters. Micro-hardness distributions of welded joints in different welding parameters were similar, that is the maximum micro-hardness occurred in the weld and micro-hardness decreased from the weld to base metal. A certain degree of softening phenomenon was found in the heat affected zone (HAZ), which should result from the heat input in the flash butt welding. Two failure mechanisms of wheel rims in the expanding process were investigated. The first type fractured at the HAZ and showed ductile fracture characteristics, the crack initiation located at the thinning location. The second type fractured at the weld and showed brittle fracture characteristics.