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Among low‐income homebuyers, a contract for deed (CFD) has been a widely used but risky and informal mechanism for purchasing a home or lot. This article examines a series of major consumer protections adopted by the Texas Legislature from 1995 to 2005 and whether this legislation shaped the behavior of sellers who historically relied on CFDs in Texas colonias. Tracking changes in the use of CFDs between 1990 and 2010, we show that developers responded to the legislative reforms by shifting away from CFDs and into other forms of seller financing. At the same time, developers have adopted a series of workarounds to the legislation (presumably legal), leaving low‐income buyers vulnerable to rapid repossession by the developer. In contrast, the impact of the legislation on low‐income residents selling their homes has been minimal. These consumer‐to‐consumer transactions remain highly informal, with ongoing reliance on the now illegal, unrecorded CFD.
Large, ‘complex’ pre-Neolithic hunter-gatherer communities thrived in southern China and northern Vietnam, contemporaneous with the expansion of farming. Research at Con Co Ngua in Vietnam suggests that such hunter-gatherer populations shared characteristics with early farming communities: high disease loads, pottery, complex mortuary practices and access to stable sources of carbohydrates and protein. The substantive difference was in the use of domesticated plants and animals—effectively representing alternative responses to optimal climatic conditions. The work here suggests that the supposed correlation between farming and a decline in health may need to be reassessed.
Research reviews highlight methodological limitations and gaps in the evidence base for the arts in dementia care. In response, we developed a 12-week visual art program and evaluated the impact on people living with dementia through a mixed-methods longitudinal investigation.
One hundred and twenty-five people living with mild to severe dementia were recruited across three research settings in England and Wales (residential care homes, a county hospital, and community venues). Quantitative and qualitative data on quality of life (QoL), communication and perceptions of the program were obtained through interviews and self-reports with participants and their carers. Eight domains of well-being were measured using a standardized observation tool, and data compared to an alternative activity with no art.
Across all sites, scores for the well-being domains of interest, attention, pleasure, self-esteem, negative affect, and sadness were significantly better in the art program than the alternative condition. Proxy-reported QoL significantly improved between baseline and 3-month follow-up, but no improvements in QoL were reported by the participants with dementia. This was contrasted by their qualitative accounts, which described a stimulating experience important for social connectedness, well-being, and inner-strength. Communication deteriorated between baseline and follow-up in the hospital setting, but improved in the residential care setting.
The findings highlight the potential for creative aging within dementia care, the benefits of art activities and the influence of the environment. We encourage dementia care providers and arts and cultural services to work toward embedding art activities within routine care provision.
The kinematics of the long-period variables (LPVs), both in the LMC (Hughes et al. 1991 AJ 101, 1304) and in the Galaxy (eg. Feast 1963 MNRAS 125, 367) shows that there exists an Age-Period relation for these objects. Low-resolution (FORS) spectra have been obtained for a sample of SMC, LMC and Galactic LPVs using the Anglo-Australian Telescope, with the ultimate aim of using the bandstrengths of the TiO bands, in combination with a temperature indicator derived from the continuum, to estimate their metallicities in a method similar to that used by Mould and Bessell (1982 ApJ 262, 142), but using the TiO bandhead at 8480 å. Metallicity estimates of these variables are essential, both in (1) verifying the finding of Wood et al. (1991 The Magellanic Clouds, eds. R.Haynes and D.Milne, (Kluwer: Dordrecht), p259) who theorise that the scatter in the mean Period-Luminosity and Period-Color relations of the LPVs in the LMC (Feast et al. 1989 MNRAS 241, 375) could be produced by a scatter in abundance, and (2) in investigating whether there exists a correlation between abundance, kinematics and period (age) for the LPVs in the LMC, as appears to be the case in the Galaxy.
Depression and obesity are highly prevalent, and major impacts on public health frequently co-occur. Recently, we reported that having depression moderates the effect of the FTO gene, suggesting its implication in the association between depression and obesity.
To confirm these findings by investigating the FTO polymorphism rs9939609 in new cohorts, and subsequently in a meta-analysis.
The sample consists of 6902 individuals with depression and 6799 controls from three replication cohorts and two original discovery cohorts. Linear regression models were performed to test for association between rs9939609 and body mass index (BMI), and for the interaction between rs9939609 and depression status for an effect on BMI. Fixed and random effects meta-analyses were performed using METASOFT.
In the replication cohorts, we observed a significant interaction between FTO, BMI and depression with fixed effects meta-analysis (β=0.12, P = 2.7 × 10−4) and with the Han/Eskin random effects method (P = 1.4 × 10−7) but not with traditional random effects (β = 0.1, P = 0.35). When combined with the discovery cohorts, random effects meta-analysis also supports the interaction (β = 0.12, P = 0.027) being highly significant based on the Han/Eskin model (P = 6.9 × 10−8). On average, carriers of the risk allele who have depression have a 2.2% higher BMI for each risk allele, over and above the main effect of FTO.
This meta-analysis provides additional support for a significant interaction between FTO, depression and BMI, indicating that depression increases the effect of FTO on BMI. The findings provide a useful starting point in understanding the biological mechanism involved in the association between obesity and depression.
Analysis of glass beads from the Ingombe Ilede burials provides additional information that supports McIntosh and Fagan's new dating of burials 3 and 8, and that also clarifies the chronology of some of the other burials. Following an unsuccessful attempt to locate the Ingombe Ilede beads in the Livingstone Museum, we analysed beads from a card with samples of Ingombe Ilede beads that had been originally prepared by A.P. du Toit (1965), and later sold to MuseuMAfricA in Johannesburg (Figure 1). The beads were chemically analysed using LA-ICP-MS, as part of a larger project on ancient African glass bead chemistry (Robertshaw et al.2003). All analysed beads from burials 3 and 8 belong to the Khami series produced in India and traded into southern and south-central Africa from the mid fifteenth to mid seventeenth centuries. Some beads of an earlier type were present in other graves, and may have been kept as heirlooms.
Persistent pain is common and inadequately treated in cancer patients. Behavioral pain interventions are a recommended part of multimodal pain treatments, but they are underused in clinical care due to barriers such as a lack of the resources needed to deliver them in person and difficulties coordinating their use with clinical care. Pain coping skills training (PCST) is an evidence-based behavioral pain intervention traditionally delivered in person. Delivering this training via the web would increase access to it by addressing barriers that currently limit its use. We conducted a patient pilot study of an 8-week web-based PCST program to determine the acceptability of this approach to patients and the program features needed to meet their needs. Focus groups with healthcare providers identified strategies for coordinating the use of web-based PCST in clinical care.
Participants included 7 adults with bone pain due to multiple myeloma or metastasized breast or prostate cancer and 12 healthcare providers (4 physicians and 8 advanced practice providers) who treat cancer-related bone pain. Patients completed web-based PCST at home and then took part in an in-depth qualitative interview. Providers attended focus groups led by a trained moderator. Qualitative analyses identified themes in the patient and provider data.
Patients reported strongly favorable responses to web-based PCST and described emotional and physical benefits. They offered suggestions for adapting the approach to better fit their needs and to overcome barriers to completion. Focus groups indicated a need to familiarize healthcare providers with PCST and to address concerns about overburdening patients. Providers would recommend the program to patients they felt could benefit. They suggested applying a broad definition of cancer pain and having various types of providers help coordinate program its use with clinical care.
Significance of results:
Web-based PCST was acceptable to patients and providers. Our findings suggest that patients could benefit from this approach, especially if patient and provider barriers are addressed.
It is widely accepted that binary interactions are responsible for the shaping of planetary nebula. However, these binary interactions and evolutionary channels are poorly understood. Our recent study revealed a newly discovered population of low-luminosity, low-metallicity, likely binaries in the Magellanic Clouds: dusty post-RGB stars. They are likely to have evolved off the RGB via binary interaction. In this paper we present preliminary results of the first radial velocity monitoring of the post-RGB stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) and the implications on stellar (binary) evolution. We also investigate their link, if any, to the planetary nebulae systems.
International studies have shown that patients want their spiritual needs attended to at the end of life. The present authors developed a project to investigate people's understanding of spirituality and spiritual care practices in New Zealand (NZ) hospices.
A mixed-methods approach included 52 semistructured interviews and a survey of 642 patients, family members, and staff from 25 (78%) of NZ's hospices. We employed a generic qualitative design and analysis to capture the experiences and understandings of participants' spirituality and spiritual care, while a cross-sectional survey yielded population level information.
Our findings suggest that spirituality is broadly understood and considered important for all three of the populations studied. The patient and family populations had high spiritual needs that included a search for (1) meaning, (2) peace of mind, and (3) a degree of certainty in an uncertain world. The healthcare professionals in the hospices surveyed seldom explicitly met the needs of patients and families. Staff had spiritual needs, but organizational support was sometimes lacking in attending to these needs.
Significance of results:
As a result of our study, which was the first nationwide study in NZ to examine spirituality in hospice care, Hospice New Zealand has developed a spirituality professional development program. Given that spirituality was found to be important to the majority of our participants, it is hoped that the adoption of such an approach will impact on spiritual care for patients and families in NZ hospices.
A recently completed study of the kinematics of Long-Period (or red) Variables (LPVs) in the LMC by Hughes et al. (1990) has shown that those with short periods (100 to 225 days) have spheroidal kinematics (high velocity dispersion and low rotational velocity about the LMC). This is the first evidence of the LMC's possessing a spheroidal population. The spheroid is flattened (with axial ratio c/a ˜0.3 to 0.5), and is not much thicker than the intermediate age disk. The velocity distribution of the old LPVs indicates that the mass of the LMC is ˜ 6.2 ± 1.5 × 109M, and that of the spheroid represented by the old LPVs is ˜2 % of the LMC's total mass. If these old LPVs are members of the LMC's disk, then their velocity dispersion implies that they have an age of ˜10 Gyr. The LPVs with intermediate periods (225 to 450 days) are members of the LMC's rotating disk population, with an age ˜4 Gyr derived from their velocity dispersion, and similar to that of the planetary nebulae, CH stars and old cluster populations.
New evolutionary correlations have been discovered to apply to the population of Planetary Nebulae (FN) in the Magellanic Clouds. Firstly, the age of the nebular shell is found to follow a relationship τ = 890[(Mneb/M⊙) (Vexp/km s−1)]0,6 yr, which is shown to be consistent with a model in which the total energy of the ionised and swept up gas drives the expansion down the density gradient in the precursor AGE wind. Secondly, a tight correlation is found between the expansion velocity and a combination of the Excitation Class and the Hβ flux. This appears to be determined by the mass of the planetary nebula nuclear star. These correlations provide strong observational support for the idea that the PN shells are ejected at low velocity during the Asymptotic Giant Branch phase of evolution, and that they are continually accelerated during their nebular lifetimes.
Expansion velocities ([O III], [O II], and He II) have been measured for a sample of 64 Southern Planetary Nebulae (PN). The ratio of [O III] to [O II] expansion velocities is used to derive a typical ionized shell thickness of order ΔR/Rneb ≍ 0.12. Nebular electronic densities have been determined from the [O II]λλ3727, 3729 A doublet for 23 of these objects. These data are compared with previously published values. The Dopita et al. (1987) distance scale for Magellanic Cloud PN based on a correlation between observable nebular parameters is used to derive distances to 32 Galactic nebulae. These distances are compared with published values, and lead to the conclusion that the Dopita et al., Daub (1982) and Maciel (1984) distance scales agree well, but that the Shklovsky (1956) method yields distances that are too large. Nebular ionized masses are also calculated for a subset of 30 objects.
A recent study into prescreening techniques to identify bones suitable for radiocarbon dating from sites known for poor or variable preservation (Brock et al. 2007, 2010a) found that the percent nitrogen (%N) content of whole bone powder was the most reliable indicator of collagen preservation. Measurement of %N is rapid, requires little preparation or material, and is relatively cheap. The technique reduces the risk of needlessly sampling valuable archaeological objects, as well as saving time and money on their unsuccessful pretreatment prior to dating. This method of prescreening is now regularly used at the Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit (ORAU). In the original study, linear regression analysis of data from 100 bones from 12 Holocene sites across southern England showed that when 0.76% N was chosen as a threshold, 84% of bones were successfully identified as containing sufficient (i.e. >1%) or insufficient (i.e. <1%) collagen for dating. However, it has been observed that for older, Pleistocene bones the failure rate may be higher, possibly due to the presence of more degraded, short-chain proteins that pass through the ultrafilters used in pretreatment, resulting in lower yields. Here, we present linear regression analysis of data from nearly 600 human and animal bones, antlers, and teeth, from a wide range of contexts and ages, to determine whether the 0.76% threshold identified in the previous study is still applicable. The potential of carbon:nitrogen atomic weight ratios (C:N) of whole bone to predict collagen preservation is also discussed.
IRAS 16115-5044 has been identified as a possible post-AGB star on the basis of its position in the IRAS 2-colour diagram (van der Veen et al. 1989). A study by Van de Steene and Pottasch (1993) failed to detect any radio-continuum flux from the object, suggesting it is still in the pre-planetary nebula phase, that is, the central star is not yet hot enough to ionize the circumstellar shell.
The central star is bright in the infrared (K=4.9) but faint in the visible which we attribute to an optically thick circumstellar shell (J-K=2.61, van der Veen et al. 1989). Oudmaijer et al. (1995) obtained a K-band spectrum of lRAS 16115-5044 longward of 2.2 microns, and did not detect any discernable features.
We discuss nucleosynthesis within 6 M⊙ models with Z = 0.02, 0.008 and 0.004. The emphasis is on the AGB phase of evolution, with particular reference to thermal pulses and Hot Bottom Burning. We find strong CN cycling, with substantial Al production, especially at low metallicities.
We have started a search for variable stars in Fornax, covering a area of 40′ x 40′. We have ~ 30 data points in both V and I. To detect variable stars, we use the variability index defined by Welch & Stetson (1993). We present here our first results.
In accordance with suggestions made by members of the Commission further consideration of the following topics is proposed:
(1)Improvement of the present plan for distribution of observations and computations relating to minor planets and comets, with special reference to those which depart considerably from their ephemerides.
(2)Designation of a central bureau to supervise any accepted plan for coordination of observations and computations. It is suggested that separate bureaus be established for Minor Planets and for Comets.
(3)Systematic investigations of the orbits of the recently discovered objects designated as minor planets: Reinmuth 1932 HA, and Delporte 1932 EA1( and other objects of similar interest.
(4)Financing of proposals (2) and (3).
(5)Standard equinoxes as proposed by Comrie (1950.0) and by Bower (1900.0).
(6)Designation of published residuals as observed residuals rather than referring to the epoch of the comparison star.
(7)Greater adherence to the convention “That the dates used in giving the osculation epochs of elements for comets and minor planets shall be the midnight following an integral Julian date which is exactly divisible by 40, and for ephemerides, divisible by 8 (or 4, etc.),” to facilitate intercomparison of ephemerides and elements.
(8)Inauguration of complete residuals of comets, similar to those of minor planets with provision for their continuation.
(9)Inclusion in astronomical telegrams of some information of a descriptive nature to indicate the accuracy of the measured position, in confirmation of previous action.
(10)Greater emphasis on accurate rather than on approximate positions, particularly in (9), or preliminary orbits.
A knowledge of the on-ice seeing is a key requirement for planning future Antarctic observatories. In this paper we discuss the likely negative impact on seeing produced by the development of the deep winter surface temperature inversion (Ekman layer). The Automated Astronomical Site Testing Observatory (AASTO) will deploy, as one of its complement of site-testing instruments, an automated differential image motion monitor (DIMM) telescope designed to generate seeing data throughout the Antarctic winter. Here we describe the multi-aperture concept which has been developed for this mission, and touch upon some of the critical technological considerations associated with the low power budget and with the requirement of autonomous operation at very low temperature (–90°C).