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The Oxford English Dictionary defines psychopharmacology as ‘the scientific study of the effect of drugs on the mind and behaviour’ (Oxford English Dictionary Online, 2018). The earliest reference to the term was in 1548 when Reinhard Lorichius published the prayer book Psychopharmakon, hoc est Medicina Animae (Lehmann, 1993; Wolman, 1977). Lorichius coined the term ‘psychopharmakon’ to refer to spiritual medicine that could reduce human suffering. The word psychopharmacology was first used in a scientific paper in 1920 by a pharmacologist working at Johns Hopkins University who wrote a short paper entitled Contributions to psychopharmacology (Macht, 1920).
We assessed infection prevention in Swiss hospitals via a national survey focusing on infection prevention practices prior to a large national infection prevention initiative. Of the 59 hospitals that responded (77%), 98% had infection prevention teams and 40% very good or excellent leadership support. However, a minority of hospitals used recommended infection prevention practices and surveillance systems regularly.
We describe an ultra-wide-bandwidth, low-frequency receiver recently installed on the Parkes radio telescope. The receiver system provides continuous frequency coverage from 704 to 4032 MHz. For much of the band (
), the system temperature is approximately 22 K and the receiver system remains in a linear regime even in the presence of strong mobile phone transmissions. We discuss the scientific and technical aspects of the new receiver, including its astronomical objectives, as well as the feed, receiver, digitiser, and signal processor design. We describe the pipeline routines that form the archive-ready data products and how those data files can be accessed from the archives. The system performance is quantified, including the system noise and linearity, beam shape, antenna efficiency, polarisation calibration, and timing stability.
Language policies generally seek to establish, regulate, and conform linguistic practices – whether explicit or implicit – that occur within an ‘authorized’ domain. While there are multiple levels (societal, institutional, and interpersonal) at which such policies are enacted (Hornberger & Johnson, 2007), academic institutions are often significant policy arbiters as they serve as crucial switchboards (Blommaert, 2010; De Costa, 2010) that connect policies at the societal and interpersonal levels. In particular, English medium of instruction (EMI) policies that mandate English as the primary means of academic content delivery have played a pivotal role in enabling universities in countries such as Bangladesh (Rahman & Mehar Singh, 2019), China (e.g., Hu, 2009; Song, 2019; Zhang, 2018), Saudi Arabia (Barnawi, 2018; Phan & Barnawi, 2015), and Vietnam (Phan, 2018) to establish themselves on the world stage and engage with the global community. Even though several scholars (e.g., Coleman, 2006; Jenkins, 2019a; Knight, 2013, 2016; Macaro et al., 2018) have investigated EMI policies across different contexts, the following central question concerning these policies still persists: in what ways has the implementation of EMI policies transformed the higher education sector, and subsequently affected primary social actors, such as students, teachers, and administrators embedded within these shifting contexts? These concerns, we posit, are amplified by the transnational movements of people and institutions (Duff, 2015) and the ever-increasing speed and agility with which TESOL as a field has to respond to the shifting tides of globalization (Barnawi, 2020). Given this conspicuous gap in an ever-evolving English language policy landscape, we set out to critically review previous works that have examined the implementation of EMI policies within a transnational higher education (TNHE) context. TNHE is characterized by the transformation of higher education across the globe (Knight, 2013; Kosmützky & Putty, 2016) as Western-based universities export models – driven by a neoliberal agenda to maximize financial profit – through the establishment of overseas branch campuses. In reviewing works that examine TNHE, we aim to stimulate dialogue on this contemporary phenomenon.
Sintered nanoparticle structures are macroscopically brittle but quite robust if deposited on a flexible substrate. The effects of a polymer substrate on the stretchability of both brittle and ductile coatings and traces are well established. Systematic effects of substrate properties on the fatigue resistance of aerosol printed nano-Ag are slightly more complex. The present work is focused on the early stages of fatigue, where the resistance increases significantly but cracks are not yet visible. Overall, the fatigue behavior is seen to vary with the combination of substrate modulus and viscoelastic deformation properties. Comparing two common polyimides, the rate of damage was seen to increase faster with increasing amplitude on the less compliant one. Consistently with this increasing the minimum strain in the cycle led to a significantly stronger reduction in damage rates. However, the damage rate remained lower on the less compliant substrate at all amplitudes and strain ranges of practical concern.
A gap exists between the evidence for reducing risk of knee osteoarthritis (KOA) progression and its application in patients’ daily lives. We aimed to bridge this gap by identifying patient and family physician (FP) self-management priorities to conceptualize and develop a mobile-health application (m-health app). Our co-design approach combined priorities and concerns solicited from patients and FPs with evidence on risk of progression to design and develop a KOA self-management tool.
Parallel qualitative research of patient and FP perspectives was conducted to inform the co-design process. Researchers from the Enhancing Alberta Primary Care Research Networks (EnACT) evaluated the mental models of FPs using cognitive task analysis through structured interviews with four FPs. Using grounded theory methods, patient researchers from the Patient and Community Engagement Research (PaCER) program interviewed five patients to explore their perspectives about needs and interactions within primary care. In three co-design sessions relevant stakeholders (four patients, five FPs, and thirteen researchers) participated to: (i) identify user needs with regard to KOA self-management; and (ii) conceptualize and determine design priorities and functionalities of an m-health app using a modified nominal group process.
Priority measures for symptoms, activities, and quality of life from the user perspective were determined in the first two sessions. The third co-design session with our industry partner resulted in finalization of priorities through interactive patient and FP feedback. The top three features were: (i) a symptoms graph and summary; (ii) information and strategies; and (iii) setting goals. These features were used to inform the development of a minimum viable product.
The novel use of co-design created directive dialog around the needs of patients, highlighting the contrasting views that exist between patients and FPs and emphasizing how exploring these differences might lead to strong design options for patient-oriented m-health apps. Characterizing these disjunctions has important implications for operationalizing patient-centered health care.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: To create a searchable public registry of all Quality Improvement (QI) projects. To incentivize the medical professionals at UF Health to initiate quality improvement projects by reducing startup burden and providing a path to publishing results. To reduce the review effort performed by the internal review board on projects that are quality improvement Versus research. To foster publication of completed quality improvement projects. To assist the UF Health Sebastian Ferrero Office of Clinical Quality & Patient Safety in managing quality improvement across the hospital system. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: This project used a variant of the spiral software development model and principles from the ADDIE instructional design process for the creation of a registry that is web based. To understand the current registration process and management of quality projects in the UF Health system a needs assessment was performed with the UF Health Sebastian Ferrero Office of Clinical Quality & Patient Safety to gather project requirements. Biweekly meetings were held between the Quality Improvement office and the Clinical and Translational Science – Informatics and Technology teams during the entire project. Our primary goal was to collect just enough information to answer the basic questions of who is doing which QI project, what department are they from, what are the most basic details about the type of project and who is involved. We also wanted to create incentive in the user group to try to find an existing project to join or to commit the details of their proposed new project to a data registry for others to find to reduce the amount of duplicate QI projects. We created a series of design templates for further customization and feature discovery. We then proceed with the development of the registry using a Python web development framework called Django, which is a technology that powers Pinterest and the Washington Post Web sites. The application is broken down into 2 main components (i) data input, where information is collected from clinical staff, Nurses, Pharmacists, Residents, and Doctors on what quality improvement projects they intend to complete and (ii) project registry, where completed or “registered” projects can be viewed and searched publicly. The registry consists of a quality investigator profile that lists contact information, expertise, and areas of interest. A dashboard allows for the creation and review of quality improvement projects. A search function enables certain quality project details to be publicly accessible to encourage collaboration. We developed the Registry Matching Algorithm which is based on the Jaccard similarity coefficient that uses quality project features to find similar quality projects. The algorithm allows for quality investigators to find existing or previous quality improvement projects to encourage collaboration and to reduce repeat projects. We also developed the QIPR Approver Algorithm that guides the investigator through a series of questions that allows an appropriate quality project to get approved to start without the need for human intervention. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: A product of this project is an open source software package that is freely available on GitHub for distribution to other health systems under the Apache 2.0 open source license. Adoption of the Quality Improvement Project Registry and promotion of it to the intended audience are important factors for the success of this registry. Thanks goes to the UW-Madison and their QI/Program Evaluation Self-Certification Tool (https://uwmadison.co1.qualtrics.com/SE/?SID=SV_3lVeNuKe8FhKc73) used as example and inspiration for this project. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This registry was created to help understand the impact of improved management of quality projects in a hospital system. The ultimate result will be to reduce time to approve quality improvement projects, increase collaboration across the UF Health Hospital system, reduce redundancy of quality improvement projects and translate more projects into publications.
The aim of this article is to investigate the argument that choice and competition will unleash entrepreneurial innovation in free schools. Free schools were introduced as a subset of the Academies by the Conservative–Liberal Democrat Coalition government, following the general election in 2010. The government made it possible for non-state providers to set up their own independent, state-funded schools in order to create more choice, competition and innovation. We conclude that a higher level of substantive innovation is taking place in regards to management practices than in respect of curriculum and pedagogical practices. Innovation in curriculum and pedagogical practices is very limited. Creating a free school offer that seems to differ from other schools appears to be done through marketing and branding rather than innovation. We argue that parents, OFSTED, and the relative isolation of free schools constrain innovation from taking place.
Legislative changes and a recent court ruling allow private schools in England and Wales to determine how to provide the public benefits required to justify their charitable status. We investigate how private school headteachers and other informed stakeholders perceive their public benefit objectives and obligations. We find that schools interpret public beneficiaries widely to include one or more of state school pupils, local communities, other charities, and general society through raising socially responsible adults. Private schools pursue their own goals through public benefit provision, and balance the advantages of public benefit activities against the costs. The schools are not constrained by the ‘more than tokenistic’ minimum set by the regulator. The findings highlight the difficulties faced by governments who seek to pursue redistributive educational policies through charitable law.
Thin films of the conjugated polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) of different morphological structures were fabricated using both conventional spin-casting and the matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). Films deposited by MAPLE exhibit inhomogeneous morphologies comprised globular subfeatures with dimensions of the order of 100 nm. We show that whereas the in-plane carrier mobilities of MAPLE-deposited films (8.3 × 10−3 cm2/V/s) are comparable with those of spin-cast analogs (5.5 × 10−3 cm2/V/s), the out-of-plane mobilities are an order of magnitude lower (4.1 × 10−4 cm2/V/s versus 2.7 × 10−3 cm2/V/s). Both in- and out-of-plane carrier transport characteristics of MAPLE-deposited films indicate a broad density of states and high carrier trap concentration. Optical absorbance spectroscopy not only corroborates a high degree of energetic disorder in MAPLE-deposited films, but also suggests that the P3HT chains possess average conjugation lengths comparable with spin-cast counterparts. Our findings, rationalized in terms of the Gaussian Disorder Model, describing carrier transport in an environment characterized by both positional and energetic disorder, provide important perspectives on the extent to which disorder impacts mechanisms of charge transport in conjugated polymers.
Changes to host behaviour induced by some trematode species, as a means of increased trophic transmission, represents one of the seminal examples of host manipulation by a parasite. The amphipod Echinogammarus marinus (Leach, 1815) is infected with a previously undescribed parasite, with infected individuals displaying positive phototaxic and negative geotaxic behaviour. This study reveals that the unknown parasite encysts in the brain, nerve cord and the body cavity of E. marinus, and belongs to the Microphallidae family. An 18 month population study revealed that host abundance significantly and negatively correlated with parasite prevalence. Investigation of the trematode's influence at the transcriptomic level revealed genes with putative neurological functions, such as serotonin receptor 1A, an inebriated-like neurotransmitter, tryptophan hydroxylase and amino acid decarboxylase, present consistent altered expression in infected animals. Therefore, this study provides one of the first transcriptomic insights into the neuronal gene pathways altered in amphipods infected with a trematode parasite associated with changes to its host's behaviour and population structure.
Applications of polymer thin films include functional coatings, flexible electronics, membranes and energy conversion. The physical properties of polymer films of nanoscale thicknesses typically differ from the bulk, due largely to entropic effects and to enthalpic interactions between the macromolecules and the external interfaces. Studies of the size-dependent physical properties of macromolecules have largely been devoted to linear chain polymers. In this Prospective, we review recent experiments and simulations that describe the structure and fascinating physical properties, from wetting to the glass transition, of star-shaped macromolecules. The properties of these molecules would render them more useful than their linear chain analogs, for some specific applications.
The Executive Committee Working Group on “Cosmic Light” was created in 2014 (at its EC94 Meeting, Apr.30-May 2, Canberra, Australia), in preparation of the contribution of the IAU to the UNESCO “2015 International Year of Light and Light Technologies” (IYL2015), which had been approved by the UN in December 2013 (see http://www.light2015.org/Home.html).
John Allan, Consultant Archaeologist to the Dean and Chapter of Exeter Cathedral,Nat Alcock, Emeritus Reader in the Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick,David Dawson, Independent archaeologist and museum and heritage consultant