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Carbonate glasses can be formed routinely in the system K2CO3–MgCO3. The enthalpy of formation for one such 0.55K2CO3–0.45MgCO3 glass was determined at 298 K to be 115.00 ± 1.21 kJ/mol by drop solution calorimetry in molten sodium molybdate (3Na2O·MoO3) at 975 K. The corresponding heat of formation from oxides at 298 K was −261.12 ± 3.02 kJ/mol. This ternary glass is shown to be slightly metastable with respect to binary crystalline components (K2CO3 and MgCO3) and may be further stabilized by entropy terms arising from cation disorder and carbonate group distortions. This high degree of disorder is confirmed by 13C MAS NMR measurement of the average chemical shift tensor values, which show asymmetry of the carbonate anion to be significantly larger than previously reported values. Molecular dynamics simulations show that the structure of this carbonate glass reflects the strong interaction between the oxygen atoms in distorted carbonate anions and potassium cations.
Increasingly, narrative and creative arts approaches are being used to enhance recovery after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Narrative and arts-based approaches congruent with Indigenous storytelling may therefore provide benefit during the transition from hospital to home for some Indigenous TBI patients. This qualitative study explored the use and impact of this approach as part of a larger, longitudinal study of TBI transition with Indigenous Australians.
A combined narrative and arts-based approach was used with one Indigenous Australian artist to describe his transition experiences following TBI. Together with the researchers and filmmaking team, the artist was involved in aspects of the process. The artist contributed two paintings, detailing the story of his life and TBI. Based on the artworks, a film was co-created. Following the viewing of the film, impacts of the narrative and arts-based process were examined through semi-structured interviews with the artist, a service provider and a family member. Multiple sources of data were used in the final thematic analysis including transcripts of the interviews and filming, paintings (including storylines) and researcher notes.
Positive impacts from the process for the artist included positive challenge; healing and identity; understanding TBI and raising awareness.
This approach may enable the individual to take ownership over their transition story and to make sense of their life following TBI at a critical point in their recovery. A combined narrative and arts-based approach has potential as a culturally responsive rehabilitation tool for use with Indigenous Australians during the transition period following TBI.
To write of ‘postmodernism’ is both to skate on thin ice and to tread familiar ground. Almost every piece of scholarship that uses this classification must begin, by convention it seems, with a lengthy tract on what precisely is meant by ‘the postmodern’. It is precarious ‘thin ice’ because these definitions are not always aligned with one another and are sometimes delicate. For instance, many of the tropes that one might call ‘postmodern’ and to which I will shortly turn are clearly exhibited in Romantic-era writing or in the epic of Melville’s Moby Dick (1851). Such definitional work is ‘familiar ground’, though, because the procedure has become so routinised as to appear mundane.
What does it mean to speak of a novelist in relation to “philosophy”? Does it mean that we seek to read novels by using works of philosophy? Or does it mean that we seek to ascertain an author’s own philosophy from his or her novels? By philosophy do we mean “political outlook” (a “political philosophy”) or a deeper set of ontological propositions about the world at large? Could all of these possible answers simultaneously be correct?
More importantly, what makes us think that philosophy is a good way to approach novels? For novels are not, in any conventional sense, works of philosophy. Yet there are also works of philosophy that resemble poetry or fiction, from the writings of Friedrich Nietzsche through to the aphorisms of Theodor W. Adorno. Like the novel, philosophy does not stand alone and apart from interpretation. Philosophy can also “lie” and use artifice or rhetoric in its quest for truth, as may the novel.
Childhood maltreatment (CM) plays an important role in the development of major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of this study was to examine whether CM severity and type are associated with MDD-related brain alterations, and how they interact with sex and age.
Within the ENIGMA-MDD network, severity and subtypes of CM using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire were assessed and structural magnetic resonance imaging data from patients with MDD and healthy controls were analyzed in a mega-analysis comprising a total of 3872 participants aged between 13 and 89 years. Cortical thickness and surface area were extracted at each site using FreeSurfer.
CM severity was associated with reduced cortical thickness in the banks of the superior temporal sulcus and supramarginal gyrus as well as with reduced surface area of the middle temporal lobe. Participants reporting both childhood neglect and abuse had a lower cortical thickness in the inferior parietal lobe, middle temporal lobe, and precuneus compared to participants not exposed to CM. In males only, regardless of diagnosis, CM severity was associated with higher cortical thickness of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex. Finally, a significant interaction between CM and age in predicting thickness was seen across several prefrontal, temporal, and temporo-parietal regions.
Severity and type of CM may impact cortical thickness and surface area. Importantly, CM may influence age-dependent brain maturation, particularly in regions related to the default mode network, perception, and theory of mind.
Workforce shortages in psychiatry are common worldwide. The international literature provides insights into factors influencing decisions to train in psychiatry but is predominately survey based. This national cohort study aimed to identify the characteristics of doctors who were most likely to apply to psychiatry training programmes. The sample comprised doctors who entered UK medical schools in 2007/8 and who made first-time specialty training applications in 2015. The association between application to psychiatry and doctors' sociodemographic and educational characteristics was examined using multivariable logistic regression.
Those most likely to apply were White, privately educated older doctors with below average performance at medical school.
To reduce workforce shortages, psychiatry must make itself more attractive to all doctors, especially those from underrepresented groups such as state-educated Black and minority ethnic individuals. Otherwise, national policies to widen participation in the study of medicine by such groups may exacerbate the current recruitment crisis.
(1) To characterise changes in dead space fraction during the first 120 post-operative hours in neonates undergoing stage 1 palliation for hypoplastic left heart syndrome, including hybrid procedure; (2) to document whether dead space fraction varied by shunt type (Blalock–Taussig shunt and Sano) and hybrid procedure; and (3) to determine the association between dead space fraction and outcomes.
Retrospective chart review in neonates undergoing stage 1 palliation for hypoplastic left heart syndrome in a cardiac intensive care unit over a consecutive 30-month period. A linear mixed model was used to determine the differences in dead space over time. Multivariable linear regression and a multivariable linear mixed model were used to assess the association between dead space and outcomes at different time points and over time, respectively.
Thirty-four neonates received either a Blalock–Taussig shunt (20.5%), Sano shunt (59%), or hybrid procedure (20.5%). Hospital mortality was 8.8%. Dead space fractions in patients undergoing the hybrid procedure were significantly lower on day 1 (p = 0.01) and day 2 (p = 0.02) and increased over time. A dead space fraction >0.6 on post-operative days 3–5 was significantly associated with decreased duration of mechanical ventilation in all surgical groups (p < 0.001).
Dead space fraction >0.6 on post-operative days 3–5 was associated with lower duration of mechanical ventilation in all surgical groups. A more comprehensive, prospective assessment of dead space in this delicate patient population would likely be beneficial in improving outcomes.
To Investigate the peripheral inflammatory profile in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from three subgroups – probable Lewy body disease (probable MCI-LB), possible Lewy body disease, and probable Alzheimer’s disease (probable MCI-AD) – as well as associations with clinical features.
Memory clinics and dementia services.
Patients were classified based on clinical symptoms as probable MCI-LB (n = 38), possible MCI-LB (n = 18), and probable MCI-AD (n = 21). Healthy comparison subjects were recruited (n = 20).
Ten cytokines were analyzed from plasma samples: interferon (IFN)-gamma, interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. C-reactive protein levels were investigated.
There was a higher level of IL-10, IL-1beta, IL-2, and IL-4 in MCI groups compared to the healthy comparison group (p < 0.0085). In exploratory analyses to understand these findings, the MC-AD group lower IL-1beta (p = 0.04), IL-2 (p = 0.009), and IL-4 (p = 0.012) were associated with increasing duration of memory symptoms, and in the probable MCI-LB group, lower levels of IL-1beta were associated with worsening motor severity (p = 0.002). In the possible MCI-LB, longer duration of memory symptoms was associated with lower levels of IL-1beta (p = 0.003) and IL-4 (p = 0.026).
There is increased peripheral inflammation in patients with MCI compared to healthy comparison subjects regardless of the MCI subtype. These possible associations with clinical features are consistent with other work showing that inflammation is increased in early disease but require replication. Such findings have importance for timing of putative therapeutic strategies aimed at lowering inflammation.
Dementia often limits the agency of the person to such an extent that there is need for external support in making daily life decisions. This support is usually provided by family members who are sometimes legally empowered to engage in decision-making on behalf of the person for whom they care. However, such family carers receive little or no information on how to best provide support when there is a lack of capacity. This may have an impact on the agency of the person with dementia. This review explores the experience of agency in people living with dementia.
A systematic search was conducted on IBSS, MedLine, PsychINFO, EMBASE, and CINAHL. Two independent researchers screened the studies and conducted the quality appraisal. We used meta-ethnography for data analysis. As part of the synthesis, we identified behavioral mechanisms underlying the process of decision-making and looked at how the support of carers comes into play in making deliberate choices.
The meta-ethnography involved 20 studies. Three levels of third-order constructs were identified, each describing a decision-making pathway and reflecting the degree of autonomy of the person with dementia: autonomous decision-making, shared decision-making, and pseudo decision-making. Findings highlight those inter-relational processes that promote or negatively impact on the agency of people with dementia.
Our review will provide health and social care personnel with an understanding of the role of the carer in the decision-making process, and therefore which mechanisms need to be promoted or discouraged through training.
When it comes to editing journals, the advice available is plentiful. A quick search for recent reports on the experience of journal editing discovers a striking similarity in the experiences they discuss. Editors of academic journals in disciplines ranging from medical science to geography tend to refer to and reflect on the same basic challenges and rewards. These follow directly from the main activities of the journal editor. For most editors, the primary remit of a journal is to publish excellent, timely and original research that is relevant and accessible to its audience. Many journals also include commentary on recent published research in the form of review essays and state-of-the-field surveys, and some include other kinds of material such as editorials, roundtables, original creative work (whether visual or verbal), obituaries, and so on. Nonetheless, the main purpose of most academic journals is to provide a venue for supporting and showcasing new scholarship. In what follows I consider some of the common issues noted by journal editors, before exploring the impact and potential of Open Access and digital media for the landscape of journal publishing.
To publish scholarship one must receive it first, and many editors reflect on the challenges of encouraging plentiful, high-quality submissions. Once material comes in the next step is to find willing and competent reviewers. As the competing pressures on academics’ time increase, many scholars can struggle to find the time or the will to undertake what is usually uncompensated and invisible work. And this leads to the final shared woe among academic editors the world over: institutional support. Although universities are usually happy to provide a nominal home for a scholarly journal, the realities of institutional support are frequently meagre unless the journal in question comes with a major stipend or reputational kudos. Ian Hay sums up this situation concisely:
Given the key role of editing in the maintenance of academic standards, it is deeply ironic that as the need for astute and erudite editors grows, so have some of the institutional barriers to participation intensified, depriving aspirants from some of the fulfilling personal and professional opportunities editing offers.
Coronary artery disease after bone marrow transplantation is rare in children and young adults. We report the case of a 21-year-old who developed coronary artery disease and acute myocardial infarction secondary to graft versus host disease following bone marrow transplantation. Physicians caring for young patients after bone marrow transplantation should be aware of the potential for coronary artery disease and evaluate appropriately.
The practice of extended family and friends helping to care for children when their parents are unable to is an enduring tradition in many cultures. Kinship care provides the largest proportion of out of home care in Western society but many of these carers experience poverty and deprivation, and do not receive comparable levels of support, financial or professional, to other placement types. This study provides UK evidence for the relationship between kinship care and deprivation and examines how the welfare state frames kinship care in policy and practice.
The deep subsurface of other planetary bodies is of special interest for robotic and human exploration. The subsurface provides access to planetary interior processes, thus yielding insights into planetary formation and evolution. On Mars, the subsurface might harbour the most habitable conditions. In the context of human exploration, the subsurface can provide refugia for habitation from extreme surface conditions. We describe the fifth Mine Analogue Research (MINAR 5) programme at 1 km depth in the Boulby Mine, UK in collaboration with Spaceward Bound NASA and the Kalam Centre, India, to test instruments and methods for the robotic and human exploration of deep environments on the Moon and Mars. The geological context in Permian evaporites provides an analogue to evaporitic materials on other planetary bodies such as Mars. A wide range of sample acquisition instruments (NASA drills, Small Planetary Impulse Tool (SPLIT) robotic hammer, universal sampling bags), analytical instruments (Raman spectroscopy, Close-Up Imager, Minion DNA sequencing technology, methane stable isotope analysis, biomolecule and metabolic life detection instruments) and environmental monitoring equipment (passive air particle sampler, particle detectors and environmental monitoring equipment) was deployed in an integrated campaign. Investigations included studying the geochemical signatures of chloride and sulphate evaporitic minerals, testing methods for life detection and planetary protection around human-tended operations, and investigations on the radiation environment of the deep subsurface. The MINAR analogue activity occurs in an active mine, showing how the development of space exploration technology can be used to contribute to addressing immediate Earth-based challenges. During the campaign, in collaboration with European Space Agency (ESA), MINAR was used for astronaut familiarization with future exploration tools and techniques. The campaign was used to develop primary and secondary school and primary to secondary transition curriculum materials on-site during the campaign which was focused on a classroom extra vehicular activity simulation.
Since April 2014 all presumptive Salmonella isolates received by Public Health England (PHE) have been characterised using whole genome sequencing (WGS) and the genomic data generated used to identify clusters of infection. To inform the implementation and development of a national gastrointestinal infection surveillance system based on WGS we have retrospectively identified genetically related clusters of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium infection over a one year period and determined the distribution of these clusters by PHE operational levels. Using a constrained WGS cluster definition based on single nucleotide polymorphism distance, case frequency and temporal spread we demonstrate that the majority of clusters spread to multiple PHE operational levels. The greatest investigative burden is on national level staff investigating small, geographically dispersed clusters. We also demonstrate that WGS identifies long-running, slowly developing clusters that may previously have remained undetected. This analysis also indicates likely increased workload for local health protection teams and will require an operational strategy to balance limited human resources with the public health importance of investigating small, geographically contained clusters of highly related cases. While there are operational challenges to its implementation, integrated cluster detection based on WGS from local to international level will provide further improvements in the identification of, response to and control of clusters of Salmonella spp. with public health significance.
Automated storage and retrieval systems are principal components of modern production and warehouse facilities. In particular, automated guided vehicles nowadays substitute human-operated pallet trucks in transporting production materials between storage locations and assembly stations. While low-level control systems take care of navigating such driverless vehicles along programmed routes and avoid collisions even under unforeseen circumstances, in the common case of multiple vehicles sharing the same operation area, the problem remains how to set up routes such that a collection of transport tasks is accomplished most effectively. We address this prevalent problem in the context of car assembly at Mercedes-Benz Ludwigsfelde GmbH, a large-scale producer of commercial vehicles, where routes for automated guided vehicles used in the production process have traditionally been hand-coded by human engineers. Such ad-hoc methods may suffice as long as a running production process remains in place, while any change in the factory layout or production targets necessitates tedious manual reconfiguration, not to mention the missing portability between different production plants. Unlike this, we propose a declarative approach based on Answer Set Programming to optimize the routes taken by automated guided vehicles for accomplishing transport tasks. The advantages include a transparent and executable problem formalization, provable optimality of routes relative to objective criteria, as well as elaboration tolerance towards particular factory layouts and production targets. Moreover, we demonstrate that our approach is efficient enough to deal with the transport tasks evolving in realistic production processes at the car factory of Mercedes-Benz Ludwigsfelde GmbH.
We introduce the asprilo1 framework to facilitate experimental studies of approaches addressing complex dynamic applications. For this purpose, we have chosen the domain of robotic intra-logistics. This domain is not only highly relevant in the context of today's fourth industrial revolution but it moreover combines a multitude of challenging issues within a single uniform framework. This includes multi-agent planning, reasoning about action, change, resources, strategies, etc. In return, asprilo allows users to study alternative solutions as regards effectiveness and scalability. Although asprilo relies on Answer Set Programming and Python, it is readily usable by any system complying with its fact-oriented interface format. This makes it attractive for benchmarking and teaching well beyond logic programming. More precisely, asprilo consists of a versatile benchmark generator, solution checker and visualizer as well as a bunch of reference encodings featuring various ASP techniques. Importantly, the visualizer's animation capabilities are indispensable for complex scenarios like intra-logistics in order to inspect valid as well as invalid solution candidates. Also, it allows for graphically editing benchmark layouts that can be used as a basis for generating benchmark suites.
In most materials, surfaces and interfaces present a significant portion of the workable area, but this area has often been erroneously perceived as a challenge in processing and thus, largely ignored. Surfaces and interfaces, however, present a network of energetically mismatched (sometimes metastable) molecules that can be exploited to either control surface reactions, engineer bulk stability or reveal new fundamental details of otherwise not well understood processes or systems as described herein. This perspective captures the role of i) structure, ii) chemistry and iii) thermodynamics at the interface in fabricating functional materials. Engineering substrate morphology enables tunable wettability either through the substrate or an adsorbed self-assembled monolayer (SAM), the latter being largely due to effect of sub-nanoscale roughness on conformational defects and overall order in the SAM. Surface roughness and chemistry also dictates the nature and amount of adventitious contaminants on a surface, and this was used to control volume of adsorbed water leading to controlled and tunable step-growth polymerization. The chemical treatment renders the paper amphiphobic, which could be used for self-cleaning surfaces and nucleation of water microdroplets for water harvesting. Finally, creating a self-passivating polished thin (∼0.7-2 nm) shell on a molten metal microdroplet kinetically frustrates solidification leading to significant undercooling. The ambient undercooled liquid metal is used for mechanically-triggered heat-free solder and smart composites. These three cases demonstrate key aspects of surface and interface engineering in integrating well-known concepts for the development of functional materials.