To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The new species Begonia maguniana H.P.Wilson from New Guinea is described. It is endemic to the Central Range of New Guinea at altitudes of c.1700–2300 m and belongs to the IUCN category Least Concern.
The Arctic is warming faster than anywhere else of comparable size on Earth, impacting global climate feedbacks and the Arctic biota. However, a warm Arctic is not novel. The Late Cretaceous fossil record of the region enables a detailed reconstruction of polar environmental conditions, and a thriving extinct ecosystem, during a previous 'hothouse’ global climate. Using leaf form (physiognomy) and tree ring characteristics we reconstruct Cenomanian to Coniacian polar thermal and hydrological regimes over an average annual cycle at eight locations in NE Russia and northern Alaska. A new high spatial resolution (∼1 km) WorldClim2 calibration of the Climate Leaf Analysis Multivariate Program (CLAMP) yields results similar to, but often slightly warmer than, previous analyses, but also provides more detailed insights into the hydrological regime through the return of annual and seasonal vapour pressure deficit (VPD), potential evapotranspiration (PET) estimates and soil moisture, as well as new thermal overviews through measures of thermicity and growing degree days. The new results confirm the overall warmth of the region, particularly close to the Arctic Ocean, but reveal strong local differences that may be related to palaeoelevation in the Okhotsk–Chukotka Volcanogenic Belt in NE Russia. While rainfall estimates have large uncertainties due to year-round wet soils in most locations, new measures of VPD and PET show persistent high humidity, but with notably drier summers at all the Arctic sites.
Deficits in frontal lobe perfusion have been demonstrated in late-life depression; however, studies to date have generally involved small numbers, used neuroimaging rather than bedside testing and have not controlled for important covariates.
We aimed to examine the association between depressive symptoms and frontal lobe perfusion during standing, in a large cohort of community-dwelling older people.
Participants aged ≥50 years underwent continuous measurement of orthostatic blood pressure by finometry, and frontal lobe perfusion by near-infrared spectroscopy. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the eight-item Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Real-time frontal lobe cerebral oxygenation was measured by the Portalite System, detecting changes in frontal lobe perfusion and reporting a tissue saturation index score.
Almost 8% (209 out of 2616) had clinically significant depressive symptoms. Multilevel models demonstrated a significantly lower tissue saturation index in participants with depressive symptoms at both 60 and 90 s post-stand, with coefficients of −0.43 (95% CI −0.63 to −0.22) and −0.37 (95% CI −0.57 to −0.16), respectively. Controlling for relevant covariates did not significantly attenuate these associations. After addition of systolic blood pressure this association was no longer significant, suggesting lower blood pressure may modify this relationship.
This study demonstrates that lower frontal lobe perfusion, related to lower values of baseline systolic blood pressure, is associated with clinically significant depressive symptoms in a cohort of community-dwelling older people. Given the recognised longitudinal association between lower blood pressure and depression in older people, this may represent a potential therapeutic target for prevention of incident depression.
Current practice in cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) involves the estimation of the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) between a new intervention and one alternative comparator reflecting the standard of care. As this focuses on pairwise comparisons, rather than considering the whole range of available alternatives at any given time, this method fails to capture the full impact of bringing the new intervention to market.
A multi-comparator ICER (MC-ICER) evaluating the impact of the new technology on patients treated with all comparators used in clinical practice, rather than a theoretical ‘second-best’ alternative only, was estimated. This can be achieved by weighting the incremental costs and benefits for each comparator by its change in market share to generate an MC-ICER. This is shown using a stylized example with three comparators.
The traditional ICER against the second-best alternative was USD 200,000 per QALY, while the estimated multi-comparator ICER is USD 133,548 per QALY, corresponding to a 33 percent decrease. This reflects the fact that patients who switch to the new intervention are not only those who had been previously treated with one particular comparator, as is assumed in a traditional CEA. The difference between the traditional ICER and the MC-ICER depends on how the new intervention impacts on the uptake of each comparator.
Results show that, when comparator selection was made excluding dominated and extendedly-dominated alternatives, the MC-ICER, produced using the method described above, is lower than the traditional ICER comparing the new intervention to the second-best comparator. This captures the fact that patients may switch to the new intervention not only from the second-best comparator, but from the whole range of alternative treatments. Such patient movements determine the real impact, or opportunity cost, of the new intervention on the healthcare system and, therefore, should be captured in CEA alongside traditional one-way ICERs.
The detection and monitoring of meltwater within firn presents a significant monitoring challenge. We explore the potential of small wireless sensors (ETracer+, ET+) to measure temperature, pressure, electrical conductivity and thus the presence or absence of meltwater within firn, through tests in the dry snow zone at the East Greenland Ice Core Project site. The tested sensor platforms are small, robust and low cost, and communicate data via a VHF radio link to surface receivers. The sensors were deployed in low-temperature firn at the centre and shear margins of an ice stream for 4 weeks, and a ‘bucket experiment’ was used to test the detection of water within otherwise dry firn. The tests showed the ET+ could log subsurface temperatures and transmit the recorded data through up to 150 m dry firn. Two VHF receivers were tested: an autonomous phase-sensitive radio-echo sounder (ApRES) and a WinRadio. The ApRES can combine high-resolution imaging of the firn layers (by radio-echo sounding) with in situ measurements from the sensors, to build up a high spatial and temporal resolution picture of the subsurface. These results indicate that wireless sensors have great potential for long-term monitoring of firn processes.
Among phoneticians, the Vocal Profile Analysis (VPA) is one of the most widely used methods for the componential assessment of voice quality. Whether the ultimate goal of the VPA evaluation is the comparative description of languages or the characterization of an individual speaker, the VPA protocol shows great potential for different research areas of speech communication. However, its use is not without practical difficulties. Despite these, methodological studies aimed at explaining where, when and why issues arise during the perceptual assessment process are rare. In this paper we describe the methodological stages through which three analysts evaluated the voices of 99 Standard Southern British English male speakers, rated their voices using the VPA scheme, discussed inter-rater disagreements, and eventually produced an agreed version of VPA scores. These scores were then used to assess correlations between settings. We show that it is possible to reach a good degree of inter-rater agreement, provided that several calibration and training sessions are conducted. We further conclude that the perceptual assessment of voice quality using the VPA scheme is an essential tool in fields such as forensic phonetics but, foremost, that it can be adapted and modified to a range of research areas, and not necessarily limited to the evaluation of pathological voices in clinical settings.
The long-term stability of mechanically exfoliated MoS2 flakes was compared for storage in the air and storage under vacuum. Significant changes in MoS2 flakes were observed for samples stored in the air, whereas similar flakes on samples stored in vacuum underwent no change. Small speckles were observed to appear on the surface of flakes stored in the air, followed by thinning and eventual decomposition of MoS2 flakes. The speckles are suspected to be formed by oxidation of MoS2 in the presence of atmospheric oxygen and water molecules, resulting in the formation of hydrated MoO3.
Jakobshavn Isbræ is a major ice stream that drains the west-central Greenland ice sheet and becomes afloat in Jakobshavn Isfjord (69° N, 49° W), where it has maintained the world’s fastest-known sustained velocity and calving rate (7 kma−1) for at least four decades. The floating portion is approximately 12 km long and 6 km wide. Surface elevations and motion vectors were determined photogrammetrically for about 500 crevasses on the floating ice, and adjacent grounded ice, using aerial photographs obtained 2 weeks apart in July l985. Surface strain rates were computed from a mesh of 399 quadrilateral elements having velocity measurements at each corner. It is shown that heavy crevassing of floating ice invalidates the assumptions of linear strain theory that (i) surface strain in the floating ice is homogeneous in both space and time, (ii) the squares and products of strain components are nil, and (iii) first- and second-order rotation components are small compared to strain components. Therefore, strain rates and rotation rates were also computed using non-linear strain theory. The percentage difference between computed linear and non-linear second invariants of strain rate per element were greatest (mostly in the range 40–70%) where crevassing is greatest. Isopleths of strain rate parallel and transverse to flow and elevation isopleths relate crevassing to known and inferred pinning points.
The floating terminal of Jakobshavn Isbræ, the fastest Greenland ice stream, has disintegrated since 2002, resulting in a doubling of ice velocity and rapidly lowering inland ice elevations. Conditions prior to disintegration were modeled using control theory in a plane-stress solution, and the Missoula model of ice-shelf flow. Both approaches pointed to a mechanism that inhibits ice flow and that is not captured by either approach. Jamming of flow, an inherent property of granular materials passing through a constriction (Jakobshavn Isfjord), is postulated as the mechanism. Rapid disintegration of heavily crevassed floating ice accompanies break-up of the ice jam.
The ApRES (autonomous phase-sensitive radio-echo sounder) instrument is a robust, lightweight and relatively inexpensive radar that has been designed to allow long-term, unattended monitoring of ice-shelf and ice-sheet thinning. We describe the instrument and demonstrate its capabilities and limitations by presenting results from three trial campaigns conducted in different Antarctic settings. Two campaigns were ice sheet-based – Pine Island Glacier and Dome C – and one was conducted on the Ross Ice Shelf. The ice-shelf site demonstrates the ability of the instrument to collect a time series of basal melt rates; the two grounded ice applications show the potential to recover profiles of vertical strain rate and also demonstrate some of the limitations of the present system.
A saltern associated with salt production was excavated at Pyde Drove, near Woolavington. The large assemblage of briquetage recovered has allowed for some novel interpretations of the function of the different component types within the hearth structures. The saltern comprised a mound of waste material adjacent to 12 brine-settling tank pits and two salt water channels. A further settling tank was revealed beneath the mound. The pottery indicates that activity on the site dates to the later Romano-British period.
We present low-frequency spectral energy distributions of 60 known radio pulsars observed with the Murchison Widefield Array telescope. We searched the GaLactic and Extragalactic All-sky Murchison Widefield Array survey images for 200-MHz continuum radio emission at the position of all pulsars in the Australia Telescope National Facility (ATNF) pulsar catalogue. For the 60 confirmed detections, we have measured flux densities in 20 × 8 MHz bands between 72 and 231 MHz. We compare our results to existing measurements and show that the Murchison Widefield Array flux densities are in good agreement.
Dementia is a major health problem with a growing number of people affected by the condition, both directly and indirectly through caring for someone with dementia. Many live at home but little is known about the range and intensity of the support they receive. Previous studies have mainly reported on discrete services within a single geographical area. This paper presents a protocol for study of different services across several sites in England. The aim is to explore the presence, effects, and cost-effectiveness of approaches to home support for people in later stage dementia and their carers.
This is a prospective observational study employing mixed methods. At least 300 participants (people with dementia and their carers) from geographical areas with demonstrably different ranges of services available for people with dementia will be selected. Within each area, participants will be recruited from a range of services. Participants will be interviewed on two occasions and data will be collected on their characteristics and circumstances, quality of life, carer health and burden, and informal and formal support for the person with dementia. The structured interviews will also collect qualitative data to explore the perceptions of older people and carers.
This national study will explore the components of appropriate and effective home support for people with late stage dementia and their carers. It aims to inform commissioners and service providers across health and social care.
The emerging statistical properties from the first 50 extrasolar planets are startlingly different from the picture that was imagined prior to 1995. About 0.75% of nearby solar type stars harbor jovian planets in 3 to 5 day circular orbits. Another ∽7% of stars have jupiter–mass companions orbiting in eccentric orbits within 3.5 AU. The mass distribution of substellar companions rises abruptly near 5 MJup and continues increasing down to the detection limit near 1 MJup-Orbital eccentricities correlate positively with semimajor axes, even for planets beyond the tidal circularization zone within 0.1 AU, distinguishing planets from binary stars. The planet bearing stars are metal–rich relative to both nearby stars and to the Sun. Analogs of Solar System planets have not been detected to date as they require precision of 3 m s−1 maintained for more than a decade.
Recent morphometric analysis revealed a juvenile (meraspid) axial growth gradient in the trunk of the ~429 Myr old trilobite Aulacopleura koninckii that resulted from growth control based on positional specification, as is common among extant organisms. Here we explore axial growth gradients in the more anterior body region, the cephalon, and in the cephalon and trunk during subsequent development in the holaspid period. We detected an axial growth gradient in the cephalon in the meraspid period, flatter and opposite in direction to that of the trunk, which also persisted during the holaspid period. We also found an holaspid trunk growth gradient, with a different distribution of growth rates among segments than that of the meraspid period. These newly observed growth gradients are compatible with the mechanism of growth control inferred for the meraspid trunk. Thus, the same kind of growth control may have operated in both body regions and during the whole ontogeny of A. koninckii. This study, along with others on the same species that preceded it, show that morphometric analysis of appropriate data sets can address questions of high interest for evolutionary developmental biology using data from fossils. By revealing developmental features at deep nodes of the phylogenetic tree, these studies will elucidate both how developmental processes evolved and how they themselves affected the evolution of organismal body patterning.
Cambrian biostratigraphy of the Indian subcontinent is best documented from the Parahio Formation of the Tethyan Himalaya. Recently established trilobite biostratigraphy shows that the formation encompasses the latest part of unnamed Stage 4 and much of unnamed Stage 5. A variety of small shelly fossils have been recovered via acid digestion of carbonate beds and include tetract and pentact hexactinellid sponge spicules, chancelloriid spicules belonging to Chancelloria sp. and a new species, Archiasterella dhiraji, shells of an helcionelloid comparable to Igorella maidipingensis, a meraspid ptychopariid trilobite, the tubular Cupitheca sp., a poorly preserved hyolith, and an assortment of spinose microfossils of uncertain affinity. These newly recovered microfossils are consistent with the trilobite-based lower and middle Cambrian age determination and do not support a late Cambrian age for the top of the Parahio Formation advocated in some recent literature. The microfossils reported herein significantly expand the known diversity of such fossils from Cambrian strata in the Himalayan region, and allow for comparison of this fauna with others from Gondwanaland and elsewhere. Integration with trilobite data indicate that the stratigraphic ranges of many small shelly fossils described in this study are greater than previously recognized.