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Online self-reported 24-h dietary recall systems promise increased feasibility of dietary assessment. Comparison against interviewer-led recalls established their convergent validity; however, reliability and criterion-validity information is lacking. The validity of energy intakes (EI) reported using Intake24, an online 24-h recall system, was assessed against concurrent measurement of total energy expenditure (TEE) using doubly labelled water in ninety-eight UK adults (40–65 years). Accuracy and precision of EI were assessed using correlation and Bland–Altman analysis. Test–retest reliability of energy and nutrient intakes was assessed using data from three further UK studies where participants (11–88 years) completed Intake24 at least four times; reliability was assessed using intra-class correlations (ICC). Compared with TEE, participants under-reported EI by 25 % (95 % limits of agreement −73 % to +68 %) in the first recall, 22 % (−61 % to +41 %) for average of first two, and 25 % (−60 % to +28 %) for first three recalls. Correlations between EI and TEE were 0·31 (first), 0·47 (first two) and 0·39 (first three recalls), respectively. ICC for a single recall was 0·35 for EI and ranged from 0·31 for Fe to 0·43 for non-milk extrinsic sugars (NMES). Considering pairs of recalls (first two v. third and fourth recalls), ICC was 0·52 for EI and ranged from 0·37 for fat to 0·63 for NMES. EI reported with Intake24 was moderately correlated with objectively measured TEE and underestimated on average to the same extent as seen with interviewer-led 24-h recalls and estimated weight food diaries. Online 24-h recall systems may offer low-cost, low-burden alternatives for collecting dietary information.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The aim is to investigate if sustained weight loss due to caloric restriction can be achieved in a community setting, using faith-based organisations (FBOs) as hubs; and if this weight loss can lead to the re-establishment of normal metabolism (using the normalisation of blood sugar levels while off glucose lowering medication as a proxy) in a person with pre-diabetes or T2DM. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Members of the FBO with either a diagnosis of T2DM for <6 years or pre-diabetes as defined by the American Diabetes Association (ADA); and a Body Mass index (BMI) of ≥27 kg/m2 are eligible. After counselling, participants will be placed on a 12 week low calorie liquid diet, supplemented by low carbohydrate vegetables, totalling approximately 840 kcal/day. During this time, participants will be monitored weekly at their FBO by trained members of their congregation, with oversight from the study team, for change in weight, fasting blood glucose, waist and hip circumference and blood pressure. This will be followed by a 3 month period during which participants will receive ongoing dietary advice as they transfer to a balanced, reduced calorie, solid diet. Physical measurements will be monitored monthly during this 3 month period. The next 6 months is a period where the participants and the FBO health team move towards ‘independence’. This involves further training of the FBO health team and participants in healthy lifestyle habits; and a commitment by the leadership of the FBO to assume ‘ownership’ for NCD monitoring within their community. Physical measurements will be repeated at the end of one year. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Based on previous studies, we expect that participants who are compliant to the diet will lose approximately 2.2 kg per week over the 12 week period. This will be associated with rapid (within 1 week) normalisation of fasting blood glucose levels (<7mmol / L). We expect that, due to the accessibility of NCD monitoring and support, that participants to be satisfied with their care and compliant to their regime and that the results of the first 12 weeks will be sustained at the 12 month follow up. We expect that the FBO leadership will assume the responsibility of continuing and NCD programme, not only for the local congregation but for the surrounding community. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Diabetes remission with a low calorie diet is a viable intervention for T2DM remission however social support is key to an individual’s success. This novel study which proposes institution of a diabetes remission intervention which fits into the participant’s locale and involves peer support, should increase long-term success.
Euclid is a Europe-led cosmology space mission dedicated to a visible and near infrared survey of the entire extra-galactic sky. Its purpose is to deepen our knowledge of the dark content of our Universe. After an overview of the Euclid mission and science, this contribution describes how the community is getting organized to face the data analysis challenges, both in software development and in operational data processing matters. It ends with a more specific account of some of the main contributions of the Swiss Science Data Center (SDC-CH).
In this paper, we report a new high-speed and high-power switching circuit based on GaN HEMT's. The elementary switching cell, composed of two GaN HEMT's and two resistors, acts like a power threshold comparator with high-output voltage. Theoretical analysis of static and dynamic circuit operation points out the dependence of efficiency and switching speed to the main circuit elements. Four switching cells are then combined together thanks to SiC Schottky diodes to design a multi-level power switch that can be used as a power supply modulator for envelope tracking power amplifiers. The designed four-level supply modulator, based on Nitronex GaN HEMT's, exhibits more than 75% of efficiency for an envelope signal up to 4 MHz, a switching frequency of 20 MHz and output voltages in the range of 12–30 V.
Moored FADs (MFADs) have been a key area for development in Guadeloupe (Lesser Antilles) since the late 1980’s. The main objectives underpinning the development of MFADs were to (i) reduce fishing pressure on coastal fishing resources; (ii) boost fishermen’s incomes; and (iii) increase local consumption of locally generated fishery products as a proportion of overall consumption. This paper gives an overview of the current structure of Guadeloupe’s fishing fleet and fisheries, with a specific focus on MFAD fleets in a relatively unstructured environment with regard to regulation, and so how these fleets operate in a context of unrestricted development of private MFADs. In addressing the following key issues, this paper aims to: assess the economic performance of fleets operating on MFADs, understand why the MFAD fishing activity has not developed more than it has, and suggest how better MFAD management could improve the situation. Socio-economic information on a trip and fleet level basis were collected and stored on a fisheries information system to analyse the relative attractiveness of MFAD fishing and assess the overall economic performance of MFAD fleets as compared to other non-MFAD fleets. Non-monetary variables were also tested to explain the degree of dependence on MFADs. In 2008, economic returns from FADs were relatively low, both in terms of wages for the crews and in terms of profit for vessel owners. Earnings were higher than coastal fishing activities, but seem to have been very sensitive to the indicators used in our analysis. MFADs are expected to become much more attractive as a result of MFAD regulation, especially through the establishment of collective MFADs.
We present a miniature magnetic climbing robot with dimensions 96 × 46 × 64 mm3. With two degrees of freedom it is able to climb ferromagnetic surfaces and to make inner plane to plane transitions whatever their inclination is. This robot, named TRIPILLAR, combines triangular-shaped magnetic caterpillars and frame magnets. This particular configuration allows, for example, to move from ground to wall and ceiling and back. This achievement opens new avenues to use mobile robotics for industrial inspection with stringent size restrictions, such as the ones encountered in power plants.
Carbon nanotubes (CNT) possess remarkable physical properties. However, because of their size, they are difficult to handle. Making composites with them gives an alternative way to handle these objects and to make use of their properties at a macroscopic scale. Here, we present a comparative study of the transport properties of PMMA / nanotubes composite films with both SWNTs and MWNTs. At room temperature, the conductivity of the composites follows a pure percolation behavior when increasing the nanotube content. The universal scaling law for random site percolation with a very low percolation threshold (0.3 weight %) is obeyed over two orders of magnitude in CNT content. At low temperature, SWNTs and MWNTs based composites behave differently. While MWNTs composites still obey the percolation law, deviations are observed for SWNTs. The transport properties are discussed in terms of tube-tube contact and charging energy of the tubes.
In this paper, we present results obtained by Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) on SWNTs films with different thicknesses. We show that the “D” band associated to disorder in graphitic compounds can also be due to intrinsic defects in SWNTs. In addition, we put in evidence strong interfacial reactions at the SWNTs/metallic support interface when NMP is used as solvent to disperse the tubes. Our observations suggest that these reactions can induce a breaking of the SWNTs. Presumably a reconstruction of compounds close to C60 molecules can occur.
Electron scattering and diffraction in X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) have been used to characterize GaAs(001) and InP(001) chemically etched surfaces. 6a(3d),As(3d), In(4d) and P(2p) photoelectrons have been observed as a function of polar angles for the two [1–10] and  azimuths For kinetic energy range of these photoelectrons the experimental results have been correctly predicted by the single-scattering cluster model with spherical-wave corrections.
The problems of quantitative measurements in XPS have been discussed in relation with the diffraction phenomena.
We have studied the influence of different GaAs surface treatments on the chemical composition and electrical behavior of the Si 3 N4 -GaAs interface, where Si 3 N4 was plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposited (PECVD) onto the treated GaAs(100) substrate. The chemistry of the resulting interface has been studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It has been demonstrated that the chemical composition of the Si 3 N4-GaAs interface is drastically dependent on GaAs surface pretreatment and r.f. plasma excitation frequency. Output-input powers characteristics have been measured on chemically treated planar MESFET after Si3N4. passivation.
Next-generation microelectronic interconnects require the use of dielectrics with continuously lower permittivity (k) to overcome limitations induced by crosstalk parasitic signal delay. Using PECVD, Ultralow-k film (ULK, k ≤ 2.5) can be developed by creating pore inclusions within an organosilicate matrix through porogen approach. Both ULK deposition and subsequent curing process has to be adjusted in order to achieve optimized mechanical and electrical properties and maintain stability during integration. For this concern, the attention was recently focused on ultraviolet (UV) radiation to sustain the thermal curing. In the present work, a fundamental understanding of structural transformations occurring during porogen extraction from as-deposited ULK materials when exposed to thermal-assisted UV radiation is proposed. This thermal-assisted UV cure technique is very efficient in porogen removal since in a few minutes the desired porosity is reached. During the first stage of curing, the film shrinks strongly whereas the porosity is created. After porogen removal step, the porous film continues shrinking under UV radiation leading to an increase of SiOSi bonds concentration (film densification). The normalized FTIR SiOSi peak increase during UV curing (related in literature to an improvement of mechanical properties) is mainly due to the film densification, in addition to the SiOSi bridging bond creation. In this case, correlation is found between shrinkage and elastic modulus.
The increase of integrated circuits performances requires ultra-low dielectric constant (ULK) materials to minimize the drawbacks of miniaturization. Amorphous SiOCH are promising candidates for ULK materials as porosity can be introduced via a two steps elaboration. In a first step, organo-silicon species and organic species are co-deposited by PECVD. Then, a thermal annealing, alone or assisted by UV radiation, removes the organic labile phase and creates pore inclusions into the final material. In this work, the extendibility of this porogen approach is investigated in order to lower the dielectric constant. An increase of the porogen loading in hybrid film is studied by tuning the precursors ratio injected in the plasma gas feed. The increase of organic species amount is operated in order to create more pores sites. However, the post-treatment does not lead automatically to higher porosity. Actually, an increase of the porosity is observed only until a porogen loading limit and decreases above this limit. The shrinkage of the film during the post-treatment can explain this limitation. For high ratios of porogen, the film shrinkage increases drastically and leads to a decrease of the porosity finally created. At last, the link between porosity and dielectric constant is enlightened and a minimum in term of K value is reached with both post-treatments: dielectric constant of 2.1 and 2.3 are obtained using respectively thermal treatment and UV curing.
Nanocrystalline diamond films have generated much interested due to their diamond-like properties and low surface roughness. Several techniques have been used to obtain a high re-nucleation rate, such as hydrogen poor or high methane concentration plasmas. In this work, the properties of nano-diamond films grown on silicon substrates using a continuous DC bias voltage during the complete duration of growth are studied. Subsequently, the layers were characterised by several morphological, structural and optical techniques. Besides a thorough investigation of the surface structure, using SEM and AFM, special attention was paid to the bulk structure of the films. The application of FTIR, XRD, multi wavelength Raman spectroscopy, TEM and EELS yielded a detailed insight in important properties such as the amount of crystallinity, the hydrogen content and grain size. Although these films are smooth, they are under a considerable compressive stress. FTIR spectroscopy points to a high hydrogen content in the films, while Raman and EELS indicate a high concentration of sp2 carbon. TEM and EELS show that these films consist of diamond nano-grains mixed with an amorphous sp2 bonded carbon, these results are consistent with the XRD and UV Raman spectroscopy data.
The science of extra-solar planets is one of the most rapidly changing areas of astrophysics and since 1995 the number of planets known has increased by almost two orders of magnitude. A combination of ground-based surveys and dedicated space missions has resulted in 560-plus planets being detected, and over 1200 that await confirmation. NASA's Kepler mission has opened up the possibility of discovering Earth-like planets in the habitable zone around some of the 100,000 stars it is surveying during its 3 to 4-year lifetime. The new ESA's Gaia mission is expected to discover thousands of new planets around stars within 200 parsecs of the Sun. The key challenge now is moving on from discovery, important though that remains, to characterisation: what are these planets actually like, and why are they as they are?
In the past ten years, we have learned how to obtain the first spectra of exoplanets using transit transmission and emission spectroscopy. With the high stability of Spitzer, Hubble, and large ground-based telescopes the spectra of bright close-in massive planets can be obtained and species like water vapour, methane, carbon monoxide and dioxide have been detected. With transit science came the first tangible remote sensing of these planetary bodies and so one can start to extrapolate from what has been learnt from Solar System probes to what one might plan to learn about their faraway siblings. As we learn more about the atmospheres, surfaces and near-surfaces of these remote bodies, we will begin to build up a clearer picture of their construction, history and suitability for life.
The Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory, EChO, will be the first dedicated mission to investigate the physics and chemistry of Exoplanetary Atmospheres. By characterising spectroscopically more bodies in different environments we will take detailed planetology out of the Solar System and into the Galaxy as a whole.
EChO has now been selected by the European Space Agency to be assessed as one of four M3 mission candidates.
Background: The role of technology to facilitate independent living for people with dementia is not fully realized, with initial attempts (e.g. tracking devices) being considered unacceptable from a practical and ethical perspective. The aim of this study is to create acceptable and effective prototype technologies to facilitate independence for people with dementia through a user-centered design process involving them and their carers.
Method: The study comprised a three-stage participatory design process: scoping stage (five focus groups, 10 people with dementia and 11 carers); participatory design stage (five workshops, 22 participants) and prototype development stage (four meetings with two people with dementia and one carer). Focus groups and workshops were digitally recorded, fully transcribed and subjected to constant comparative analysis.
Results: People with mild to moderate dementia enjoy a variety of activities both on their own and with their families; however, concerns included getting lost, a loss of confidence with curtailment of usual activities, and carer anxiety. Existing technologies (mobile phones) were used intermittently. Participants felt strongly that future devices should be disguised and be integrated easily into their daily routines. Suggested areas for functional improvement included two-way communications, flexibility of function as the illness progresses, and something to “guide” them home when out walking or driving. Attention should also be focused on minimizing the size, weight and visibility of devices to reduce stigmatization.
Conclusion: Prototypes for two devices (armband and electronic notepad) were developed. The study showed that involving people with dementia in the process of participatory design is feasible and could lead to devices which are more acceptable and relevant to their needs.
The dynamics of tropical forest woody plants was studied at the Nouragues Field Station, central French Guiana. Stem density, basal area, above-ground biomass and above-ground net primary productivity, including the contribution of litterfall, were estimated from two large permanent census plots of 12 and 10 ha, established on contrasting soil types, and censused twice, first in 1992–1994, then again in 2000–2002. Mean stem density was 512 stems ha−1 and basal area, 30 m2 ha−1. Stem mortality rate ranged between 1.51% and 2.06% y−1. In both plots, stem density decreased over the study period. Using a correlation between wood density and wood hardness directly measured by a Pilodyn wood tester, we found that the mean wood density was 0.63 g cm−3, 12% smaller than the mean of wood density estimated from the literature values for the species occurring in our plot. Above-ground biomass ranged from 356 to 398 Mg ha−1 (oven-dry mass), and it increased over the census period. Leaf biomass was 6.47 Mg ha−1. Our total estimate of aboveground net primary productivity was 8.81 MgC ha−1 y−1 (in carbon units), not accounting for loss to herbivory, branchfalls, or biogenic volatile organic compounds, which may altogether account for an additional 1 MgC ha−1 y−1. Coarse wood productivity (stem growth plus recruitment) contributed to 4.16 MgC ha−1 y−1. Litterfall contributed to 4.65 MgC ha−1 y−1 with 3.16 MgC ha−1 y−1 due to leaves, 1.10 MgC ha−1 y−1 to twigs, and 0.39 MgC ha−1 y−1 to fruits and flowers. The increase in above-ground biomass for both trees and lianas is consistent with the hypothesis of a shift in the functioning of Amazonian rain forests driven by environmental changes, although alternative hypotheses such as a recovery from past disturbances cannot be ruled out at our site, as suggested by the observed decrease in stem density.