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Taxonomic identification of archaeofauna relies on techniques and anatomical traits that should be valid, reliable, and usable, but which are rarely tested. Identification protocols (techniques and anatomical traits), particularly those used to distinguish taxa of similar size and morphology, should be rigorously tested to ensure a solid interpretive foundation. Blind testing of a protocol for identifying stylohyoid bones of North American artiodactyls was performed by three analysts who independently employed the protocol to identify 77 anatomically complete specimens of known taxonomic identity, representing 54 individuals and 11 species. Identifications were identical in 89% of cases and in conflict in 3% of cases. The remainder involved differences in resolution; two analysts identified specimens to species, whereas the third identified specimens to more general taxonomic groups. Inter-analyst variability in identification was a result of differences in protocol application. Identifications were consistent with known taxon in 92%–96% of cases. Results indicate that the protocol is valid, reliable, and usable, and it can be applied to archaeological specimens with confidence. Testing of other identification criteria employed by zooarchaeologists is encouraged.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: To characterize the oncogenic potential of HNSCC cell lines harboring 17 non-canonical PIK3CA mutations. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Non-canonical PIK3CA mutant constructs generated via site-directed mutagenesis are subcloned into doxycycline-inducible vector pLVX-Puro. Serum-dependent HNSCC cell line (PCI-52-SD1) is then stably transfected with vectors and undergo doxycycline-induction. Cell survival is determined by depriving cells of fetal bovine serum for 72 hours and quantifying remaining cells with 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays. Cell proliferation and migration is evaluated with colony formation assays and transwell assays respectively. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: To date, the survival behavior of eight non-canonical mutants was assessed. Three mutants – Q75E, V71I, and E970K – exhibited 18.7-26.7% greater survival rate relative to cells transfected with wild-type. Five mutants – R519G, Y606C, W328S, C905S, and M1040I – demonstrated survival rates that differed only by −4.3% to +6.6% relative to wild-type. We hypothesize the three activating mutants that exhibited increased survival will also demonstrate increased cell proliferation and migratory behavior whereas the three neutral mutants will not differ from control. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Ongoing HNSCC PI3K inhibitor trials could be more effective if all PIK3CA hyperactivation mutations are known. Identifying non-canonical mutation effects could result in greater efficacy if drugs are restricted only to those with activating mutations. CONFLICT OF INTEREST DESCRIPTION: JRG and DEJ are co-inventors of cyclic STAT3 decoy and have financial interests in STAT3 Therapeutics, Inc. STAT3 Therapeutics, Inc. holds an interest in a cyclic STAT3 decoy oligonucleotide. The remaining authors declare no conflicts.
The New Natural Law (NNL) theory is the name given to a particular revival and development of Thomistic natural law theory, first proposed in the 1960s by Germain Grisez in an interpretative article on St Thomas Aquinas, in which Grisez challenged the then-dominant interpretation of Aquinas on natural law. In subsequent decades Grisez, John Finnis, Joseph Boyle and others richly developed the theory and applied it to other issues (free choice, moral absolutes, abortion, euthanasia, marriage and others).
According to the interpretation of Aquinas’ natural law theory standard in the 1960s, the basic moral criterion is human nature itself. Actions are morally permissible if they conform to the teleologies inscribed within human nature, morally wrong if not. Since the standard for what is morally right is what fulfils human nature, one must first determine by a theoretical procedure what end or ends fulfil human nature.
This paper examines the stability of egocentric networks as reported over time using a novel touchscreen-based participant-aided sociogram. Past work has noted the instability of nominated network alters, with a large proportion leaving and reappearing between interview observations. To explain this instability of networks over time, researchers often look to structural embeddedness, namely the notion that alters are connected to other alters within egocentric networks. Recent research has also asked whether the interview situation itself may play a role in conditioning respondents to what might be the appropriate size and shape of a social network, and thereby which alters ought to be nominated or not. We report on change in these networks across three waves and assess whether this change appears to be the result of natural churn in the network or whether changes might be the result of factors in the interview itself, particularly anchoring and motivated underreporting. Our results indicate little change in average network size across waves, particularly for indirect tie nominations. Slight, significant changes were noted between waves one and two particularly among those with the largest networks. Almost no significant differences were observed between waves two and three, either in terms of network size, composition, or density. Data come from three waves of a Chicago-based panel study of young men who have sex with men.
Online self-reported 24-h dietary recall systems promise increased feasibility of dietary assessment. Comparison against interviewer-led recalls established their convergent validity; however, reliability and criterion-validity information is lacking. The validity of energy intakes (EI) reported using Intake24, an online 24-h recall system, was assessed against concurrent measurement of total energy expenditure (TEE) using doubly labelled water in ninety-eight UK adults (40–65 years). Accuracy and precision of EI were assessed using correlation and Bland–Altman analysis. Test–retest reliability of energy and nutrient intakes was assessed using data from three further UK studies where participants (11–88 years) completed Intake24 at least four times; reliability was assessed using intra-class correlations (ICC). Compared with TEE, participants under-reported EI by 25 % (95 % limits of agreement −73 % to +68 %) in the first recall, 22 % (−61 % to +41 %) for average of first two, and 25 % (−60 % to +28 %) for first three recalls. Correlations between EI and TEE were 0·31 (first), 0·47 (first two) and 0·39 (first three recalls), respectively. ICC for a single recall was 0·35 for EI and ranged from 0·31 for Fe to 0·43 for non-milk extrinsic sugars (NMES). Considering pairs of recalls (first two v. third and fourth recalls), ICC was 0·52 for EI and ranged from 0·37 for fat to 0·63 for NMES. EI reported with Intake24 was moderately correlated with objectively measured TEE and underestimated on average to the same extent as seen with interviewer-led 24-h recalls and estimated weight food diaries. Online 24-h recall systems may offer low-cost, low-burden alternatives for collecting dietary information.
Pope St. John Paul’s emphasis on the inherent moral significance of free self-constitution and of self-initiative by individuals and families, and his direct knowledge before he was pope of life under a communist dictatorship, seem to have influenced his social thought. Thus, John Paul advanced a developed understanding of work as itself fulfilling for the worker and proposed a deepened explanation of the ethical justification of private ownership and of the principles of subsidiarity and solidarity. He commended the free market principle as an organizing principle of a country’s economy, but taught that it was also limited or modified by other principles. John Paul also presented sharp criticisms of socialism, of the modern welfare state, and of the dangers of excessive bureaucracy.