Positron lifetime and Doppler-broadening experiments as well as Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were performed on a variety of six-inch Czochralski (CZ) silicon wafers. Measurements were done at 14 equidistant locations across the wafers which were cut from the seed-, middle-, and tail-sections of two boules grown at different pull-speeds.
In the as-grown wafers, the positron response consisted of components from small oxygen-related clusters and “perfect” bulk silicon only. Possible contributions from vacancy-type defects were at or just below the detection limit. After a two-step heat treatment (750°C/ 4 hrs + 1050°C/6 hrs in N2) FTIR showed that significant amounts of oxygen (4–8 ppma) had precipitated in wafers taken from the seed-sections of the boules but not in any of the other wafers. The positron data did not reflect this distinctive difference, however, both lifetime and Doppler-broadening results strongly indicate the creation of vacancy-type defects at concentrations in the 1016cm−3-range.