To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Mg@ZnO thin films were prepared by DC/RF magnetron co-sputtering in (N2+O2) ambient conditions using metallic Mg and Zn targets. We present a comprehensive study of the effects of film thickness, variation of O2 content in the working gas and annealing temperature on the structural, optical and magnetic properties. The band gap energy of the films is found to increase from 4.1 to 4.24 eV with the increase of O2 partial pressures from 5 to 20 % in the working gas. The films are found to be ferromagnetic at room temperature and the saturation magnetization increases initially with the film’s thickness reaching a maximum value of 14.6 emu/cm3 and then decreases to finally become diamagnetic beyond 95 nm thickness. Intrinsic strain seems to play an important role in the observed structural and magnetic properties of the Mg@ZnO films. On annealing, the as-obtained ‘mostly amorphous’ films in the temperature range 600 to 800°C become more crystalline and consequently the saturation magnetization values reduce.
Achieving low resistance ohmic contacts for heavily doped devices is critical towards ensuring that contact resistance does not dominate the device performance. Here, we report contact resistance studies done on Pt/LSMO, Ni/LSMO and Au/LSMO metal-semiconductor interfaces. Phase-pure LSMO thin films deposited on n+ Si substrates were lithographically patterned and metallized to produce circular transfer length method (CTLM) based specific contact resistivity (ρc) and transfer length (LT) evaluation structures. Based on the electrical performance, interfacial reactivity and mechanical stability of the three metal junctions, the lowest ρc and LT metal for LSMO films on Si is identified for device applications.
A low thermal budget process for back-end compatible PCMO based RRAM cell is essential for 3D stacked memory. In this paper, we investigate two strategies to engineer low thermal budget processing for bipolar switching - (i) deposition engineering i.e. based on deposition temperature and oxygen partial pressure, (ii) post deposition anneal i.e. based on inert anneal of room temperature deposited PCMO film.. We demonstrate that both deposition and anneal shows a transition temperature above which bipolar switching is realized. Oxygen partial pressure is a key deposition process parameter. As oxygen partial pressure is reduced memory window increases, however beyond an optimal O2 partial pressure, unipolar switching is observed. Inert anneal is more effective in thermal budget reduction as N2/550°C/2min anneal has same memory performance as 650°C/2hour deposition process.
Mg doped ZnO thin films were prepared by DC/RF magnetron co-sputtering in (Ar+O2) ambient conditions using metallic Mg and Zn targets. We present a comprehensive study of the effects of film thickness on the structural, optical and magnetic properties. Room temperature ferromagnetism was observed in the films and the saturation magnetization (MS) increases at first as the film’s thickness increases and then decreases. The MS value as high as ∼15.76 emu/cm3 was achieved for the Mg-doped ZnO film of thickness 120 nm. The optical band gap of the films determined to be in the range 3.42 to 3.52 eV.
Thyroid cancers infiltrating the upper aerodigestive tract are not uncommon. The management of these cases can be demanding, with a high level of surgical skill required to achieve adequate primary resection and reconstruction.
Materials and methods:
This study was a single institution series of seven patients, managed over two years, who underwent tracheal resection for advanced thyroid cancer. All patients were older than 45 years (range, 45–65 years) and were predominantly male (six of seven). All patients presented to us with a swelling in the neck. Fine needle aspiration cytology detected thyroid cancer in all patients. None of the patients required a tracheostomy prior to surgery; however, they all had varying levels of airway compromise. One patient had lung metastasis at presentation. In all patients, the airway was successfully secured with fibre-optic assisted intubation prior to surgery. All patients underwent a total thyroidectomy with tracheal resection and anastomosis. Montgomery's suprahyoid release was utilised to achieve adequate laryngeal drop. None of the patients required a tracheostomy in the post-operative period. All patients received adjuvant therapy with either radioiodine ablation and/or radiotherapy.
Tracheal resection and primary reconstruction is a feasible surgical procedure for patients with thyroid cancer infiltrating the upper aerodigestive tract, with good clinical outcomes. However, the morbidity of the procedure mandates careful case selection, airway management and meticulous surgical technique.
Pentacene and poly 3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) are the most promising p-type organic semiconducting materials for fabrication of organic field effect transistors (OFETs). OFETs with aforesaid organic semiconducting materials have been demonstrated as total dose detectors for ionizing radiation, wherein the changes in the electrical characteristic parameters, such as, increase in the OFF current, increase in the ON current, change in the current ratio, shift in the threshold voltage, change in the subthreshold swing, etc., were used as a measure of ionizing radiation dose. Upon exposure to ionizing radiation P3HT based OFET sensor has shown an OFF current sensitivity of 4.4 nA/Gy while pentacene based OFET sensor has shown an OFF current sensitivity of 26.7 nA/Gy for a total of 50 Gy dose of ionizing radiation. Change in the conductivity of the thin-films of pentacene and P3HT were observed and compared using electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) imaging before and after exposure to ionizing radiation. Effects of ionizing radiation on the energy band structures of the organic semiconducting materials, pentacene and P3HT, have been studied using UV-visible spectroscopy. Moreover, analysis of UV-visible spectra of the thin-films suggested the generation of energy states in larger quantity in case of pentacene thin-film as compared to P3HT thin-film upon exposure to the same dose of ionizing radiation. These results confirm the higher sensitivity observed in pentacene OFET sensor as compared to P3HT OFET sensor in terms of the change in electrical parameters.
Changes in the material properties of copper (II) phthalocyanine (CuPc) thin-films were studied upon exposure to increasing dose of ionizing radiation using photoluminescence spectrum. We observe generation of new energy states below the band gap upon exposure to ionizing radiation. Organic electronic devices – CuPc based resistor and an organic field effect transistor (OFET) – are proposed in this work as total dose sensors for ionizing radiation. We observe an increase in the conductivity of CuPc thin-films with increasing dose of ionizing radiation. To overcome the possibility of changes/degradation in the electrical properties of CuPc thin-films upon interaction with various gases and moisture in the environment, a passivation layer of silicon nitride, deposited by hot-wire CVD process is proposed. Effect of ionizing radiation on the electrical properties of thin-films of CuPc has been studied. We observe a 170% increase in the resistance of the thin-film for a total of 50 Gy radiation dose using Cobalt-60 (60Co) radiation source. Moreover, significant changes in the electrical characteristics of an OFET, with CuPc as an organic semiconductor, have been observed with increasing doses of ionizing radiation. Experiments with an OFET (W/L = 19350 μm / 100 μm and tox = 150 nm) as a sensor resulted in a ∼100X change in the OFF current for a total of 50 Gy dose of ionizing radiation exhibiting a sensitivity of ∼1 nA/Gy. Moreover, implementing a reader circuit, shift in the threshold voltage of the OFET at 1e-7 A drain current displayed a sensitivity of 80 mV/Gy for a total of 50 Gy dose of ionizing radiation. CuPc based organic electronic devices have advantages as sensors because of their low-cost fabrication, large area coverage on flexible substrates, etc.
Swift heavy ion irradiation is one of the most versatile techniques to alter and monitor the properties of materials in general and at nanoscale in particular. The materials modification can be controlled by a suitable choice of ion beam parameters such as ion species, fluence and incident energy. It is also possible to choose these ion beam parameters in such a way that ion beam irradiation can cause annealing of defects or creation of defects at a particular depth. Here, we present a review of our work on swift heavy ion induced modifications of III-V semiconductor heterostructures and multi-quantum wells in addition to synthesis of Ge nanocrystals using atom beam co-sputtering, RF magnetron sputtering followed by RTA, swift heavy ion irradiation, respectively. We also present the growth of GeO2 nanocrystals by microwave annealing. These samples were studied by using XRD, Raman, PL, RBS and TEM. The observed results and their explanation using possible mechanisms are discussed in detail.
Organic semiconducting oligomer – Pentacene, as a material and organic electronic devices based on it, are proposed here as total dose detectors for ionizing radiation. Pentacene, when exposed to ionizing radiation of γ – rays using Cobalt – 60 (60Co) radiation source, shows increase in the conductivity of the material which can be used as a sensing phenomenon for determining the dose of ionizing radiation. The change in material property was also verified using UV-visible (UV-VIS) spectrum for pentacene thin-films with rising absorption peaks at the oxidized positions in the wavelength. A pentacene resistor can be used as a detector, as the change in the conductivity of the pentacene film can be easily quantified by measuring the change in resistance of the pentacene resistor after different total radiation dose exposures. The experiments resulted in a sensitivity of 340 kΩ/Gy for a total 100 Gy radiation dose for the pentacene resistor. Furthermore, employing this simple electrical measurement technique for determining the dose of ionizing radiation and to improve the sensitivity of the sensor by transistor action, a pentacene based organic field effect transistor (OFET) was exposed to ionizing radiation. Change in OFF current (IOFF) of the OFET sensor with W/L = 19350 μm/100 μm, suggests a sensitivity of 21 nA/Gy for 100 Gy dose. Also, changes in various other parameters like threshold voltage, subthreshold swing, field effect mobility, number of interface states etc. can be extracted from the electrical characterizations which prove their usefulness as a detector for ionizing radiation.
Ge nanocrystals embedded in silica matrix have been synthesized on Si substrate by co-sputtering of SiO2 and Ge using RF magnetron sputtering technique. The as-deposited films were subjected to microwave annealing at 800 and 9000C. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) has been used to measure the Ge composition and film thickness. The structural characterization was performed by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectrometry. XRD measurements confirmed the formation of Ge nanocrystals. Raman scattering spectra showed a peak of Ge-Ge vibrational mode around 299 cm−1, which was caused by quantum confinement of phonons in the Ge nanocrystals. Surface morphology of the samples was studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Variation of nanocrystal size with annealing temperature has been discussed. Advantages of microwave annealing are explained in detail.
We report here swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation induced effects on structural and surface properties of III-nitrides. Tensile strained Al(1-x)InxN/GaN Hetero-Structures (HS) were realized using Metal Organic Chemical Vapour Despotion (MOCVD) technique with indium composition as 12%. Ion species and energies are chosen such that electronic energy deposition rates differ significantly in Al(1-x)InxN and are essential for understanding the ion beam interactions at the interfaces. Thus the samples were irradiated with 80 MeV Ni6+ and 100 MeV Ag7+ ions at varied fluence (1×1012 and 3 ×1012 ions/cm2) to alter the structural properties. Under this energy regime, the structural changes in Al(1-x)InxN would occur due to the intense ultrafast excitations of electrons along the ion path. We employed different characterization techniques like High Resolution X- ray Diffraction (HRXRD) and Rutherford back scattering spectrometry (RBS) for composition, thickness and strain. HRXRD and RBS experimental spectra have been fitted with Philip’s epitaxy SIMNRA code, which yields thickness and composition from compound semiconductors. The surface morphology of pristine and irradiated samples is studied and compared by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM).
Leucaena leucocephala is cultivated at close spacings that do not permit intercropping. This has been a discouraging factor for small landholders who need regular income to establish leucaena plantations and benefit from the rapidly expanding market for wood. Therefore, on-farm experiments were conducted near Bhadrachalam, Khammam district, Andhra Pradesh, India, from August 2001 to January 2006, to study the effect of reducing tree density and modifying tree geometry on the growth of leucaena and productivity of intercrops. The inter-row spacing of 1.3 m in farmers' practice was increased up to 13 m to examine whether wide-row planting and grouping of certain rows would facilitate extended intercropping without sacrificing wood yield. Tree density treatments tried were 1.3 × 1.3 m, 3 × 0.75 m, 3 × 1 m, 5 × 0.8 m and 3 × 2 m which gives densities of 5919, 4444, 3333, 2500 and 1666 trees ha−1, respectively. Tree geometry treatments tested were 7 × 1 m paired row spacing (7 × 1 PR), 10 × 1 m triple row spacing (10 × 1 TR), and 13 × 1 m four rows (13 × 1 FR) with a constant tree population of 2500 trees ha−1. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) was the intercrop. While changes in tree density affected diameter at breast height (DBH) significantly, modification of tree geometry did not affect tree height and DBH. Marketable wood and dry biomass productivity was highest with 3 × 0.75 m spacing, and reducing tree density and alteration of tree geometry reduced the biomass considerably. In 2001, 2002 and 2003 seasons, respectively, tree spacing at 3 m produced mean yields of 97, 23 and 11% of the sole crop cowpea yield whereas modified tree geometry treatments produced mean yields of 97, 61 and 20% of sole crop yield. The widest spacing (13 × 1 FR) recorded 95, 73 and 30% of the sole crop yields during 2001, 2002 and 2003, respectively. Net returns from intercropping of leucaena in 3 × 0.75 m spacing was 36% higher than that of the farmers' practice. Although wider tree geometry treatments recorded lower net returns, they provided higher intercrop yields and returns in the first two years of plantation establishment. Therefore, it can be concluded that in regions where annual rainfall is around 1000 mm, leucaena can be planted at a spacing of 3 × 0.75 m for improving intercrop performance, higher tree productivity and returns.
Evidence for long range ferromagnetic order above room-temperature, RTFM, in pristine ZnO, In2O3, TiO2 nanoparticles and thin films, containing no nominal magnetic elements have been reported recently. This could question the origin of RTFM in doped dilute alloys if for example the ZnO matrix itself develops a defect induced magnetic order with a significant moment per unit cell. In this presentation we report a systematic study of the film thickness dependence of RTFM in pure ZnO deposited by DC Magnetron Sputtering. We observe a maximum in the saturation magnetization, MS, value of 0.62 emu/g (0,018 μB/unit cell), for a ˜480 nm film deposited in an oxygen ambience of appropriate pressure. Above a thickness of around 1 μm the films are diamagnetic as expected. We thus see a sequential transition from ferromagnetism to para- and eventual diamagnetism as a function of film thickness in ZnO. We also find that in such a ZnO matrix with a maximum intrinsic defect induced moment, on doping with Mn the maximum enhanced MS value of 0.78 emu/g is obtained for 1at.% Mn doping. With this approach of appropriate doping in a defect tailored matrix, we routinely obtain RTFM in both undoped and Mn- doped ZnO thin films.
Physical activity is known to influence the bone mass of an individual. Few studies have examined the effect of occupational activities on bone health. The present study investigated the relationship between occupational activities and the bone parameters measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 158 women from a low-income group in India. Women involved in three occupations with different bone-loading patterns (beedi (cigarette) makers, sweepers and construction workers) were included in the study. Anthropometric parameters, parity and percentage of menopausal women did not differ significantly between the three groups and dietary intake of Ca was low in all the groups. Bone mineral density (BMD) values of the overall group at all the sites were much lower than those reported from developed countries, possibly due to different body sizes in these regions. Femoral neck and hip BMD were not different in the three groups in spite of marked differences in activity patterns. However, bone area in the femoral neck was higher in the beedi makers compared with sweepers probably due to the squatting position adopted by beedi makers. Lumbar spine BMD was significantly lower among the sweepers when compared with the beedi makers and the groups performing walking and weight-bearing activities (sweepers and construction workers) had a higher prevalence of osteoporosis in the lumbar spine. However, weight-bearing effects of the upper body due to a squatting position were associated with better lumbar spine BMD in the beedi makers. The present study thus indicates that undernutrition might affect the relationship between occupational activities and bone parameters.
Remotely sensed estimates of biochemical parameters of agricultural crops are central to the precision management of agricultural crops (precision farming). Past research using in situ and airborne spectral reflectance measurements of various vegetation species has proved the usefulness of hyperspectral data for the estimation of various biochemical parameters of vegetation. In order to exploit the vast spectral and radiometric resources offered by space-borne hyperspectral remote sensing for the improved estimation of plant biochemical parameters, the relationships observed between spectral reflectance and various biochemical parameters at in situ and airborne levels needed to be evaluated in order to establish the existence of a reliable and stable relationship between spectral reflectance and plant biochemical parameters at the pixel scale. The potential of the EO-1 Hyperion hyperspectral sensor was investigated for the estimation of total chlorophyll and nitrogen concentrations of cotton crops in India by developing regression models between hyperspectral reflectance and laboratory measurements of leaf total chlorophyll and nitrogen concentrations. A comprehensive and rigorous analysis was carried out to identify the spectral bands and spectral indices for accurate retrieval of leaf total chlorophyll and nitrogen concentrations of cotton crop. The performance of these critical spectral reflectance indices was validated using independent samples. A new vegetation index, named the plant biochemical index (PBI), is proposed for improved estimation of the plant biochemicals from space-borne hyperspectral data; it is simply the ratio of reflectance at 810 and 560 nm. Further, the applicability of PBI to a different crop and at a different geographical location was also assessed. The present results suggest the use of space-borne hyperspectral data for accurate retrieval of leaf total chlorophyll and nitrogen concentrations and the proposed PBI has the potential to retrieve leaf total chlorophyll and nitrogen concentrations of various crops and at different geographical locations.
PbO-P2O5-As2O3 glasses containing
different concentrations of Al2O3 ranging from 0 to 5 mol%
were prepared. Dielectric properties (viz., dielectric constant
, loss tan
and a.c. conductivity
over a moderately wide range of frequency and temperature and
dielectric breakdown strength in air medium), optical properties (optical
absorption, IR spectra and thermoluminescence) and differential thermal
analysis have been studied. The interesting changes observed in these
studies have been explained in the light of different structural groups of
The development of rice blast disease in four slow-blasting (SB) genotypes was compared with that in the fast-blasting (FB) genotype Karuna, under natural field epidemics over a period of 3 years at five levels of nitrogen, in order to determine if the application of high doses of nitrogen influenced the expression of disease progress in the SB types. The treatment effects were compared through estimation of nine parameters viz. (i) lesion number (LN); (ii) area under disease progress curve (AUDPC); (iii) relative area under disease progress curve (RAUDPC); (iv) logistic apparent infection rate (r); (v) Gompertz apparent infection rate (k); (vi) logit line intercept (logit-a); (vii) gompit line intercept (gompit-a); (viii) time required for the disease to reach 0·25 severity in logistic (T25r); and (ix) Gompertz (T25k) models. There was a significant increase in LN, AUDPC, RAUDPC, r and k with increased levels of nitrogen application in all genotypes, but the rate of increase in disease severity was much lower in SB genotypes than the FB one and did not lead to breakdown of resistance in the SB genotypes, since severity level was much below the economic injury level. Among the nine derived parameters for evaluation of resistance LN, AUDPC, RAUDPC, r and k were best. The AUDPC and RAUDPC had lower degrees of error variance compared with the other parameters and hence were considered superior measures for characterization of disease progress curves.
We find evidence for dust in the intervening QSO absorbers from the spectra of QSOs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 1. No evidence is found for the 2175 Å feature which is present in the Milky Way dust extinction curve.