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We examined differences in consumer-level characteristics and structural resources and capabilities of small and non-traditional food retailers (i.e. corner stores, gas-marts, pharmacies, dollar stores) by racial segregation of store neighbourhood and corporate status (corporate/franchise- v. independently owned).
Observational store assessments and manager surveys were used to examine availability-, affordability- and marketing-related characteristics experienced by consumers as well as store resources (e.g. access to distributors) and perceived capabilities for healthful changes (e.g. reduce pricing on healthy foods). Cross-sectional regression analyses of store and manager data based on neighbourhood segregation and store corporate status were conducted.
Small and non-traditional food stores in Minneapolis and St. Paul, MN, USA.
One hundred and thirty-nine stores; seventy-eight managers.
Several consumer- and structural-level differences occurred by corporate status, independent of residential segregation. Compared with independently owned stores, corporate/franchise-owned stores were more likely to: not offer fresh produce; when offered, receive produce via direct delivery and charge higher prices; promote unhealthier consumer purchases; and have managers that perceived greater difficulty in making healthful changes (P≤0·05). Only two significant differences were identified by residential racial segregation. Stores in predominantly people of colour communities (<30 % non-Hispanic White) had less availability of fresh fruit and less promotion of unhealthy impulse buys relative to stores in predominantly White communities (P≤0·05).
Corporate status appears to be a relevant determinant of the consumer-level food environment of small and non-traditional stores. Policies and interventions aimed at making these settings healthier may need to consider multiple social determinants to enable successful implementation.
The instrumentation developed for poly crystalline diffractometry using the storage ring at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory is described. A pair of automated vertical scan diffractometers was used for a Si (111) channel monochromator and the powder specimens. The parallel beam powder diffraction was defined by horizontal parallel slits which had several times higher intensity than a receiving slit at the same resolution. The patterns were obtained with 2:1 scanning with’ a selected monochromatic beam, and an energy dispersive diffraction method in which the monochromator is step-scanned, and the specimen and scintillation counter are fixed. Both methods use the same instrumentation.
Morphophysiological dormancy (MPD) is predominantly found in seeds of temperate regions and is uncommon in arid biomes. MPD has been reported in a number of Hibbertia (Dilleniaceae) species of temperate Australia, and in a single species of the arid zone, H. glaberrima. This study aimed to examine the dormancy and germination ecology of seeds of H. glaberrima. Seeds were subjected to temperature stratification treatments designed to mimic summer and autumn conditions in the Pilbara region of Western Australia. Seed germination and embryo growth were measured. We also tested the interaction between temperature stratification and cycles of drying and wetting designed to mimic sporadic rainfall events. All temperature and moisture treatments were tested in combination (+/–) with the smoke-derived chemical karrikinolide (KAR1). Exposing dormant seeds to temperatures suitable for warm stratification (35°C) for ≥ 8 weeks, followed by incubation at 25°C, resulted in significantly higher germination compared with non-stratified seeds. Exposing seeds to dry/wet cycling in conjunction with temperature stratification did not significantly increase germination. Exposure to KAR1 increased germination under most conditions. Once seeds are shed during October to December, they are exposed to hot and sporadically wet conditions over summer, allowing MPD to be overcome in a proportion of the seed population. Seeds may germinate in autumn (March to April), in conjunction with cooler temperatures. More deeply dormant individuals may require more than one summer to overcome dormancy. Similar to other species occurring in fire-prone ecosystems, fire also plays a crucial role in the germination ecology of H. glaberrima.
Little is known about customer purchases of foods and beverages from small and non-traditional food retailers (i.e. corner stores, gas-marts, dollar stores and pharmacies). The present study aimed to: (i) describe customer characteristics, shopping frequency and reasons for shopping at small and non-traditional food retailers; and (ii) describe food/beverage purchases and their nutritional quality, including differences across store type.
Data were collected through customer intercept interviews. Nutritional quality of food/beverage purchases was analysed; a Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) score for purchases was created by aggregating participant purchases at each store.
Small and non-traditional food stores that were not WIC-authorized in Minneapolis and St. Paul, MN, USA.
Customers (n 661) from 105 food retailers.
Among participants, 29 % shopped at the store at least once daily; an additional 44 % shopped there at least once weekly. Most participants (74 %) cited convenient location as the primary draw to the store. Customers purchased a median of 2262 kJ (540 kcal), which varied by store type (P=0·04). The amount of added sugar far surpassed national dietary recommendations. At dollar stores, participants purchased a median of 5302 kJ (1266 kcal) for a median value of $US 2·89. Sugar-sweetened beverages were the most common purchase. The mean HEI-2010 score across all stores was 36·4.
Small and non-traditional food stores contribute to the urban food environment. Given the poor nutritional quality of purchases, findings support the need for interventions that address customer decision making in these stores.
In 1984 Perley and Erickson proposed a 73.8 MHz [4 meter wavelength] observing system at the VLA site (NRAO Scientific Memo #146). They proposed a stand-alone antenna system that would feed its signals into an existing spare channel of the VLA waveguide and utilize a separate correlator. Over the 35 km VLA baselines this system would produce images with 20 arcsec resolution, unprecedented at this frequency. The major technical problems are ionospheric refraction and interference. Some doubt existed as to whether or not it would be possible to cope with the large, rapidly-changing ionospheric phase fluctuations to be expected over 35 km baselines. Thus it was proposed, as a first step in the development, that 73.8 MHz feeds be installed in the present VLA dishes and that trial observations be made to prove that techniques such as self-calibration can be successful. Eight dishes now have 73.8 MHz instrumentation and a number of radio source images have been made with this initial system.
A total of 18 radio sources selected on the basis of steep low-frequency radio spectra have been searched for the presence of millisecond pulsars using the Molonglo Observatory synthesis telescope. The search covered pulsar periods down to 2 ms with a limiting sensitivity of approximately 10 mJy. No pulsars were detected.
The ALFA mission is designed to map the entire sky at frequencies between approximately 0.3 and 30 MHz with angular resolution limited by interstellar and interplanetary scattering. Most of this region of the spectrum is inaccessible from the ground because of absorption and refraction by the Earth’s ionosphere. A wide range of astrophysical questions concerning solar system, galactic, and extragalactic objects could be answered with high resolution images at low frequencies, where absorption effects and coherent emission processes become important and the synchrotron lifetimes of electrons are comparable to the age of the universe.
73.8 MHz instrumentation for the VLA is being developed and is currently installed on 8 VLA dishes. Test observations of strong radio sources have been made. We describe techniques that we have developed to analyze these test observations and we present examples of our first maps.
We have assembled a new sample of some of the most FIR-luminous galaxies in the Universe and have imaged them in 1.1 mm dust emission and measured their redshifts 1 < z < 4 via CO emission lines using the 32-m Large Millimeter Telescope / Gran Telescopio Milimétrico (LMT/GTM). Our sample of 31 submm galaxies (SMGs), culled from the Planck and Herschel all-sky surveys, includes 14 of the 21 most luminous galaxies known, with LFIR > 1014L⊙ and SFR > 104M⊙/yr. These extreme inferred luminosities – and multiple / extended 1.1 mm images – imply that most or all are strongly gravitationally lensed, with typical magnification μ ~ 10 × . The gravitational lensing provides two significant benefits: (1) it boosts the S/N, and (2) it allows investigation of star formation and gas processes on sub-kpc scales.
The aim of this study was to examine cross-sectionally whether higher cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) might favorably modify amyloid-β (Aβ)-related decrements in cognition in a cohort of late-middle-aged adults at risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Sixty-nine enrollees in the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer’s Prevention participated in this study. They completed a comprehensive neuropsychological exam, underwent 11C Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB)-PET imaging, and performed a graded treadmill exercise test to volitional exhaustion. Peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) during the exercise test was used as the index of CRF. Forty-five participants also underwent lumbar puncture for collection of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples, from which Aβ42 was immunoassayed. Covariate-adjusted regression analyses were used to test whether the association between Aβ and cognition was modified by CRF. There were significant VO2peak*PiB-PET interactions for Immediate Memory (p=.041) and Verbal Learning & Memory (p=.025). There were also significant VO2peak*CSF Aβ42 interactions for Immediate Memory (p<.001) and Verbal Learning & Memory (p<.001). Specifically, in the context of high Aβ burden, that is, increased PiB-PET binding or reduced CSF Aβ42, individuals with higher CRF exhibited significantly better cognition compared with individuals with lower CRF. In a late-middle-aged, at-risk cohort, higher CRF is associated with a diminution of Aβ-related effects on cognition. These findings suggest that exercise might play an important role in the prevention of AD. (JINS, 2015, 21, 841–850)
Little is known about the practices for stocking and procuring healthy food in non-traditional food retailers (e.g. gas-marts, pharmacies). The present study aimed to: (i) compare availability of healthy food items across small food store types; and (ii) examine owner/manager perceptions and stocking practices for healthy food across store types.
Descriptive analyses were conducted among corner/small grocery stores, gas-marts, pharmacies and dollar stores. Data from store inventories were used to examine availability of twelve healthy food types and an overall healthy food supply score. Interviews with managers assessed stocking practices and profitability.
Small stores in Minneapolis and St. Paul, MN, USA, not participating in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children.
One hundred and nineteen small food retailers and seventy-one store managers.
Availability of specific items varied across store type. Only corner/small grocery stores commonly sold fresh vegetables (63 % v. 8 % of gas-marts, 0 % of dollar stores and 23 % of pharmacies). More than half of managers stocking produce relied on cash-and-carry practices to stock fresh fruit (53 %) and vegetables (55 %), instead of direct store delivery. Most healthy foods were perceived by managers to have at least average profitability.
Interventions to improve healthy food offerings in small stores should consider the diverse environments, stocking practices and supply mechanisms of small stores, particularly non-traditional food retailers. Improvements may require technical support, customer engagement and innovative distribution practices.
The upper half of the frequency band lying between the atmospheric water lines at 183 and 323 GHz is virtually unexplored by spectroscopists of interstellar matter. The only published observations are those of Huggins et al. (1979) who detected the J=3-2 lines of HCN, HNC, and HCO+ in the Orion A molecular cloud (OMC-1). We report here the results of extensive observations made in March and April of 1979 with a University of California (Berkeley) receiver on the Texas 4.9-m antenna.
Significant new opportunities for astrophysics and cosmology have been identified at low radio frequencies. The Murchison Widefield Array is the first telescope in the southern hemisphere designed specifically to explore the low-frequency astronomical sky between 80 and 300 MHz with arcminute angular resolution and high survey efficiency. The telescope will enable new advances along four key science themes, including searching for redshifted 21-cm emission from the EoR in the early Universe; Galactic and extragalactic all-sky southern hemisphere surveys; time-domain astrophysics; and solar, heliospheric, and ionospheric science and space weather. The Murchison Widefield Array is located in Western Australia at the site of the planned Square Kilometre Array (SKA) low-band telescope and is the only low-frequency SKA precursor facility. In this paper, we review the performance properties of the Murchison Widefield Array and describe its primary scientific objectives.
A comparative study of Pt and Pt/Si contacts to p-type 6H-SiC in terms of various processing conditions and interlayer specifications was performed. Deposition temperature, the thickness of the Si layer, and B-dopant incorporation in the Si were found to significantly affect the specific contact resistivity (SCR) values. In addition, pre-etching of the SiC surface in SF6 + Ar was found to consistently reduce the SCR's. The lowest average SCR values were 3 × 10−5 Ωcm2 for Pt/Si/SiC contacts deposited on pre-etched SiC surfaces (7.0 × 1018 cm−3 doping concentration) and annealed at 1100 °C for 5 min.
Aluminum-titanium contacts also showed dependence on the thicknesses of the Al and Ti layers and on the locations of the layers. Differences in both the SCRs and surface morphology are presented.
A new member of the LnMIn5 family, ErCoIn5, has been synthesized by a flux-growth method. The structure of ErCoIn5 was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. It crystallizes in the tetragonal space group P4/mmm, Z = 1, with lattice parameters a = 4.5400(4) and c = 7.3970(7) Å, and V = 152.46(2) Å3. Electrical resistivity data show metallic behavior. Magnetic susceptibility measurements show this compound to be antiferromagnetic with TN = 5.1 K. We compare these experimental results with those of LaCoIn5 in an effort to better understand the effect of the structural trends observed on the transport and magnetic properties.
During the period 9 December 1991–4 February 1992 shipboard and aerial surveys of seals in the pack ice off the Princess Martha Coast were made. All aerial surveys were flown from the MV SA Agulhas at the edge of the fast ice opposite SANAE at 70°19′S, 02°26′W. A total of 18 1/2-nm-wide transects were flown censusing 481.3 nm2 of pack ice within which 1437 seals were counted. The species composition of the seals was 94.4% crabeater, 3.4% Ross, 1.4% leopard and 0.8% Weddell seals. The density of seals nm−2 for the early season surveys (December) in the inner pack was 1.92 for crabeater, 0.0 for leopard; 0.026 for Weddell and 0.057 for Ross seals. The density for the late season surveys throughout the pack was 4.02 for crabeater, 0.10 for leopard, 0.029 for Weddell and 0.122 for Ross seals. These data support the thesis that seal densities increase as the amount of pack ice diminishes with the advance of summer. Leopard seals were largely found near the retreating outer edge of the pack, and Weddell seals associated closely with the inshore fast ice, whilst both crabeater and Ross seals showed no statistically significant preference either for any part of the pack ice or for any particular geographical area covered during the surveys in the present study. The high densities (0.45−2.91 seals nm−2) and percentage species contribution (9.7−32.4%) of Ross seals determined by shipboard censuses in the same area during the early 1970s could not be confirmed in the present study, and it is likely that a real decrease in Ross seal numbers has taken place.
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