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Individuals diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD) often describe their lives as stressful and unpredictable. However, it is unclear whether the adversity faced by those with BPD is a product of stress reactivity or stress generation. Here, we examined the dynamic, prospective associations between BPD and stressful life events over 3 years. Given the heterogeneity present in BPD, we sought to understand which empirically derived dimensions of this heterogeneous disorder explain stress reactivity v. stress generation.
Participants included 355 individuals diagnosed with BPD and followed longitudinally at three annual assessments. Auto-regressive cross-lagged panel models were used to examine prospective associations between stressful life events and three latent dimensions implicated in BPD: negative affect, disinhibition, and antagonism.
Antagonism and disinhibition, but not negative affect, prospectively predicted dependent stressful life events (events the individual may have some role in). Evidence for decompensation under stress was more tenuous, with independent stressful life events (those presumably outside the individual's control) predicting increases in negative affect.
Our longitudinal study of a well-characterized clinical sample found more evidence for stress generation than for stress-induced decompensation in BPD. Stress generation in BPD is driven by externalizing dimensions: antagonism and disinhibition. These results highlight the utility of empirically derived dimensions for parsing heterogeneity present in BPD, leading to improvements in diagnostic evaluation, clinical prediction, and individualized approaches to treatment planning.
Surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases are essential for polio eradication. However, as most poliovirus infections are asymptomatic and some regions of the world are inaccessible, additional surveillance tools require development. Within England and Wales, we demonstrate how inclusion of environmental sampling (ENV) improves the sensitivity of detecting both wild and vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) when compared to current surveillance. Statistical modelling was used to estimate the spatial risk of wild and VDPV importation and circulation in England and Wales. We estimate the sensitivity of each surveillance mode to detect poliovirus and the probability of being free from poliovirus, defined as being below a pre-specified prevalence of infection. Poliovirus risk was higher within local authorities in Manchester, Birmingham, Bradford and London. The sensitivity of detecting wild poliovirus within a given month using AFP and enterovirus surveillance was estimated to be 0.096 (95% CI 0.055–0.134). Inclusion of ENV in the three highest risk local authorities and a site in London increased surveillance sensitivity to 0.192 (95% CI 0.191–0.193). The sensitivity of ENV strategies can be compared using the framework by varying sites and the frequency of sampling. The probability of being free from poliovirus slowly increased from the date of the last case in 1993. ENV within areas thought to have the highest risk improves detection of poliovirus, and has the potential to improve confidence in the polio-free status of England and Wales and detect VDPVs.
Alterations of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis (HPAA) may be related to the development of psychiatric disorders, especially in the context of childhood adversity. The “attenuation hypothesis” postulates that chronic childhood adversity leads to initial hyperactivation of the HPAA, which subsequently may turn into hypoactivation during adolescence, and support the development of emotional and behavioural problems. However, studies investigating this hypothesis during the course of adolescence are rare.
The sample comprised 49 adolescents (f/m 19/30), subsampled from a larger longitudinal study on adolescent development. Assessments were performed at three points in time (T1-T3). Pituitary Gland Volume (PGV) as an estimate of chronic HPAA activity was measured by MRI at T1 (mean age 12.5) and T3 (mean age 16.5). HPAA functioning was assessed via multiple salivary cortisol measures at T2 (mean age 15.5). The Cortisol Awakening Response (CAR) was calculated as a measure of HPAA activity. Additionally, childhood adversity was assessed at T2 using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ).
There was a significant sex-specific association of PGV at T1 and HPAA activity at T2. While PGV was positively predicting HPAA activity in boys, girls showed a reverse pattern (attenuation of the HPAA). A blunted CAR in girls was significantly related to their report of childhood adversity.
The results show that girls may have a higher tendency of attenuation of the HPAA in the context of childhood adversity and initial hyperactivation of the HPAA. This may contribute to their higher risk for diverse psychiatric disorders during adolescence.
Research has shown that ADHD symptoms and functional impairment often persist beyond childhood into adulthood. Thus an effective therapy that can be tolerated over long-term use in adults is needed. This is the first long term safety and tolerability study of an adult ADHD medication in Asia.
Assess long-term safety, tolerability, and efficacy of atomoxetine (ATX) in adult Japanese ADHD patients.
Demonstrate the safety and tolerability of long-term ATX.
ATX (40-120 mg/day) was evaluated based on integrated analyses of a 10 week double-blind (DB) study and a 48 week open-label long term (LT) extension study. Long-term safety and tolerability were assessed by adverse events, discontinuation rate, and vital-signs. Efficacy measures included change from baseline in Conners’ Adult ADHD Rating Scale- Investigator Rated (CAARS-Inv:SV) total symptoms score, behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF-A), and Adult ADHD/QoL Measure (AAQoL).
233 patients took ATX (LT mean final prescribed dose: 108.3 mg/day). AEs leading to discontinuations were seen in 37 (15.9%) patients, the most common being nausea in 10 (4.3%) patients. Statistically significant baseline-to-endpoint reductions in mean CAARS-Inv:SV total symptoms score during in the DB study continued throughout the LT study. Similar reductions were seen in BRIEF-A Self Report scores. These findings along with AAQoL results indicated that patients perceived improvements in both QoL and Executive Function.
Long-term ATX treatment was shown to be generally safe and tolerable in Japanese adult ADHD patients. Results also suggested ATX improved ADHD core symptoms, QoL and Executive Functions.
With one in ten young people being affected by ill mental health and stigma regularly cited as a factor affecting access to early intervention services, focussing resources on school based stigma reduction strategies seems prudent. ‘Headucate’, a student society, designed a 50 minute workshop which aims to increase mental health literacy and decrease stigma.
Repeated, cross sectional surveys were carried out at three time points; 1) immediately before (n=77), 2) Immediately after (n=81) and 3) three months post workshop (n=73). The surveys were paper based versions of the Reported Intended Behaviours Score (RIBS) and Mental Health Knowledge Scale (MAKS) utilising a social distance scale.
Four year 10 classed (pupils aged 14-15) were recruited. Post hoc t-tests were carried out when one-way ANOVAS were significant.
Disorder knowledge (from MAKS) and intended contact (from RIBS) significantly increased between time points one and two (p<0.01 and <0.004 respectively) but then decreased.
Analysis of the question pertaining to knowing where to access help showed a statistically significant increase (p<0.001) between time points one and two and then a decrease at time three, albeit to a higher value than at time point one (3.45 compared to 3.13, P=0.088).
Headucate workshops offer a low resource option which is well accepted by students. Like other school based stigma reduction strategies, a dramatic increase was seen between immediately before and after indicating that the workshop resonates with the pupils, but there was little sustained change in attitudes.
Against a backdrop of poor mental health education in UK schools a group of students from Norwich Medical School have formed a student society called ‘Headucate’ in order to create, deliver and evaluate an educational intervention for adolescents, initially to be delivered in Norfolk schools.
To create an educational intervention that:
Is the length of a standard lesson
Is age appropriate and acceptable
Contains appropriate signposting
Contains content that challenges common myths and replaces them with knowledge
Contains content that encourages empathy and understanding towards those with mental illnesses
Is easily delivered in the same way each time so that its effectiveness can be evaluated
To create an intervention effective at tackling stigma and empowering adolescents to recognise signs of poor mental health and access services appropriately.
Lesson plan created after consultation with psychiatrists, a psychologist, a GP, a university outreach professional, a teacher and secondary school age children, then trialled and revised.
Interactive workshop produced with 5 sections.
1) Myth vs Fact activity that dispels prevalent myths
2) Scenario based activity to demonstrate that mental health is a spectrum
3) An interactive presentation covering the most common mental illnesses and their symptoms
4) An activity focusing on talking to those with mental illnesses, furthering the scenario from the previous activity
5) A question and answer session. Every student leaves with a leaflet containing appropriate signposting.
We have created an educational intervention ready to be delivered and evaluated.
Mental health education is not compulsory in the UK therefore adolescents have very varied experiences despite half of people with mental health illnesses reporting having experienced symptoms by 14 years old. University students are ideal for delivering a relaxed, educational intervention aimed at this age group, providing an opportunity to for them to learn necessary tools for recognising signs of poor mental health and tackle associated stigma.
To expand Headucate's membership, including other disciplines within the University of East Anglia (UEA) and provide core training enabling members to deliver a school-based educational intervention
Recruitment of members has been a multifaceted approach utilising social media sites such as Facebook and the Headucate website, and oncampus events and ‘awareness campaigns’ including several successful evening talks and lectures.
Three training sessions, which include ‘Introduction to Mental Health’, ‘Workshop run-through’ and ‘Child Protection’, have been developed for all members wishing to partake in the delivery of workshops.
We have recruited approximately 300 members since summer 2012; 70 fully paid members in 2012/13 academic year and currently 45 paid members for 2013/14.
A total of 18 members are fully trained and ready to deliver workshops within schools and 17 other members have just one training session remaining.
We are looking forward to delivering our first workshops in October and building on a successful first year. We are confident we can provide workshops for approximately 600 children per year.
The symptoms of many mental illnesses often begin during high school. Interventions to improve mental health awareness amongst adolescents may lead to improved outcomes. in the UK unfortunately many schools do not fulfil this need and mental health education is not a compulsory part of the curriculum.
To develop and measure the effectiveness of and educational intervention designed to raise awareness and empower adolescents to recognise signs of poor mental health and access services appropriately.
Evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention through baseline and follow up surveys.
Students at Norwich Medical School collaborated with teachers, psychiatrists and general practitioners to design an educational intervention that aims to tackle stigma and raise awareness of mental health conditions among 13-14 year olds in the hope that they can access services when needed, support those around them and look after their mental health. To evaluate effectiveness of the intervention, a knowledge, attitudes and practices survey that utilises a social distance scale that has been adapted for this age group and will be used to gather baseline and follow up data after six months.
We have developed a one-hour educational intervention delivered by medical students, that uses a variety of teaching techniques to raise awareness of mental health issues. We will start implementation in January 2013 so will have baseline effectiveness results shortly after.
Headucate has the potential to fill an important gap in effectively raising awareness of mental health issues in schools.
We conduct the first broad-based international study on bank-level failures covering 92 countries over 2000–2014, investigating national cultural variables as failure determinants. We find individualism and masculinity are positively associated with bank failure, but they operate through different channels. Managers in individualist countries assume more portfolio risk, while governments in masculine countries allow banks to operate with less liquidity and less often bail out troubled institutions. Findings are robust to accounting for endogeneity, different techniques and measures, and additional controls. Results have implications for prudential policies, including regulation, supervision, and bailout strategies, that may partially mitigate some negative effects of culture.
There is limited understanding of the cognitive profiles of Spanish-speaking children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The current study investigated the cognitive cluster profiles of Puerto Rican Spanish-speaking children with ADHD using the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children-Fourth Edition Spanish (WISC-IV Spanish) Index scores and examined the association between cognitive cluster profiles with other potentially relevant factors.
Hierarchical cluster analysis was used to identify WISC-IV clusters in a sample of 165 Puerto Rican children who had a primary diagnosis of ADHD. To examine the validity of the ADHD clusters, analysis of variances and chi-square analyses were conducted to compare the clusters across sociodemographics (e.g., age and education), type of ADHD diagnosis (ADHD subtype, Learning Disorder comorbidity), and academic achievement.
Clusters were differentiated by level and pattern of performance. A five-cluster solution was identified as optimal that included (C1) multiple cognitive deficits, (C2) processing speed deficits, (C3) generally average performance, (C4) perceptual reasoning strengths, and (C5) working memory deficits. Among the five clusters, the profile with multiple cognitive deficits was characterized by poorer performance on the four WISC-IV Spanish Indexes and was associated with adverse sociodemographic characteristics.
Results illustrate that there is substantial heterogeneity in cognitive abilities of Puerto Rican Spanish-speaking children with ADHD, and this heterogeneity is associated with a number of relevant outcomes.
To assess the impact of a newly developed Central-Line Insertion Site Assessment (CLISA) score on the incidence of local inflammation or infection for CLABSI prevention.
A pre- and postintervention, quasi-experimental quality improvement study.
Setting and participants:
Adult inpatients with central venous catheters (CVCs) hospitalized in an intensive care unit or oncology ward at a large academic medical center.
We evaluated CLISA score impact on insertion site inflammation and infection (CLISA score of 2 or 3) incidence in the baseline period (June 2014–January 2015) and the intervention period (April 2015–October 2017) using interrupted times series and generalized linear mixed-effects multivariable analyses. These were run separately for days-to-line removal from identification of a CLISA score of 2 or 3. CLISA score interrater reliability and photo quiz results were evaluated.
Among 6,957 CVCs assessed 40,846 times, percentage of lines with CLISA score of 2 or 3 in the baseline and intervention periods decreased by 78.2% (from 22.0% to 4.7%), with a significant immediate decrease in the time-series analysis (P < .001). According to the multivariable regression, the intervention was associated with lower percentage of lines with a CLISA score of 2 or 3, after adjusting for age, gender, CVC body location, and hospital unit (odds ratio, 0.15; 95% confidence interval, 0.06–0.34; P < .001). According to the multivariate regression, days to removal of lines with CLISA score of 2 or 3 was 3.19 days faster after the intervention (P < .001). Also, line dwell time decreased 37.1% from a mean of 14 days (standard deviation [SD], 10.6) to 8.8 days (SD, 9.0) (P < .001). Device utilization ratios decreased 9% from 0.64 (SD, 0.08) to 0.58 (SD, 0.06) (P = .039).
The CLISA score creates a common language for assessing line infection risk and successfully promotes high compliance with best practices in timely line removal.
Disturbances in trait emotions are a predominant feature in schizophrenia. However, less is known about (a) differences in trait emotion across phases of the illness such as the clinical high-risk (CHR) phase and (b) whether abnormalities in trait emotion that are associated with negative symptoms are driven by primary (i.e. idiopathic) or secondary (e.g. depression, anxiety) factors.
To examine profiles of trait affective disturbance and their clinical correlates in individuals with schizophrenia and individuals at CHR for psychosis.
In two studies (sample 1: 56 out-patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and 34 demographically matched individuals without schizophrenia (controls); sample 2: 50 individuals at CHR and 56 individuals not at CHR (controls)), participants completed self-report trait positive affect and negative affect questionnaires, clinical symptom interviews (positive, negative, disorganised, depression, anxiety) and community-based functional outcome measures.
Both clinical groups reported lower levels of positive affect (specific to joy among individuals with schizophrenia) and higher levels of negative affect compared with controls. For individuals with schizophrenia, links were found between positive affect and negative symptoms (which remained after controlling for secondary factors) and between negative affect and positive symptoms. For individuals at CHR, links were found between both affect dimensions and both types of symptom (which were largely accounted for by secondary factors).
Both clinical groups showed some evidence of reduced trait positive affect and elevated trait negative affect, suggesting that increasing trait positive affect and reducing trait negative affect is an important treatment goal across both populations. Clinical correlates of these emotional abnormalities were more integrally linked to clinical symptoms in individuals with schizophrenia and more closely linked to secondary influences such as depression and anxiety in individuals at CHR.
To define optimal thromboprophylaxis strategy after stent implantation in superior or total cavopulmonary connections.
Stent thrombosis is a rare complication of intravascular stenting, with a perceived higher risk in single-ventricle patients.
All patients who underwent stent implantation within superior or total cavopulmonary connections (caval vein, innominate vein, Fontan, or branch pulmonary arteries) were included. Cohort was divided into aspirin therapy alone versus advanced anticoagulation, including warfarin, enoxaparin, heparin, or clopidogrel. Primary endpoint was in-stent or downstream thrombus, and secondary endpoints included bleeding complications.
A total of 58 patients with single-ventricle circulation underwent 72 stent implantations. Of them 14 stents (19%) were implanted post-superior cavopulmonary connection and 58 (81%) post-total cavopulmonary connection. Indications for stenting included vessel/conduit stenosis (67%), external compression (18%), and thrombotic occlusion (15%). Advanced anticoagulation was prescribed for 32 (44%) patients and aspirin for 40 (56%) patients. Median follow up was 1.1 (25th–75th percentile, 0.5–2.6) years. Echocardiograms were available in 71 patients (99%), and advanced imaging in 44 patients (61%). Thrombosis was present in two patients on advanced anticoagulation (6.3%) and none noted in patients on aspirin (p = 0.187). Both patients with in-stent thrombus underwent initial stenting due to occlusive left pulmonary artery thrombus acutely post-superior cavopulmonary connection. There were seven (22%) significant bleeding complications for advanced anticoagulation and none for aspirin (p < 0.001).
Antithrombotic strategy does not appear to affect rates of in-stent thrombus in single-ventricle circulations. Aspirin alone may be sufficient for most patients undergoing stent implantation, while pre-existing thrombus may warrant advanced anticoagulation.
Successful conservation strategies require that taxa are prioritized because resources for planning and implementation are always limited. In this study, we created a partial checklist of crop wild relatives (CWR) that occur in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) region and identified the taxa of highest priority for regional conservation planning based on their importance for food and economic security. We found that the region contains over 1900 wild relatives of species cultivated for food, beverages, ornamental, forage/fodder, forestry, medicinal, environmental and other uses. Prioritization of these species was based on two criteria: (i) the value of the related crop for human food and economic security in the region and/or globally, and (ii) the potential or known value of the wild relatives of those crops for crop improvement. The region contains 745 CWR species related to 64 human food and beverage crops that are of high socioeconomic importance and 100 of these are of immediate priority for conservation action. The results of this study show that the SADC region contains a wealth of CWR diversity that is not only of value for food and economic security within the region but also globally. Furthermore, this study represents the first step in developing a CWR conservation and sustainable use strategy for the region, where its implementation would contribute to food security and well-being.
In an effort to optimize patient outcomes, considerable attention is being devoted to identifying patient characteristics associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) and its responsiveness to treatment. In the current study, we extend this work by evaluating whether early change in these sensitivities is associated with response to antidepressant treatment for MDD.
Participants included 210 patients with MDD who were treated with 8 weeks of escitalopram and 112 healthy comparison participants. Of the original 210 patients, 90 non-responders received adjunctive aripiprazole for an additional 8 weeks. Symptoms of depression and anhedonia were assessed at the beginning of treatment and 8 weeks later in both samples. Reward and punishment sensitivity were assessed using the BIS/BAS scales measured at the initiation of treatment and 2 weeks later.
Individuals with MDD exhibited higher punishment sensitivity and lower reward sensitivity compared with healthy comparison participants. Change in reward sensitivity during the first 2 weeks of treatment was associated with improved depressive symptoms and anhedonia following 8 weeks of treatment with escitalopram. Similarly, improvement in reward responsiveness during the first 2 weeks of adjunctive therapy with aripiprazole was associated with fewer symptoms of depression at post-treatment.
Findings highlight the predictive utility of early change in reward sensitivity during antidepressant treatment for major depression. In a clinical setting, a lack of change in early reward processing may signal a need to modify a patient's treatment plan with alternative or augmented treatment approaches.
Introduction: As reported by the Canadian Institute for Health Information, the rate of child and youth emergency department (ED) visits for mental health complaints increased by 50% between 2007 and 2015. Improving care for these patients has been identified as a major priority of Alberta Health Services As part of a multi-phased approach to improving care, the Emergency and the Addiction and Mental Health Strategic Clinical Networks undertook an analysis of administrative data to define incidence in Alberta and changing trends. Methods: The data analyzed included 5 different clinical information systems encompassing the 17 highest volume hospitals in Alberta, from April 2013 to March 2016. Patient encounters were included if the patient was under 25 years of age at the time of visit, and if the encounter included a CEDIS Presenting Complaint and/or an ICD-10 Primary Diagnosis relating to Addiction and/or Mental Health (AMH). A total of 54,810 patient encounters were included. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Sub-group analysis was undertaken based upon age, presenting complaint, and primary diagnosis. Results: The incidence of children and youth presenting to an ED with an AMH complaint and an AMH primary diagnosis increased 22% and 7%, respectively, from 2013/14 to 2015/16. Admissions of patients were constant throughout this period. The largest increase in ED visits occurred among children aged 7-10, with a 60% increase in visits defined by presenting complaint and a 21% increase in primary diagnosis. The second largest increase was in young adults aged 18-21 with a 26% increase defined by presenting complaint, and a 12% increase in primary diagnosis. Analyzed by age group, the largest increase in primary diagnosis between 2013/14 and 2015/16 was seen in Depression/Suicidal/Self Harm with a 667% increase among ages 0-6, and a 79% increase among ages 7-10. The second highest increase was for Anxiety/Situational Crisis with a 223% increase among ages 0-6, and 74% among children aged 7-10. Conclusion: Within Alberta there has been a substantial increase in the incidence of child and youth visits to the ED for issues of mental health and addictions. It is clear is that these changing trends are placing an increased burden on our healthcare system and necessitate strategic planning to ensure the health and wellness of our patients.