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Stress is associated with binge eating and emotional eating (EE) cross-sectionally. However, few studies have examined stress longitudinally, limiting understanding of how within-person fluctuations in stress influence EE over time and whether stress is a risk factor or consequence of EE. Additionally, little is known regarding how the biological stress response relates to EE.
We used an intensive, longitudinal design to examine between-person and within-person effects of major life stress, daily stress, and cortisol on EE in a population-based sample of women (N = 477; ages 15–30; M = 21.8; s.d. = 3.0) from the Michigan State University Twin Registry. Participants reported past year major life stress, then provided daily ratings of EE and stress for 49 consecutive days. Hair cortisol concentration (HCC) was collected as a longitudinal biological stress measure.
Women reported greater EE when they experienced greater mean stress across days (between-person effects) or greater stress relative to their own average on a given day (within-person effects). Daily stress was more strongly associated with EE than major life stress. However, the impact of daily stress on EE was amplified in women with greater past year major life stress. Finally, participants with lower HCC had increased EE.
Findings confirm longitudinal associations between stress and EE in women, and highlight the importance of within-person shifts in stress in EE risk. Results also highlight HCC as a novel biological stress measure that is significantly associated with EE and may overcome limitations of prior physiological stress response indicators.
To examine differences in surgical practices between salaried and fee-for-service (FFS) surgeons for two common degenerative spine conditions. Surgeons may offer different treatments for similar conditions on the basis of their compensation mechanism.
The study assessed the practices of 63 spine surgeons across eight Canadian provinces (39 FFS surgeons and 24 salaried) who performed surgery for two lumbar conditions: stable spinal stenosis and degenerative spondylolisthesis. The study included a multicenter, ambispective review of consecutive spine surgery patients enrolled in the Canadian Spine Outcomes and Research Network registry between October 2012 and July 2018. The primary outcome was the difference in type of procedures performed between the two groups. Secondary study variables included surgical characteristics, baseline patient factors, and patient-reported outcome.
For stable spinal stenosis (n = 2234), salaried surgeons performed statistically fewer uninstrumented fusion (p < 0.05) than FFS surgeons. For degenerative spondylolisthesis (n = 1292), salaried surgeons performed significantly more instrumentation plus interbody fusions (p < 0.05). There were no statistical differences in patient-reported outcomes between the two groups.
Surgeon compensation was associated with different approaches to stable lumbar spinal stenosis and degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis. Salaried surgeons chose a more conservative approach to spinal stenosis and a more aggressive approach to degenerative spondylolisthesis, which highlights that remuneration is likely a minor determinant in the differences in practice of spinal surgery in Canada. Further research is needed to further elucidate which variables, other than patient demographics and financial incentives, influence surgical decision-making.
Deficits in visuospatial attention, known as neglect, are common following brain injury, but underdiagnosed and poorly treated, resulting in long-term cognitive disability. In clinical settings, neglect is often assessed using simple pen-and-paper tests. While convenient, these cannot characterise the full spectrum of neglect. This protocol reports a research programme that compares traditional neglect assessments with a novel virtual reality attention assessment platform: The Attention Atlas (AA).
The AA was codesigned by researchers and clinicians to meet the clinical need for improved neglect assessment. The AA uses a visual search paradigm to map the attended space in three dimensions and seeks to identify the optimal parameters that best distinguish neglect from non-neglect, and the spectrum of neglect, by providing near-time feedback to clinicians on system-level behavioural performance. A series of experiments will address procedural, scientific, patient, and clinical feasibility domains.
Analyses focuses on descriptive measures of reaction time, accuracy data for target localisation, and histogram-based raycast attentional mapping analysis; which measures the individual’s orientation in space, and inter- and intra-individual variation of visuospatial attention. We will compare neglect and control data using parametric between-subjects analyses. We present example individual-level results produced in near-time during visual search.
The development and validation of the AA is part of a new generation of translational neuroscience that exploits the latest advances in technology and brain science, including technology repurposed from the consumer gaming market. This approach to rehabilitation has the potential for highly accurate, highly engaging, personalised care.
The purpose of this document is to highlight practical recommendations to assist acute care hospitals to prioritize and implement strategies to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), ventilator-associated events (VAE), and non-ventilator hospital-acquired pneumonia (NV-HAP) in adults, children, and neonates. This document updates the Strategies to Prevent Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in Acute Care Hospitals published in 2014. This expert guidance document is sponsored by the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology (SHEA), and is the product of a collaborative effort led by SHEA, the Infectious Diseases Society of America, the American Hospital Association, the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, and The Joint Commission, with major contributions from representatives of a number of organizations and societies with content expertise.
There is definitive evidence for effectiveness of thrombectomy for acute stroke with large vessel occlusion (LVO). A clinical tool to identify patients with LVO is therefore required for effective triage and prehospital decision making. We developed the FAST VAN tool, which follows from the Heart and Stroke Foundation FAST stroke screen, with the addition of cortical features of vision, aphasia, and neglect, to differentiate from lacunar syndromes.
Consecutive acute stroke alerts initiated by emergency medical services (EMS) were prospectively analyzed from April 2017 to Jan 2021. FAST VAN signs were recorded by first responders who had received online education about the tool. These findings were compared to the presence or absence of LVO on CT angiography. Analysis was also performed by appropriateness for comprehensive stroke centers (CSC) transfer if no LVO was present. EMS providers were surveyed regarding ease of use in terms of learning the tool and using in real-world practice.
Data from 1080 consecutive acute strokes included 440 patients considered to have VAN signs by EMS. Fifty-four percent of VAN-positive patients showed LVO on CTA. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 86%, 75%, and 77%, respectively. In 204 false-positive cases, 143 (70%) were considered appropriate for evaluation at the CSC. EMS providers reported high satisfaction with learning and using the tool.
The FAST VAN tool for identification of LVO meets desired characteristics of an effective screening tool in ease of use, efficiency, and accuracy. Aphasia remains the most challenging cortical feature to identify accurately.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Using the covariate-rich Veteran Health Administration data, estimate the association between Proton Pump Inhibitor (PPI) use and severe COVID-19, rigorously adjusting for confounding using propensity score (PS)-weighting. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We assembled a national retrospective cohort of United States veterans who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, with information on 33 covariates including comorbidity diagnoses, lab values, and medications. Current outpatient PPI use was compared to non-use (two or more fills and pills on hand at admission vs no PPI prescription fill in prior year). The primary composite outcome was mechanical ventilation use or death within 60 days; the secondary composite outcome included ICU admission. PS-weighting mimicked a 1:1 matching cohort, allowing inclusion of all patients while achieving good covariate balance. The weighted cohort was analyzed using logistic regression. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Our analytic cohort included 97,674 veterans with SARS-CoV-2 testing, of whom 14,958 (15.3%) tested positive (6,262 [41.9%] current PPI-users, 8,696 [58.1%] non-users). After weighting, all covariates were well-balanced with standardized mean differences less than a threshold of 0.1. Prior to PS-weighting (no covariate adjustment), we observed higher odds of the primary (9.3% vs 7.5%; OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.13-1.43) and secondary (25.8% vs 21.4%; OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.18-1.37) outcomes among PPI users vs non-users. After PS-weighting, PPI use vs non-use was not associated with the primary (8.2% vs 8.0%; OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.91-1.16) or secondary (23.4% vs 22.9%;OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.95-1.12) outcomes. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The associations between PPI use and severe COVID-19 outcomes that have been previously reported may be due to limitations in the covariates available for adjustment. With respect to COVID-19, our robust PS-weighted analysis provides patients and providers with further evidence for PPI safety.
Network modeling has been applied in a range of trauma-exposed samples, yet results are limited by an over reliance on cross-sectional data. The current analyses used posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom data collected over a 5-year period to estimate a more robust between-subject network and an associated symptom change network.
A PTSD symptom network is measured in a sample of military veterans across four time points (Ns = 1254, 1231, 1106, 925). The repeated measures permit isolating between-subject associations by limiting the effects of within-subject variability. The result is a highly reliable PTSD symptom network. A symptom slope network depicting covariation of symptom change over time is also estimated.
Negative trauma-related emotions had particularly strong associations with the network. Trauma-related amnesia, sleep disturbance, and self-destructive behavior had weaker overall associations with other PTSD symptoms.
PTSD's network structure appears stable over time. There is no single ‘most important’ node or node cluster. The relevance of self-destructive behavior, sleep disturbance, and trauma-related amnesia to the PTSD construct may deserve additional consideration.
To examine the association between adherence to plant-based diets and mortality.
Prospective study. We calculated a plant-based diet index (PDI) by assigning positive scores to plant foods and reverse scores to animal foods. We also created a healthful PDI (hPDI) and an unhealthful PDI (uPDI) by further separating the healthy plant foods from less-healthy plant foods.
The VA Million Veteran Program.
315 919 men and women aged 19–104 years who completed a FFQ at the baseline.
We documented 31 136 deaths during the follow-up. A higher PDI was significantly associated with lower total mortality (hazard ratio (HR) comparing extreme deciles = 0·75, 95 % CI: 0·71, 0·79, Ptrend < 0·001]. We observed an inverse association between hPDI and total mortality (HR comparing extreme deciles = 0·64, 95 % CI: 0·61, 0·68, Ptrend < 0·001), whereas uPDI was positively associated with total mortality (HR comparing extreme deciles = 1·41, 95 % CI: 1·33, 1·49, Ptrend < 0·001). Similar significant associations of PDI, hPDI and uPDI were also observed for CVD and cancer mortality. The associations between the PDI and total mortality were consistent among African and European American participants, and participants free from CVD and cancer and those who were diagnosed with major chronic disease at baseline.
A greater adherence to a plant-based diet was associated with substantially lower total mortality in this large population of veterans. These findings support recommending plant-rich dietary patterns for the prevention of major chronic diseases.
To examine the use of telemedicine among Canadian concussion providers and clinics before and after the COVID-19 pandemic onset and identify barriers and facilitators for future use.
Ninety-nine concussion clinics and healthcare providers across Canada that offered one or more clinical concussion-related service were identified using standardized online searches and approached to complete a cross-sectional online survey.
Thirty clinics or providers completed the survey and two completed subsections of the survey (response rate of 32.3%). Only 28.1% of respondents indicated that they used telemedicine to provide care prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. Providers most commonly using telemedicine prior to the pandemic were occupational therapists and physicians, while the most commonly used services were in-person videoconferencing and eConsultation. Most respondents (87%) indicated their clinic’s use of telemedicine changed following the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic including new use of in-person video-conferencing, telephone calls, and eConsultation. Ninety-three percent indicated that they would consider using telemedicine to provide care to their concussion patients once the pandemic was over. Barriers needed to be overcome to facilitate use or greater use of telemedicine-based services were the inability to conduct a complete physical examination, lack of appropriate reimbursement, lack of start-up, and maintenance funding and medico-legal risk.
Telemedicine was used by a minority of Canadian concussion clinics and providers prior to the COVID-19 pandemic but was rapidly adopted by many facilities. This study provides important insight into the factors that must be considered to optimize use of telemedicine in concussion care in the future.
From 2014 to 2020, we compiled radiocarbon ages from the lower 48 states, creating a database of more than 100,000 archaeological, geological, and paleontological ages that will be freely available to researchers through the Canadian Archaeological Radiocarbon Database. Here, we discuss the process used to compile ages, general characteristics of the database, and lessons learned from this exercise in “big data” compilation.
Liquid-electron microscopy (EM), the room-temperature correlate to cryo-EM, is a rapidly growing field providing high-resolution insights of macromolecules in solution. Here, we describe how liquid-EM experiments can incorporate automated tools to propel the field to new heights. We demonstrate fresh workflows for specimen preparation, data collection, and computing processes to assess biological structures in liquid. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) and the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) were used as model systems to highlight the technical advances. These complexes were selected based on their major differences in size and natural symmetry. AAV is a highly symmetric, icosahedral assembly with a particle diameter of ~25 nm. At the other end of the spectrum, N protein is an asymmetric monomer or dimer with dimensions of approximately 5–7 nm, depending upon its oligomerization state. Equally important, both AAV and N protein are popular subjects in biomedical research due to their high value in vaccine development and therapeutic efforts against COVID-19. Overall, we demonstrate how automated practices in liquid-EM can be used to decode molecules of interest for human health and disease.
Reducing vulnerability to environmental change must be a key component of any strategy for sustainable development. We consider the situation of the nations of the Lower Mekong, namely Cambodia, Lao PDR, and Vietnam, focusing on the threat of climate change. We distinguish between physical vulnerability, characterized in terms of spatial exposure to hazardous events, and social vulnerability, which is a function of the social conditions and historical circumstances that put people at risk. As vulnerability is a dynamic condition, we frame the assessment in terms of the processes and trends that are shaping current patterns of vulnerability and resilience. The nations of the Lower Mekong face a range of potential trends in climate, with changes in the incidence of flooding, variability in water availability, the occurrence of drought and heat stress, the frequency and/or intensity of tropical cyclones, and, in coastal areas, sea-level rise posing the major risks. A baseline assessment of the social, economic, and political trends that are influencing present-day levels of social vulnerability highlights the fact that poverty is the largest barrier to developing the capacity to cope and adapt effectively with change. The situation of the poorest members of society is being adversely affected by trends in inequality, disparities in property rights, dismantling of agricultural cooperatives, unions, and various forms of financial support and changes in social structure and institutions. We identify an important tension that can exist between efforts aimed at improving the general economic situation and what is needed to improve resilience to climate stress, particularly among the rural poor. As far as adaptation is concerned, there are lessons for other regions in the traditional approaches developed within the Lower Mekong, as these nations have a rich history of managing their dynamic natural environment.
We endorse Cesario's call for more research into the complexities of “real-world” decisions and the comparative power of different causes of group disparities. Unfortunately, these reasonable suggestions are overshadowed by a barrage of non sequiturs, misdirected criticisms of methodology, and unsubstantiated claims about the assumptions and inferences of social psychologists.
The Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care Consortium (PC4) is a multi-institutional quality improvement registry focused on the care delivered in the cardiac ICU for patients with CHD and acquired heart disease. To assess data quality, a rigorous procedure of data auditing has been in place since the inception of the consortium.
Materials and methods:
This report describes the data auditing process and quantifies the audit results for the initial 39 audits that took place after the transition from version one to version two of the registry’s database.
In total, 2219 total encounters were audited for an average of 57 encounters per site. The overall data accuracy rate across all sites was 99.4%, with a major discrepancy rate of 0.52%. A passing score is based on an overall accuracy of >97% (achieved by all sites) and a major discrepancy rate of <1.5% (achieved by 38 of 39 sites, with 35 of 39 sites having a major discrepancy rate of <1%). Fields with the highest discrepancy rates included arrhythmia type, cardiac arrest count, and current surgical status.
The extensive PC4 auditing process, including initial and routinely scheduled follow-up audits of every participating site, demonstrates an extremely high level of accuracy across a broad array of audited fields and supports the continued use of consortium data to identify best practices in paediatric cardiac critical care.
The spatial and temporal extent of severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) environmental contamination has not been precisely defined. We sought to elucidate contamination of different surface types and how contamination changes over time.
We sampled surfaces longitudinally within COVID-19 patient rooms, performed quantitative RT-PCR for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA, and modeled distance, time, and severity of illness on the probability of detecting SARS-CoV-2 using a mixed-effects binomial model.
The probability of detecting SARS-CoV-2 RNA in a patient room did not vary with distance. However, we found that surface type predicted probability of detection, with floors and high-touch surfaces having the highest probability of detection: floors (odds ratio [OR], 67.8; 95% credible interval [CrI], 36.3–131) and high-touch elevated surfaces (OR, 7.39; 95% CrI, 4.31–13.1). Increased surface contamination was observed in room where patients required high-flow oxygen, positive airway pressure, or mechanical ventilation (OR, 1.6; 95% CrI, 1.03–2.53). The probability of elevated surface contamination decayed with prolonged hospitalization, but the probability of floor detection increased with the duration of the local pandemic wave.
Distance from a patient’s bed did not predict SARS-CoV-2 RNA deposition in patient rooms, but surface type, severity of illness, and time from local pandemic wave predicted surface deposition.
We prospectively surveyed SARS-CoV-2 RNA contamination in staff common areas within an acute-care hospital. An increasing prevalence of surface contamination was detected over time. Adjusting for patient census or community incidence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the proportion of contaminated surfaces did not predict healthcare worker COVID-19 infection on study units.
Eggs contain important compounds related to enhanced cognition, but it is not clear if egg consumption, as a whole, has a direct impact on memory decline in older adults. This study aimed to determine whether egg intake levels predict the rate of memory decline in healthy older adults after sociodemographic and dietary controls. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from 470 participants, age 50 and over, from the Biospsychosocial Religion and Health Study. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire, which was used to calculate egg intake and divide participants into Low (<23 g/week, about half an egg), Intermediate (24–63 g/week, half to 1½ eggs) and High (≥63 g/week, about two or more eggs) tertiles. Participants were administered the California Verbal Learning Test – 2nd Edition (CVLT-II) Short Form in 2006–2007, and 294 of them were again tested in 2010–2011. Using linear mixed model analysis, no significant cross-sectional differences were observed in CVLT-II performance between egg intake levels after controlling for age, sex, race, education, body mass index, cardiovascular risk, depression and intake of meat, fish, dairy and fruits/vegetables. Longitudinally, the Intermediate egg group exhibited significantly slower rates of decline on the CVLT-II compared to the Low egg group. The High egg group also exhibited slower rates of decline, but not statistically significant. Thus, limited consumption of eggs (about 1 egg/week) was associated with slower memory decline in late life compared to consuming little to no eggs, but a dose-response effect was not clearly evident. This study may help explain discrepancies in previous research that did not control for other dietary intakes and risk factors.