To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Highly-directional image artifacts such as ion mill curtaining, mechanical scratches, or image striping from beam instability degrade the interpretability of micrographs. These unwanted, aperiodic features extend the image along a primary direction and occupy a small wedge of information in Fourier space. Deleting this wedge of data replaces stripes, scratches, or curtaining, with more complex streaking and blurring artifacts—known within the tomography community as “missing wedge” artifacts. Here, we overcome this problem by recovering the missing region using total variation minimization, which leverages image sparsity-based reconstruction techniques—colloquially referred to as compressed sensing (CS)—to reliably restore images corrupted by stripe-like features. Our approach removes beam instability, ion mill curtaining, mechanical scratches, or any stripe features and remains robust at low signal-to-noise. The success of this approach is achieved by exploiting CS's inability to recover directional structures that are highly localized and missing in Fourier Space.
Ti/Al/Mg/Al/Ti laminates were fabricated by hot rolling at 450 °C with various rolling reductions, and the relationship between the mechanical properties and microstructures was investigated in detail. Both Al–Mg and Ti–Al interfaces are well bonded without pore, crack, and intermetallics. Mg layer of 50% rolling reduction has the most dynamic recrystallized (DRXed) grains around the deformation bands, and tensile twins appear in Mg layer when the rolling reduction increases to 60%. Large numbers of twins are formed to absorb the further strain as reduction increases. Ti layer shows equiaxed grains, which are not sensitive to thickness strain. Mg layers of laminates with various rolling reductions all exhibit typical (0002) basal texture. Fifty-percent rolling reduction has the largest ultimate tensile strength of 337.8 MPa, which is mainly owing to grain refinement caused by the extensive DRX. The differences of elongation among the three samples with different rolling reductions are small.
Group-3 medulloblastoma (MBL) is highly resistant to radiation (IR) and chemotherapy and has the worst prognosis. Hence, there is an urgent need to elucidate targets that sensitize these tumors to chemotherapy and IR. Employing standard assays for viability and sensitization to IR, we identified PRDX1 as a therapeutic target in Group-3 MBL. Specifically, targeting PRDX1 by RNAi or inhibition by Adenanthin led to specific killing and sensitization to IR of Group-3 MBL cells. We rescued sensitization of Daoy and UW228 cells by hypermorphic expression of PRDX1. PRDX1 knockdown caused oxidative DNA damage and induced apoptosis. We correlated PRDX1 expression to patient outcomes in a validated MBL tumor-microarray. Whole genome sequencing identified pathways/genes that were dysregulated with PRDX1 inhibition or silencing. Our in vivo studies in mice employing flank/orthotopic tumors from patient derived xenografts/Group-3 MBL cells confirmed in vitro observations. Animals with tumors in which PRDX1 was targeted by RNAi or Adenanthin (using mini osmotic pumps) showed decreased tumor burden and increased survival when compared to controls. Since, Adenanthin does not cross the blood brain barrier (BBB) we used HAV6 peptide to transiently disrupt the BBB and deliver Adenanthin to the tumor. Immunohistochemistry confirmed that targeting PRDX1 resulted in increased oxidative DNA damage, apoptosis and decreased proliferation. In summary, we have validated PRDX1 as a therapeutic target in group-3 MBL, identified Adenanthin as a potent chemical inhibitor of PRDX1 and confirmed the role of HAV peptide (in the transient modulation of BBB permeability) in an orthotopic model of group-3 MBL.
Tanzania and Uganda are among the most cited countries employing reserved-seat quotas. They adopted these quotas in 1985 and 1989, respectively. However, the two countries use different mechanisms to recruit reserved-seat members of parliament (MPs). Drawing on interview data from Tanzania and Uganda, this study compares the two models in terms of their effectiveness in facilitating the transfer of female MPs to non-quota seats in subsequent elections, thereby furthering women's sustainable representation. We find that the Tanzanian model is superior because it compartmentalises quota MPs in reserved seats less than the Ugandan model. The Ugandan model creates a gendered perception that constituency seats are for males and quota seats are for females – as if each sex has a distinct category of parliamentary seats. This perception affects each step of the switch to a non-quota seat, from the decision to switch to party nominations to voters’ decisions at the polls.
Childhood obesity has increased rapidly in China, but understanding is limited on how parents perceive their child’s weight status and how this perception affects weight-related parenting practices. We examined maternal perception of her child’s weight status and its association with demographics, subsequent weight-related parenting practices, the child’s health behaviours and weight change.
Maternal perception of child’s weight status and health behaviours from the China Health and Nutrition Surveys were assessed at baseline and in follow-up surveys for 816 children aged 6–18 years during 2004–2011. Associations were tested using mixed models.
Overall, maternal and child perceptions of the child’s weight status were fairly consistent (κw=0·56), 63·8 % of mothers had correct perception. While 9·6 % of mothers perceived their child as overweight, 10·9 % of children did so, and 13·6 % of children were indeed overweight. Compared with mothers who viewed their children as normal weight, mothers who thought their children were overweight were more likely to encourage their children to increase their physical activity (OR; 95 % CI: 1·8; 1·0, 3·3) and to diet (4·3; 2·3, 7·8). Children perceived as overweight by their mothers were more likely to have insufficient physical activity (2·8; 1·6, 4·7) and gain more weight during follow-up (BMI Z-score, β (se): 1·0 (0·1); P<0·01) than children perceived by their mothers as normal weight.
In China, mothers who perceive their child as overweight are more likely to encourage their child to exercise and modify their diet for weight management, but this encouragement does not seem to improve the child’s health behaviours and weight status.
Astronomy cloud computing environment is a cyber-Infrastructure for Astronomy Research initiated by Chinese Virtual Observatory (China-VO) under funding support from NDRC (National Development and Reform commission) and CAS (Chinese Academy of Sciences). Based on virtualization technology, astronomy cloud computing environment was designed and implemented by China-VO team. It consists of five distributed nodes across the mainland of China. Astronomer can get compuitng and storage resource in this cloud computing environment. Through this environments, astronomer can easily search and analyze astronomical data collected by different telescopes and data centers , and avoid the large scale dataset transportation.
To describe nutrient intakes, characterize dietary patterns and analyse their associations with sociodemographic characteristics among pregnant women in Shaanxi, China.
Population-based cross-sectional survey.
Twenty counties and ten districts in Shaanxi Province of Northwest China, 2013.
Women (n 7462) were recruited using a stratified multistage random sampling method to report diets during pregnancy, at 0–12 months (median 3 months; 10th–90th percentile, 0–7 months) after delivery.
Pregnant women had higher intakes of fat, niacin and vitamin E than the nutrient reference values, while most micronutrients such as vitamin A, folate, Ca and Zn were reportedly low. Women in the highest education, occupation and household income groups had higher nutrient intakes than those in the lowest groups. Nutrient intake differences also existed by geographic area, residence and maternal age at delivery. Three dietary patterns were identified: balanced pattern, vegetarian pattern and snacks pattern. Participants with high balanced pattern scores tended to be better educated, wealthier, 25–29 years old at delivery, working outside and living in urban areas and central Shaanxi. Women with high scores on the vegetarian pattern and snacks pattern tended to be in low balanced pattern score groups, and had lower nutrient intakes than those in the high balanced pattern score groups.
The study suggested that pregnant women in Shaanxi, China had low intakes of most nutrients such as vitamin A, folate and Ca. Dietary patterns and most nutrient intakes varied by sociodemographic characteristics. Targeted programmes are needed to improve dietary intakes and dietary patterns among sociodemographically disadvantaged groups.
A planet centroid is an important observable object in autonomous optical navigation. A high-accuracy algorithm is presented to extract the planet centroid from its raw image. First, we proposed a planet segmentation algorithm to segment the planet image block to eliminate noise and to reduce the computation load. Second, we developed an effective algorithm based on Prewitt-Zernike moments to detect sub-pixel real edges by determining possible edges with the Prewitt operator, removing pseudo-edges in backlit shady areas, and relocating real edges to a sub-pixel accuracy in the Zernike moments. Third, we proposed an elliptical model to fit sub-pixel edge points. Finally, we verified the performance of this algorithm against real images from the Cassini-Huygens mission and against synthetic simulated images. Simulation results showed that the accuracy of the planet centroid is up to 0·3 pixels and that of the line-of-sight vector is at 2·1 × 10−5 rad.
Nanogenerators (NGs) have great potential to solve the problems of energy depletion and environmental pollution. Here, two types of flexible nanogenerators (FNGs) based on graphene oxide (GO) and multiwall carbon nanotubes (MW-CNTs) are presented. The peak output voltage and current of GO based FNG reached up to 2 V and 30 nA, respectively, under 15 N force at 1 Hz. Moreover, the output voltage could be improved to 34.4 V when the frequency was increased to 10 Hz. It was also found the output voltage increased from 0.1 V to 2.0 V using a released GO structure. The other FNG was made by MW-CNTs mixed with ZnO nanoparticles (NPs). Its output voltage and power reached up to 7.5 V and 18.75 mW, respectively, which is much larger than that of bare ZnO based FNG. Furthermore, a peak voltage of 30 V could be gained by stamping one’s foot on the FNG. Finally, a modified NG was fabricated using four springs and two flexible layers. As a result, the voltage and power reached up to 9 V and 27mW, respectively. These works may bring out broad applications in energy harvesting.
A comparative study of the effect of dietary nitrogen (N) content [Low: 11·0; Medium-Low (MLow): 16·7; Medium-High (Mhigh): 23·1; High: 29·2 N g/kg dry matter (DM)] on apparent digestibilities, rumen fermentation and N balance was conducted in coarse wool Tibetan sheep and Gansu Alpine fine-wool sheep at Wushaoling in the northeast of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. It was hypothesized that responses would differ between breeds and that responses would favour Tibetan over fine-wool sheep at low N intakes. Eight wethers [four Tibetan sheep and four fine-wool sheep, 20–24 months old; body weight ± standard deviation was 52 ± 3·2 kg] were used in two concurrent 4 × 4 Latin square designs. Dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fibre and acid detergent fibre digestibilities were higher in Tibetan than fine-wool sheep when fed the Low, MLow and High N diets while N retention was higher when the animals were fed the Low and MLow N diets. Tibetan sheep had a higher rumen pH than fine-wool sheep; however, total volatile fatty acids were similar between breeds. Molar proportions of acetate were higher but propionate and butyrate lower in Tibetan than fine-wool sheep. In addition, Tibetan sheep had higher concentrations of ruminal free amino acid-N and soluble protein-N than fine-wool sheep. Plasma and saliva urea-N concentrations were higher in Tibetan than fine-wool sheep when supplied with the Low N diet. It was concluded that Tibetan sheep were better able to cope with low N feed than fine-wool sheep because of the higher N retention and higher DM and fibre digestibilities with Low and MLow diets.
A mass-conserving lattice Boltzmann model based on the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) model is proposed for non-Newtonian fluid flows. The equilibrium distribution function includes the local shear rate related with the viscosity and a variable parameter changing with the shear rate. With the additional parameter, the relaxation time in the collision can be fixed invariable to the viscosity. Through the Chapman-Enskog analysis, the macroscopic equations can be recovered from the present mass-conserving model. Two flow problems are simulated to validate the present model with a local computing scheme for the shear rate, and good agreement with analytical solutions and/or other published results are obtained. The results also indicate that the present modified model is more applicable to practical non-Newtonian fluid flows owing to its better accuracy and more robustness than previous methods.
An experiment was conducted to study the seasonal changes in the fatty acid profile of milk from yaks (Bos grunniens) when kept at altitudes of 3000 m above sea level (a.s.l.) and higher. Data and samples were collected in summer (July), autumn (September), winter (November) and spring (March) from ten lactating yaks (four in spring). The yaks grazed pastures adjacent to the farm building throughout the year. In spring only they received 0·6 kg crop by-products per day (dry matter basis). Fresh alpine grasses, available in summer and autumn, showed high concentrations of α-linolenic acid (46–51 g/100 g lipids) compared with the dry, yellow vegetation of winter and spring (16 g/100 g lipids). In autumn and summer, the milk fat had higher concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids than in winter. These polyunsaturated fatty acids were comprised of vaccenic acid, rumenic acid and α-linolenic acid, which are all considered beneficial to human health. The rare fatty acid, γ-linolenic acid, was also detected in yak milk, especially in the milk obtained in spring. The results suggest that yak milk, which is the most important basic food of the Tibetan herders, has the most favourable fatty acid profile when yaks grazed green pasture, which also corresponds to the period of highest milk production.
We investigate the cytoprotective effects and the molecular mechanism of genistein in oxidative stress-induced injury using an endothelial cell line (EA.hy926). An oxidative stress model was established by incubating endothelial cells with H2O2. According to the present results, genistein pretreatment protected endothelial cells against H2O2-induced decreases in cell viability and increases in apoptosis. Genistein also prevented the inhibition of B-cell lymphoma 2 and the activation of caspase-3 induced by H2O2. Genistein increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH) levels and attenuated the decrease in these antioxidants during oxidative stress. We also found that genistein induced the promoter activity of both nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and PPARγ. Additionally, genistein induced the nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and PPARγ. While genistein caused the up-regulation of both Nrf2 and PPARγ, it also activated and up-regulated the protein expression and transcription of a downstream protein, haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Moreover, the use of Nrf2 small interfering RNA transfection and HO-1- or PPARγ-specific antagonists (Znpp and GW9662, respectively) blocked the protective effects of genistein on endothelial cell viability during oxidative stress. Therefore, we conclude that oxidative stress-induced endothelial cell injury can be attenuated by treatment with genistein, which functions via the regulation of the Nrf2 and PPARγ signalling pathway. Additionally, the endogenous antioxidants SOD, CAT and GSH appear to play a role in the antioxidant activity of genistein. The present findings suggest that the beneficial effects of genistein involving the activation of cytoprotective antioxidant genes may represent a novel strategy in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular endothelial damage.
We describe our strategies and results in the preparation of supramolecularly ordered ultrathin films of DNA assemblies using the layer-by-layer (LbL) alternate polyelectrolyte adsorption technique. The properties of DNA are intimately associated with their polyelectrolyte behavior in solution. Deposition at interfaces is governed by conformation, orientation, and charge density of these biomolecules in relation to the physisorption phenomena in oppositely charged surfaces. Thus, controlling the nature of surfaces (polymer charge density, ionic strength, other non-covalent interactions, etc.) is important in modifying the adsorption phenomena. In this work, differences in adsorption and incorporation of DNA with dyes, linear polymers and dendrimers are highlighted. A number of surface sensitive spectroscopic and microscopic techniques were used to probe the adsorption and multilayer assembly phenomena, e.g. surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy (SPS), AFM, quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and ellipsometry. These studies are important for future applications such as the use of polycations as non-viral gene transfection vectors for drug-delivery and DNA adsorption on microarray surfaces. By combining with the alternate assembly of azobenzene and phthalocyanine dyes, we have been able to prepare optobiolelectronic substrates where the phenomena of irradiation and electrochemistry can be used to probe the ordering and response of these films.
Transparent and high preferential c-axis-oriented ZnO thin films doped with SiO2 have been prepared by sol–gel method using zinc nitrate and tetraethylorthosilicate as precursors, absolute ethanol as solvent, and diethanolamine as sol stabilizer. Thin film deposition was performed by spin coating technique at a spinning speed of 2000 rpm/sec on glass substrate followed by calcinations at 500 °C. The structural characteristics of the samples were analyzed by x-ray diffractometer and atomic force microscope. The optical properties were studied by an ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometer. The results show that all the prepared ZnO thin films have a compact hexagonal wurtzite structure. With the change in the amount of SiO2 dopants, the intensity of (002) peak, particle size, surface root mean square roughness, thickness, transmittance, absorbance, and the optical band gap of the ZnO–SiO2 thin films were changed as well.