Skip to main content Accessibility help

Microstructures and mechanical properties of Ti/Al/Mg/Al/Ti laminates with various rolling reductions

  • Taolue Wang (a1), Huihui Nie (a2), Yujie Mi (a1), Xinwei Hao (a1), Fan Yang (a1), Chengzhong Chi (a3) and Wei Liang (a1)...


Ti/Al/Mg/Al/Ti laminates were fabricated by hot rolling at 450 °C with various rolling reductions, and the relationship between the mechanical properties and microstructures was investigated in detail. Both Al–Mg and Ti–Al interfaces are well bonded without pore, crack, and intermetallics. Mg layer of 50% rolling reduction has the most dynamic recrystallized (DRXed) grains around the deformation bands, and tensile twins appear in Mg layer when the rolling reduction increases to 60%. Large numbers of twins are formed to absorb the further strain as reduction increases. Ti layer shows equiaxed grains, which are not sensitive to thickness strain. Mg layers of laminates with various rolling reductions all exhibit typical (0002) basal texture. Fifty-percent rolling reduction has the largest ultimate tensile strength of 337.8 MPa, which is mainly owing to grain refinement caused by the extensive DRX. The differences of elongation among the three samples with different rolling reductions are small.


Corresponding author

a)Address all correspondence to this author. e-mail:


Hide All
1.Janeček, M., Král, R., Dobroň, P., Chmelík, F., Šupík, V., and Holländer, F.: Mechanisms of plastic deformation in AZ31 magnesium alloy investigated by acoustic emission and transmission electron microscopy. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 462, 311315 (2007).
2.Motevalli, P.D. and Eghbali, B.: Microstructure and mechanical properties of Tri-metal Al/Ti/Mg laminated composite processed by accumulative roll bonding. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 628, 135142 (2015).
3.Zhang, X., Castagne, S., Yang, T., Gu, C., and Wang, J.: Entrance analysis of 7075 Al/Mg–Gd–Y–Zr/7075 Al laminated composite prepared by hot rolling and its mechanical properties. Mater. Des. 32, 11521158 (2011).
4.Polmear, I.J.: Magnesium alloys and applications. Met. Sci. J. 10, 116 (1994).
5.Niinomi, M.: Mechanical properties of biomedical titanium alloys. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 243, 231236 (1998).
6.Boyer, R., Welsch, G., and Collings, E.W.: Materials Properties Handbook: Titanium Alloys (ASM International, WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, 1994); p. 231, 513.
7.Zhang, X., Yang, T., Castagne, S., and Wang, J.: Microstructure; bonding strength and thickness ratio of Al/Mg/Al alloy laminated composites prepared by hot rolling. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 528, 19541960 (2011).
8.Kavarana, F., Ravichandran, K., and Sahay, S.: Nanoscale steel-brass multilayer laminates made by cold rolling: Microstructure and tensile properties. Scr. Mater. 42, 947954 (2000).
9.Luo, J-G. and Acoff, V.L.: Using cold roll bonding and annealing to process Ti/Al multi-layered composites from elemental foils. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 379, 164172 (2004).
10.Bataev, I., Bataev, A., Mali, V., and Pavliukova, D.: Structural and mechanical properties of metallic–intermetallic laminate composites produced by explosive welding and annealing. Mater. Des. 35, 225234 (2012).
11.Zhu, B., Liang, W., and Li, X.: Interfacial microstructure, bonding strength and fracture of magnesium–aluminum laminated composite plates fabricated by direct hot pressing. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 528, 65846588 (2011).
12.Cole, F.: Method of diffusion bonding. Google Patents, US3789498A [P], 1974-2-5.
13.Guo, Y., Liu, G., Jin, H., Shi, Z., and Qiao, G.: Intermetallic phase formation in diffusion-bonded Cu/Al laminates. J. Mater. Sci. 46, 24672473 (2011).
14.Yang, D., Cizek, P., Hodgson, P., and Wen, C.: Ultrafine equiaxed-grain Ti/Al composite produced by accumulative roll bonding. Scr. Mater. 62, 321324 (2010).
15.Zhao, J., Wang, W., Liu, Q., Wang, Z., and Shi, P.: A two-stage scheduling method for hot rolling and its application. Contr. Eng. Pract. 17, 629641 (2009).
16.Ma, M., Meng, X., and Liu, W.C.: Microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti/Al/Ti laminated composites prepared by hot rolling. J. Mater. Eng. Perform. 26, 35693578 (2017).
17.Chang, L.L., Shang, E.F., Wang, Y.N., Zhao, X., and Qi, M.: Texture and microstructure evolution in cold rolled AZ31 magnesium alloy. Mater. Charact. 60, 487491 (2009).
18.Zhang, X.P., Yang, T.H., Castagne, S., and Wang, J.T.: Microstructure; bonding strength and thickness ratio of Al/Mg/Al alloy laminated composites prepared by hot rolling. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 528, 19541960 (2011).
19.Bohlen, J., Nürnberg, M.R., Senn, J.W., Letzig, D., and Agnew, S.R.: The texture and anisotropy of magnesium–zinc–rare earth alloy sheets. Acta Mater. 55, 21012112 (2007).
20.Agnew, S.: Plastic anisotropy of magnesium alloy AZ31B sheet. In Magnesium Technology (TMS, Seattle, 2002); pp. 169174.
21.Christy, T., Murugan, N., and Kumar, S.: A comparative study on the microstructures and mechanical properties of Al 6061 alloy and the MMC Al 6061/TiB2/12p. J. Miner. Mater. Charact. Eng. 9, 57 (2010).
22.Xu, S., Matsumoto, N., Kamado, S., Honma, T., and Kojima, Y.: Effect of Mg17Al12 precipitates on the microstructural changes and mechanical properties of hot compressed AZ91 magnesium alloy. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 523, 4752 (2009).
23.Scudino, S., Liu, G., Sakaliyska, M., Surreddi, K., and Eckert, J.: Powder metallurgy of Al-based metal matrix composites reinforced with β-Al3Mg2 intermetallic particles: Analysis and modeling of mechanical properties. Acta Mater. 57, 45294538 (2009).
24.Chen, Z., Wang, D., Cao, X., Yang, W., and Wang, W.: Influence of multi-pass rolling and subsequent annealing on the interface microstructure and mechanical properties of the explosive welding Mg/Al composite plates. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 723, 97108 (2018).
25.Roman’kov, S., Sagdoldina, Z.B., Kaloshkin, S., and Kaevitser, E.: Fabrication of Ti–Al composite coatings by the mechanical alloying method. Phys. Met. Metallogr. 106, 6775 (2008).
26.Du, Y., Fan, G., Yu, T., Hansen, N., Geng, L., and Huang, X.: Laminated Ti–Al composites: Processing, structure and strength. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 673, 572580 (2016).
27.Luo, C.Z., Liang, W., Li, X.R., and Yao, Y.J.: Study on interface characteristics of Al/Mg/Al composite plates fabricated by two-pass hot rolling. Mater. Sci. Forum 748, 346351 (2013).
28.Kim, J-S., Lee, K.S., Kwon, Y.N., Lee, B-J., Chang, Y.W., and Lee, S.: Improvement of interfacial bonding strength in roll-bonded Mg/Al clad sheets through annealing and secondary rolling process. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 628, 110 (2015).
29.Jafari, R., Eghbali, B., and Adhami, M.: Influence of annealing on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti/Al and Ti/Al/Nb laminated composites. Mater. Chem. Phys. 213, 313323 (2018).
30.Pérez-Prado, M.T. and Ruano, O.: Grain refinement of Mg–Al–Zn alloys via accumulative roll bonding. Scr. Mater. 51, 10931097 (2004).
31.Liu, C., Wang, Q., Jia, Y., Jing, R., Zhang, B., Ma, M., and Liu, R.: Microstructures and mechanical properties of Mg/Mg and Mg/Al/Mg laminated composites prepared via warm roll bonding. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 556, 18 (2012).
32.Yoo, M.H.: Slip, twinning, and fracture in hexagonal close-packed metals. Metall. Trans. A 12, 409418 (1981).
33.Zhu, S.Q. and Ringer, S.P.: On the role of twinning and stacking faults on the crystal plasticity and grain refinement in magnesium alloys. Acta Mater. 144, 365375 (2018).
34.Tan, J.C. and Tan, M.J.: Dynamic continuous recrystallization characteristics in two stage deformation of Mg–3Al–1Zn alloy sheet. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 339, 124132 (2003).
35.Liu, Z.Y., Huang, T.T., Liu, W.J., and Kang, S.: Dislocation mechanism for dynamic recrystallization in twin-roll casting Mg–5.51Zn–0.49Zr magnesium alloy during hot compression at different strain rates. Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China 26, 378389 (2016).
36.Guan, D., Rainforth, W.M., Gao, J., Sharp, J., Wynne, B.P., and Ma, L.: Individual effect of recrystallisation nucleation sites on texture weakening in a magnesium alloy: Part 1-double twins. Acta Mater. 135, 1424 (2017).
37.Yu, H., Lu, C., Tieu, A.K., Li, H., Godbole, A., and Kong, C.: Annealing effect on microstructure and mechanical properties of Al/Ti/Al laminate sheets. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 660, 195204 (2016).
38.Ma, M., Huo, P., Liu, W., Wang, G., and Wang, D.: Microstructure and mechanical properties of Al/Ti/Al laminated composites prepared by roll bonding. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 636, 301310 (2015).
39.Kim, H.S., Jeong, H.T., Jeong, H.G., and Kim, W.J.: Grain refinement and texture evolution in AZ31 alloy during ECAP process and their effects on mechanical properties. Mater. Sci. Forum 475–479, 549554 (2005).
40.Paramsothy, M., Hassan, S., Srikanth, N., and Gupta, M.: Enhancing the performance of magnesium alloy AZ31 by integration with millimeter length scale aluminium-based cores. J. Compos. Mater. 44, 10991117 (2010).
41.Azizi, A. and Alimardan, H.: Effect of welding temperature and duration on properties of 7075 Al to AZ31B Mg diffusion bonded joint. Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China 26, 8592 (2016).



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed