To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
To investigate the molecular epidemiology of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) in infants in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) using whole-genome sequencing.
Investigation of MSSA epidemiology in a NICU.
Single-center, level IV NICU.
Universal S. aureus screening was done using a single swab obtained from the anterior nares, axilla, and groin area of infants in the NICU on a weekly basis. Core genome multilocus sequence type (cgMLST) analysis was performed on MSSA isolates detected over 1 year (2018–2019).
In total, 68 MSSA-colonized infants were identified, and cgMLSTs of 67 MSSA isolates were analyzed. Overall, we identified 11 cgMLST isolate groups comprising 39 isolates (58%), with group sizes ranging from 2 to 10 isolates, and 28 isolates (42%) were unrelated to each other or any of the isolate groups. Cases of infants colonized by MSSA were scattered throughout the 1-year study period, and isolates belonging to the same cgMLST group were typically detected contemporaneously, over a few weeks or a few months. Overall, 13 infants (19.7%) developed MSSA infections: bacteremia (n = 3), wound infection (n = 5), conjunctivitis (n = 4), and cellulitis (n = 1). We detected no association between these clinically manifest infections and specific cgMLST groups.
Although MSSA isolates in infants in a NICU showed high diversity, most were related to other isolates, albeit within small groups. cgMLST facilitates an understanding of the complex transmission dynamics of MSSA in NICUs, and these data can be used to inform better control strategies.
Placements within high secure forensic hospitals consist of wards providing various different levels of relational security. They should form a coherent pathway through secure care, based on individual patient risks and needs. Moves to less secure wards within high secure forensic hospitals and moves on to lower secure hospital settings have rarely been systematically studied.
The aim of this study was to ascertain if placements within Broadmoor High Secure Hospital and moves from Broadmoor to medium secure hospitals corresponded to measures of violence risk, programme completion and recovery.
A 13-month prospective cohort study was completed. Patients (n = 142) were rated at baseline for violence risk (Historical, Clinical and Risk – 20), therapeutic programme completion and recovery (DUNDRUM tool) and overall functioning (Global Assessment of Functioning). Placements on the care pathway and moves on to medium secure hospitals were observed.
Placements on the care pathway within the high secure hospital were associated with dynamic violence risk (F = 16.324, P<0.001), therapeutic programme completion (F = 4.167, P = 0.003), recovery (F = 2.440, P = 0.050) with better scores on these measures being found in the rehabilitation wards and the poorest scores on the highest levels of dependency. Moves to medium secure hospitals were associated with better scores on dynamic risk of violence (F = 33.199, P<0.001), therapeutic programme completion (F = 9.237 P<0.001), recovery (F = 6.863, P = 0.001).
Placements within Broadmoor Hospital formed a coherent pathway through high secure care. Moves to less secure places were influenced by more than reduction in violence risk. Therapeutic programme completion and recovery in a broad sense were also important.
The COVID-19 pandemic has created a high demand on personal protective equipment, including disposable N95 masks. Given the need for mask reuse, we tested the feasibility of vaporized hydrogen peroxide (VHP), ultraviolet light (UV), and ethanol decontamination strategies on N95 mask integrity and the ability to remove the infectious potential of SARS-CoV-2.
Disposable N95 masks, including medical grade (1860, 1870+) and industrial grade (8511) masks, were treated by VHP, UV, and ethanol decontamination. Mask degradation was tested using a quantitative respirator fit testing. Pooled clinical samples of SARS-CoV-2 were applied to mask samples, treated, and then either sent immediately for real-time reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or incubated with Vero E6 cells to assess for virucidal effect.
Both ethanol and UV decontamination showed functional degradation to different degrees while VHP treatment showed no significant change after two treatments. We also report a single SARS-CoV-2 virucidal experiment using Vero E6 cell infection in which only ethanol treatment eliminated detectable SARS-CoV-2 RNA.
We hope our data will guide further research for evidenced-based decisions for disposable N95 mask reuse and help protect caregivers from SARS-CoV-2 and other pathogens.
Euthanasia and assisted suicide (EAS) based on a psychiatric disorder (psychiatric EAS) continue to pose ethical and policy challenges, even in countries where the practice has been allowed for years. We conducted a systematic review of reasons, a specific type of review for bioethical questions designed to inform rational policy-making. Our aims were twofold: (1) to systematically identify all published reasons for and against the practice (2) to identify current gaps in the debate and areas for future research.
Following the PRISMA guidelines, we performed a search across seven electronic databases to include publications focusing on psychiatric EAS and providing ethical reasons. Reasons were grouped into domains by qualitative content analysis.
We included 42 articles, most of which were written after 2013. Articles in favor and against were evenly distributed. Articles in favor were mostly full-length pieces written by non-clinicians, with articles against mostly reactive, commentary-type pieces written by clinicians. Reasons were categorized into eight domains: (1) mental and physical illness and suffering (2) decisional capacity (3) irremediability (4) goals of medicine and psychiatry (5) consequences for mental health care (6) psychiatric EAS and suicide (7) self-determination and authenticity (8) psychiatric EAS and refusal of life-sustaining treatment. Parity- (or discrimination-) based reasons were dominant across domains, mostly argued for by non-clinicians, while policy reasons were mostly pointed to by clinicians.
The ethical debate about psychiatric EAS is relatively young, with prominent reasons of parity. More direct engagement is needed to address ethical and policy considerations.
To assess the nutritional quality of Australian supermarket own brand chilled convenience foods (SOBCCF), for example, ready meals, pizza, pies and desserts.
Two large supermarkets (Coles and Woolworths) in Perth, Western Australia were audited in February 2017.
Data were extracted from photographic images of 291 SOBCCF, including front-of-pack information (i.e. product name, description and nutrition labels including Health Star Rating (HSR)) and back-of-pack information (i.e. nutrition information panel and ingredients list). SOBCCF were classified as healthy or unhealthy consistent with principles of the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGTHE), NOVA classification of level of food processing and HSR score.
Fifty-four percentage of SOBCCF were classified as unhealthy according to AGTHE principles, 94 % were ultra-processed foods using NOVA and 81 % scored a HSR of ≥2·5, implying that they were a healthy choice. Some convenience food groups comprised more healthy choices overall including prepared vegetables, salad kits and bowls, soups and vegetarian food. A significantly larger proportion of SOBCCF from Coles were classified as unhealthy compared with Woolworths (70 v. 44 %, P < 0·05) using the AGTHE.
The findings suggest there is potential for Australian supermarkets to improve the nutritional quality of their SOBCCF and highlights the differences between supermarkets in applying their corporate social responsibility policies. Policies to assist consumers to select healthier foods should address difficulties in identifying healthy convenience foods. The findings reveal misclassification of unhealthy SOBCCF as healthy by the HSR suggesting that its algorithm should be reformed to align with recommendations of the AGTHE.
To determine the effect of an electronic medical record (EMR) nudge at reducing total and inappropriate orders testing for hospital-onset Clostridioides difficile infection (HO-CDI).
An interrupted time series analysis of HO-CDI orders 2 years before and 2 years after the implementation of an EMR intervention designed to reduce inappropriate HO-CDI testing. Orders for C. difficile testing were considered inappropriate if the patient had received a laxative or stool softener in the previous 24 hours.
Four hospitals in an academic healthcare network.
All patients with a C. difficile order after hospital day 3.
Orders for C. difficile testing in patients administered a laxative or stool softener in <24 hours triggered an EMR alert defaulting to cancellation of the order (“nudge”).
Of the 17,694 HO-CDI orders, 7% were inappropriate (8% prentervention vs 6% postintervention; P < .001). Monthly HO-CDI orders decreased by 21% postintervention (level-change rate ratio [RR], 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.73–0.86), and the rate continued to decrease (postintervention trend change RR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.98–1.00). The intervention was not associated with a level change in inappropriate HO-CDI orders (RR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.61–1.05), but the postintervention inappropriate order rate decreased over time (RR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.93–0.97).
An EMR nudge to minimize inappropriate ordering for C. difficile was effective at reducing HO-CDI orders, and likely contributed to decreasing the inappropriate HO-CDI order rate after the intervention.
Healthcare personnel (HCP) were recruited to provide serum samples, which were tested for antibodies against Ebola or Lassa virus to evaluate for asymptomatic seroconversion.
From 2014 to 2016, 4 patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD) and 1 patient with Lassa fever (LF) were treated in the Serious Communicable Diseases Unit (SCDU) at Emory University Hospital. Strict infection control and clinical biosafety practices were implemented to prevent nosocomial transmission of EVD or LF to HCP.
All personnel who entered the SCDU who were required to measure their temperatures and complete a symptom questionnaire twice daily were eligible.
No employee developed symptomatic EVD or LF. EVD and LF antibody studies were performed on sera samples from 42 HCP. The 6 participants who had received investigational vaccination with a chimpanzee adenovirus type 3 vectored Ebola glycoprotein vaccine had high antibody titers to Ebola glycoprotein, but none had a response to Ebola nucleoprotein or VP40, or a response to LF antigens.
Patients infected with filoviruses and arenaviruses can be managed successfully without causing occupation-related symptomatic or asymptomatic infections. Meticulous attention to infection control and clinical biosafety practices by highly motivated, trained staff is critical to the safe care of patients with an infection from a special pathogen.
Resistant dextrins are glucose polymers with atypical linkages making them non-digestible in the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract. NUTRIOSE® is slightly digested in the small intestine and then, progressively fermented in the colon. The objective of this study is to investigate the beneficial effects resulting from the colonic fermentation of NUTRIOSE® and the underlying mechanism of action in rats.
Materials & Methods:
This experiment was conducted according to the French Regulations for Animal Experimentation and authorized under the project Number 00619.01. After acclimatisation on maintaining diet, 20 Sprague-Dawley rats were blocked by body weight and randomly split into 2 groups. The control group was given a fibre-free diet where corn starch was used to replace fibre and the experimental group was supplemented with 10% NUTRIOSE®. Feces were collected for enzymatic activities measurement. Caecal contents were collected so as caecal cell walls and colon biopsies for gene expression analysis.
The significant increases in caecal content weight (p < 0.001) fecal activity of saccharolytic enzymes (p < 0.05) and the decrease in caecal pH (p < 0.001) after the supplementation of NUTRIOSE® suggested its fermentation in the colon and caecum. It is also known from literature that NUTRIOSE® fermentation leads to higher levels of short chain fatty acids including higher levels of propionate and butyrate. This enhanced fermentation induced several positive impacts in the colon such as an increased caecal wall weight (p < 0.001) demonstrating beneficial effect on colon epithelial cells, an up-regulation of genes involved in membrane integrity (occludin (p = 0.01), ZO-1(p = 0.01)), and a positive impact on genes involved in inflammation (Tnf-α (p = 0.03), FOXP3 (p = 0.01)). The present study demonstrated the positive effects of NUTRIOSE® supplementation on glucose metabolism through the up-regulation of PEPCK in the colon (p < 0.001). This effect may also be mediated by the up-regulation of the GPR41 receptor in the colon (p < 0.001) and probably activated by butyrate.
All together, these results confirmed that NUTRIOSE® is well fermented in the colon and that these fermentations may be associated with beneficial impacts on colonic epithelial integrity, inflammation and neoglucogenesis. Here we demonstrate a putative mechanism of action of NUTRIOSE® to improve the colonic health which is through the production of butyrate and the resulting activation of GPR41 receptor. Thus, this study helps us to understand the physiological impact of NUTRIOSE® fermentation in colon to produce several health benefits as observed in clinical studies.
Forensic populations in the United States are increasing, driven largely by a rise in individuals determined to be Incompetent to Stand Trial (IST). Across most states, including California, the number of mentally ill inmates awaiting competency restoration has increased dramatically in recent years. Traditionally, competency restoration has taken place in state hospitals, but incompetent inmates often experience a significant wait for state hospital beds because of the rising demand for beds in such facilities. The resulting waitlists, which range from days to months, have led to states being held in contempt of court for violating limits placed on how long incompetent defendants can be held in jail. Therefore, alternatives to state hospitalization for IST patients have been developed, including jail-based competency (JBCT) restoration programs. JBCT programs provide restoration services in county jails, rather than in psychiatric hospitals. The following article will review the nature of JBCT programs and will emphasize the structure and evolution of such programs within California.
The aim of this position paper is to assist primary health care (PHC) providers, policymakers, and researchers by discussing the current context in which palliative health care functions within PHC in Europe. The position paper gives examples for improvements to palliative care models from studies and international discussions at European Forum for Primary Care (EFPC) workshops and conferences.
Palliative care is a holistic approach that improves the quality of life of patients and their families facing problems associated with terminal illness, through the prevention and relief of suffering by means of early identification and diligent assessment and treatment of pain and other problems, whether physical, psychosocial, or spiritual. Unfortunately, some Europeans, unless they have cancer, still do not have access to generalist or specialist palliative care.
A draft of this position paper was distributed electronically through the EFPC network in 2015, 2016, and 2017. Active collaboration with the representatives of the International Primary Palliative Care Network was established from the very beginning and more recently with the EAPC Primary Care Reference Group. Barriers, opportunities, and examples of good and bad practices were discussed at workshops focusing on palliative care at the international conferences of Southeastern European countries in Ljubljana (2015) and Budva (2017), at regular conferences in Amsterdam (2015) and Riga (2016), at the WONCA Europe conferences in Istanbul (2015), Copenhagen (2016), and Prague (2017), and at the EAPC conference in Madrid (2017).
There is great diversity in the extent and type of palliative care provided in primary care by European countries. Primary care teams (PCTs) are well placed to encourage timely palliative care. We collected examples from different countries. We found numerous barriers influencing PCTs in preparing care plans with patients. We identified many facilitators to improve the organization of palliative care.