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In 2017, a point-prevalence survey was conducted with 12,931 patients in 96 hospitals across Switzerland as part of the national strategy to prevent healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). We present novel statistical methods to assess incidence proportions of HAI and attributable length-of-stay (LOS) in point-prevalence surveys.
Follow-up data were collected for a subsample of patients and were used to impute follow-up data for all remaining patients. We used weights to correct length bias in logistic regression and multistate analyses. Methods were also tested in simulation studies.
The estimated incidence proportion of HAIs during hospital stay and not present at admission was 2.3% (95% confidence intervals [CI], 2.1–2.6), the most common type being lower respiratory tract infections (0.8%; 95% CI, 0.6–1.0). Incidence proportion was highest in patients with a rapidly fatal McCabe score (7.8%; 95% CI, 5.7–10.4). The attributable LOS for all HAI was 6.4 days (95% CI, 5.6–7.3) and highest for surgical site infections (7.1 days, 95% CI, 5.2–9.0). It was longest in the age group of 18–44 years (9.0 days; 95% CI, 5.4–12.6). Risk-factor analysis revealed that McCabe score had no effect on the discharge hazard after infection (hazard ratio [HR], 1.21; 95% CI, 0.89–1.63). Instead, it only influenced the infection hazard (HR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.39–2.43) and the discharge hazard prior to infection (HR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.66–0.82).
In point-prevalence surveys with limited follow-up data, imputation and weighting can be used to estimate incidence proportions and attributable LOS that would otherwise require complete follow-up data.
The design and first experimental results of Tx and Rx L-band bandpass filters for a high-power satellite diplexer are presented in this paper. Designed in the framework of an ESA ARTES AT project, the filters are based on TM010 mode dielectric resonators. These resonators allow for better results in terms of volume occupation with respect to other dielectric resonators still maintaining high Q-factor values (>2000). Volume saving above 30% is achieved with respect to standard coaxial filters. The filter geometries and materials have been chosen in order to improve the power-handling and to cope with related critical issues for space applications (i.e. avoid any multipactor discharge in the operating RF power range and low-PIM response). Measurements of Tx filter show good correlation with the design in terms of central frequency, BW, and unloaded Q-factor (almost 3000). Measurements of Rx filter show a worse correlation with the design in terms of filter response shape. This is ascribed to size tolerances of one of the filter resonators. Multiple analyses are ongoing to remove this degradation in the final engineering model.
Substantial progress has been made in the standardization of nomenclature for paediatric and congenital cardiac care. In 1936, Maude Abbott published her Atlas of Congenital Cardiac Disease, which was the first formal attempt to classify congenital heart disease. The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code (IPCCC) is now utilized worldwide and has most recently become the paediatric and congenital cardiac component of the Eleventh Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). The most recent publication of the IPCCC was in 2017. This manuscript provides an updated 2021 version of the IPCCC.
The International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease (ISNPCHD), in collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO), developed the paediatric and congenital cardiac nomenclature that is now within the eleventh version of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). This unification of IPCCC and ICD-11 is the IPCCC ICD-11 Nomenclature and is the first time that the clinical nomenclature for paediatric and congenital cardiac care and the administrative nomenclature for paediatric and congenital cardiac care are harmonized. The resultant congenital cardiac component of ICD-11 was increased from 29 congenital cardiac codes in ICD-9 and 73 congenital cardiac codes in ICD-10 to 318 codes submitted by ISNPCHD through 2018 for incorporation into ICD-11. After these 318 terms were incorporated into ICD-11 in 2018, the WHO ICD-11 team added an additional 49 terms, some of which are acceptable legacy terms from ICD-10, while others provide greater granularity than the ISNPCHD thought was originally acceptable. Thus, the total number of paediatric and congenital cardiac terms in ICD-11 is 367. In this manuscript, we describe and review the terminology, hierarchy, and definitions of the IPCCC ICD-11 Nomenclature. This article, therefore, presents a global system of nomenclature for paediatric and congenital cardiac care that unifies clinical and administrative nomenclature.
The members of ISNPCHD realize that the nomenclature published in this manuscript will continue to evolve. The version of the IPCCC that was published in 2017 has evolved and changed, and it is now replaced by this 2021 version. In the future, ISNPCHD will again publish updated versions of IPCCC, as IPCCC continues to evolve.
Infant neurodevelopment is a complex process which may be affected by different events during pregnancy, such as hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP). We conducted a prospective cohort study to compare the prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders in infants born to mothers with and without HDP at six months of age. Participants attended the Health Observatory of Instituto de Desarrollo e Investigaciones Pediátricas “Prof. Dr. Fernando E. Viteri” during 2018 and 2019. Infant neurodevelopment was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development—Third Edition (Bayley-III). Data were analyzed using Chi-square, Student’s t-test and Mann–Whitney test. Of the 132 participating infants, 68 and 64 were born to mothers with and without HDP, respectively. At six months, the prevalence of risk of neurodevelopmental delay was significantly higher in infants born to mothers with than without HDP (27.9% vs. 9.4%; p = 0.008) (odds ratio, 3.71; 95% confidence interval, 1.30; 12.28). In conclusion, infants born to mothers with HDP had three times increased risk of neurodevelopmental delay at six months of age.
Mood plays an important role in our life which is illustrated by the disruptive impact of aberrant mood states in depression. Although vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has been shown to improve symptoms of depression, the exact mechanism is still elusive, and it is an open question whether non-invasive VNS could be used to swiftly and robustly improve mood.
Here, we investigated the effect of left- and right-sided transcutaneous auricular VNS (taVNS) v. a sham control condition on mood after the exertion of physical and cognitive effort in 82 healthy participants (randomized cross-over design) using linear mixed-effects and hierarchical Bayesian analyses of mood ratings.
We found that 90 min of either left-sided or right-sided taVNS improved positive mood [b = 5.11, 95% credible interval, CI (1.39–9.01), 9.6% improvement relative to the mood intercept, BF10 = 7.69, pLME = 0.017], yet only during the post-stimulation phase. Moreover, lower baseline scores of positive mood were associated with greater taVNS-induced improvements in motivation [r = −0.42, 95% CI (−0.58 to −0.21), BF10 = 249].
We conclude that taVNS boosts mood after a prolonged period of effort exertion with concurrent stimulation and that acute motivational effects of taVNS are partly dependent on initial mood states. Collectively, our results show that taVNS may help quickly improve affect after a mood challenge, potentially by modulating interoceptive signals contributing to the reappraisal of effortful behavior. This suggests that taVNS could be a useful add-on to current behavioral therapies.
International institutions are increasingly being challenged by domestic opposition and nationalist political forces. Yet, levels of politicization differ significantly across countries facing the same international authority as well as within countries over time. This raises the question of when and why the mass public poses a challenge to international cooperation. In this article, we develop a theoretical framework for understanding the nature and implications of politicization of international cooperation, outlining three scope conditions: the nature of public contestation, the activities of political entrepreneurs, and the permissiveness of political opportunity structures. By empirically examining these scope conditions, we demonstrate that politicization can have both stabilizing and destabilizing effects on international cooperation. Highlighting the systemic implications of politicization for international cooperation has important implications for international relations scholarship. Although international organizations may face challenges, they also have ways of being remarkably resilient.
Doppler ultrasound imaging can be used to identify and assess blood vessels by producing a colour-coded map of Doppler shifts superimposed on a B-mode ultrasound image. The effect, first described by the Austrian scientist Christian Doppler in the middle of the nineteenth century, has been used to provide information regarding blood flow in ultrasound’s daily practice in the last five to six decades. Blood flow in arteries and veins can be recorded from the surface of the skin, allowing flow analysis in systole and diastole, in both normal and diseased blood vessels. Over time, Doppler techniques became an important technique in diagnostic ultrasound for haemodynamic assessment, replacing some invasive procedures in many clinical situations.
Dietary fibers (DF) are considered as beneficial nutrients for health. Current data suggest that their interaction with the gut microbiota largely contributes to their physiological effects. The FiberTAG project(1) innovates in searching for new biomarkers reflecting the health effect of dietary fibers, including chitin-glucan (CG, extracted from the fungal exoskeleton Aspergillus niger). CG improves metabolic disorders associated with obesity in mice, but its effect on gut microbiota composition and function has never been evaluated in vivo in humans.
Materials and Methods
CG (KitoZyme, Belgium) was given to healthy volunteers (n = 15), during three weeks (4.5g/day). Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) metabolites released in breath were analyzed using SYFT methodology. Fatty acid (FA) profiling was assessed in stool samples, by gas-liquid chromatography(2). The gut microbiome was analyzed by Illumina sequencing (V5-V6 region of 16S rRNA).
Three weeks of CG supplementation was well tolerated and lead to changes in the kinetics of breath VOC, especially the short-chain fatty acid, alcohols and alkanes. Fecal vaccenic acid, produced upon the bacterial metabolism of fatty acids, was significantly increased by CG. Several bacterial genera were correlated with breath VOC (i.e. 2 methylbutyric acid and RuminococcaceaeUCG005). Moreover, Roseburia, often presented as a butyrate producer, was positively correlated with the production of a rumenic acid isomer “cis-9,cis-11-18:2”.
We show that breath VOC analysis, a non-invasive methodology, reveals characteristics of microbiota-CG interactions. We also show that CG selectively changes the profile of FA metabolites, in favor of vaccenic acid, another bioactive metabolite produced by Roseburia, prone to act on host physiology. This study will help to establish a set of new biomarkers linking insoluble DF and gut microbiota, with focus on their interest in human health.
Background: A number of small intervention studies suggested that a Mediterranean diet (MedD) and physical activity can lower the risk for breast cancer. LIBRE is the first large multicenter RCT to test the effect of these lifestyle factors on the incidence of breast cancer in women at risk because of BRCA mutations(1). LIBRE also offers to unravel underlying mechanisms such as the role of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) for beneficial effects of such lifestyle interventions.
Methods: We examined the effect of the lifestyle intervention on the production of SCFA measured in feces by gas chromatography. From the ongoing LIBRE trial we included all complete datasets (171 women; mean age 44 ± 11 years). Both women with and without previous breast cancer diagnosis were recruited (diseased; non-diseased). The participants were randomized into an intervention group (IG) trained for MedD and physical activity, and a usual care control group (CG). Adherence to the MedD was assessed at baseline and after 3 months (V1) using the validated Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS) and the EPIC food frequency questionnaire (FFQ).
Results: At baseline there was no difference in SCFA levels between the groups. In the IG the MEDAS score increased substantially by 2.5 points (p < 0.001), in the CG only mildly by 0.4 points (p < 0.05). Correspondingly, the intake of fibers increased solely in the IG. In the course of the study the amount of caproic acid decreased in the control group (p < 0.001). At V1 non-diseased women showed higher amounts of acetic acid (p = 0.042), n-butyric acid (p = 0.023), n-valeric acid (p = 0.018) and iso-valeric acid (p = 0.031). There were several correlations between the intake of different fibers and fecal SCFA. For example, the sum of poly- and oligosaccharides correlated with acetic acid (p = 0.001; r = 0.316), propionic acid (p = 0.034; r = 0,251), n-butyric acid (p = 0.010; r = 0.316) and iso-valeric acid (p = 0.012; r = 0.306). There was no correlation between the MEDAS and SCFA.
Discussion: A lifestyle change towards a MedD and increased physical activity did not change the levels of SCFA in feces, although an increase of fiber intake was documented in the IG. To further analyze SCFA metabolism in this target population, gut microbiota composition and function (metabolites) are currently analyzed.
Contrary to public perception, child sex offending (CSO) and paedophilia are not the same. Only half of all cases of CSO are motivated by paedophilic preference, and a paedophilic preference does not necessarily lead to CSO. However, studies that investigated clinical factors accompanying and contributing to paedophilia so far mainly relied on paedophiles with a history of CSO. The aim of this study was to distinguish between factors associated with sexual preference (paedophile versus non-paedophile) and offender status (with versus without CSO). Accordingly, a 2 (sexual preference) × 2 (offender status) factorial design was used for a comprehensive clinical assessment of paedophiles with and without a history of CSO (n = 83, n = 79 respectively), child sex offenders without paedophilia (n = 32) and healthy controls (n = 148). Results indicated that psychiatric comorbidities, sexual dysfunctions and adverse childhood experiences were more common among paedophiles and child sex offenders than controls. Offenders and non-offenders differed in age, intelligence, educational level and experience of childhood sexual abuse, whereas paedophiles and non-paedophiles mainly differed in sexual characteristics (e.g., additional paraphilias, onset and current level of sexual activity). Regression analyses were more powerful in segregating offender status than sexual preference (mean classification accuracy: 76% versus 68%). In differentiating between offence- and preference-related factors this study improves clinical understanding of both phenomena and may be used to develop scientifically grounded CSO prevention and treatment programmes. It also highlights that some deviations are not traceable to just one of these two factors, thus raising the issue of the mechanism underlying both phenomena.
Retreat of calving glaciers worldwide has contributed substantially to sea-level rise in recent decades. Mass loss by calving contributes significantly to the uncertainty of sea-level rise projections. At Bowdoin Glacier, Northwest Greenland, most calving occurs by a few large events resulting from kilometre-scale fractures forming parallel to the calving front. High-resolution terrestrial radar interferometry data of such an event reveal that crevasse opening is fastest at low tide and accelerates during the final 36 h before calving. Using the ice flow model Elmer/Ice, we identify the crevasse water level as a key driver of modelled opening rates. Sea water-level variations in the range of local tidal amplitude (1 m) can reproduce observed opening rate fluctuations, provided crevasse water level is at least 4 m above the low-tide sea level. The accelerated opening rates within the final 36 h before calving can be modelled by additional meltwater input into the crevasse, enhanced ice cliff undercutting by submarine melt, ice damage increase due to tidal cyclic fatigue, crevasse deepening or a combination of these processes. Our results highlight the influence of surface meltwater and tides on crevasse opening leading to major calving events at grounded tidewater glaciers such as Bowdoin.
The objectives of this paper are to: (1) identify contextual factors such as policy that impacted the implementation of community-based primary health care (CBPHC) innovations among 12 Canadian research teams and (2) describe strategies used by the teams to address contextual factors influencing implementation of CBPHC innovations. In primary care settings, consideration of contextual factors when implementing change has been recognized as critically important to success. However, contextual factors are rarely recorded, analyzed or considered when implementing change. The lack of consideration of contextual factors has negative implications not only for successfully implementing primary health care (PHC) innovations, but also for their sustainability and scalability. For this evaluation, data collection was conducted using self-administered questionnaires and follow-up telephone interviews with team representatives. We used a combination of directed and conventional content analysis approaches to analyze the questionnaire and interview data. Representatives from all 12 teams completed the questionnaire and 11 teams participated in the interviews; 40 individuals participated in this evaluation. Four themes representing contextual factors that impacted the implementation of CBPHC innovations were identified: (I) diversity of jurisdictions (II) complexity of interactions and collaborations (III) policy, and (IV) the multifaceted nature of PHC. The teams used six strategies to address these contextual factors including: (1) conduct an environmental scan at the beginning (2) maintaining engagement among partners and stakeholders by encouraging open and inclusive communication; (3) contextualizing the innovation for different settings; (4) anticipating and addressing changes, delays, and the need for additional resources; (5) fostering a culture of research and innovation among partners and stakeholders; and (6) ensuring information about the innovation is widely available. Implementing CBPHC innovations across jurisdictions is complex and involves navigating through multiple contextual factors. Awareness of the dynamic nature of context should be considered when implementing innovations.
With the emergence of modern techniques of environmental analysis and widespread availability of accessible tools and quantitative data, the question of environmental determinism is once again on the agenda. This paper is theoretical in character, attempting, for the benefit of drawing up research designs, to understand and evaluate the character of environmental determinism. We reach three main conclusions: (1) in a typical pattern of research design, studies seek to detect simultaneous shifts in the environmental and archaeological records, variously positing the former to have influenced, triggered or caused the latter; (2) the question of determinism involves uncertainty about the justification for the above research design in particular in what comes to biologism and the concept of environmental thresholds on the one hand and the externality of the drivers of transformation in human groups and societies on the other; (3) adapting the concepts of the social production of vulnerability and the social basis of hazards from anthropology may help to clarify the available research design choices at hand.
The ‘Portus Project’ investigates the social and economic contexts of the maritime port of Imperial Rome. This article presents the results of analysis of plant, animal and human remains from the site, and evaluates their significance for the reconstruction of the diets and geographic origins of its inhabitants between the second and sixth centuries AD. Integrating this evidence with other material from the recent excavations, including ceramic data, the authors identify clear diachronic shifts in imported foods and diet that relate to the commercial and political changes following the breakdown of Roman control of the Mediterranean.
Low loss, ferroelectric, fully-printed varactors for high-power matching applications are presented. Piezoelectric-induced acoustic resonances reduce the power handling capabilities of these varactors by lowering the Q-factor at the operational frequency of 13.56 MHz. Here, a quality factor of maximum 142 is achieved with an interference-based acoustic suppression approach utilizing double metal–insulator–metal structures. The varactors show a tunability of maximum 34% at 300 W of input power. At a power level of 1 kW, the acoustic suppression technique greatly reduces the dissipated power by 62% from 37 W of a previous design to 14.2 W. At this power level, the varactors remain tunable with maximum 18.2% and 200 V of biasing voltage.
Childhood maltreatment (CM) plays an important role in the development of major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of this study was to examine whether CM severity and type are associated with MDD-related brain alterations, and how they interact with sex and age.
Within the ENIGMA-MDD network, severity and subtypes of CM using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire were assessed and structural magnetic resonance imaging data from patients with MDD and healthy controls were analyzed in a mega-analysis comprising a total of 3872 participants aged between 13 and 89 years. Cortical thickness and surface area were extracted at each site using FreeSurfer.
CM severity was associated with reduced cortical thickness in the banks of the superior temporal sulcus and supramarginal gyrus as well as with reduced surface area of the middle temporal lobe. Participants reporting both childhood neglect and abuse had a lower cortical thickness in the inferior parietal lobe, middle temporal lobe, and precuneus compared to participants not exposed to CM. In males only, regardless of diagnosis, CM severity was associated with higher cortical thickness of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex. Finally, a significant interaction between CM and age in predicting thickness was seen across several prefrontal, temporal, and temporo-parietal regions.
Severity and type of CM may impact cortical thickness and surface area. Importantly, CM may influence age-dependent brain maturation, particularly in regions related to the default mode network, perception, and theory of mind.
Background: Intensive care unit-acquired weakness (ICU-AW) is associated with poorer outcome of critically ill patients. Microcirculatory changes and altered vascular permeability of skeletal muscles might contribute to the pathogenesis of ICU-AW. Muscular ultrasound (MUS) displays increased muscle echogenicity, although its pathogenesis is uncertain. Objective: We investigated the combined measurement of serum and ultrasound markers to assess ICU-AW and clinical patient outcome. Methods: Fifteen patients and five healthy controls were longitudinally assessed for signs of ICU-AW at study days 3 and 10 using a muscle strength sum score. The definition of ICU-AW was based on decreased muscle strength assessed by the muscular research council-sum score. Ultrasound echogenicity of extremity muscles was assessed using a standardized protocol. Serum markers of inflammation and endothelial damage were measured. The 3-month outcome was assessed on the modified Rankin scale. Results: ICU-AW was present in eight patients, and seven patients and the control subjects did not develop ICU-AW. The global muscle echogenicity score (GME) differed significantly between controls and patients (mean GME, 1.1 ± 0.06 vs. 2.3 ± 0.41; p = 0.001). Mean GME values significantly decreased in patients without ICU-AW from assessment 1 (2.30 ± 0.48) to assessment 2 (2.06 ± 0.45; p = 0.027), which was not observed in patients with ICU-AW. Serum levels of syndecan-1 at day 3 significantly correlated with higher GME values at day 10 (r = 0.63, p = 0.012). Furthermore, the patients’ GME significantly correlated with mRS at day 100 (r = 0.67, p = 0.013). Conclusion: The combined use of muscular ultrasound and inflammatory biomarkers might be helpful to diagnose ICU-AW and to predict long-term outcome in critical illness.