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Deep-sea benthic ostracod assemblages covering the last 2 Myr were investigated in Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Site U1426 (at 903 m water depth) in the southern Sea of Japan. Results show that (1) orbital-scale faunal variability has been influenced by eustatic sea-level fluctuations and oxygen variability and (2) secular-scale faunal transitions are likely associated with the mid-Brunhes event (MBE, ~0.43 Ma) and the onset of the Tsushima Warm Current (TWC, ~1.7 Ma). Krithe, Robertsonites, and Acanthocythereis are the three most abundant genera throughout the core, accounting for 78.5% of total specimens. Multiple-regression tree analysis indicated that the TWC, the MBE, and oxygen content are the significant controlling factors of ostracod dominance. Changes in assemblages exhibit decline and recovery patterns corresponding to orbital-scale cyclicity of sea-level changes. In the Sea of Japan marginal ocean setting, this cyclicity shows a close relationship with bottom-water oxygen variability since the onset of the TWC influx. The MBE amplified the influence of the TWC and oxygen variability to the deep-sea ecosystem through larger sea-level fluctuations. Acanthocythereis dunelmensis, a circumpolar species, dominates before the TWC onset. After the TWC onset and during the mid-Pleistocene transition (MPT, ~1.2–0.7 Ma) Krithe spp., known for their low-oxygen tolerance, substantially increase under moderate oxygen depletion. At the end of the MPT, Krithe dominance diminishes and is replaced by Robertsonites hanaii and Propontocypris spp. after the MBE. The post-MBE assemblage, characterized by R. hanaii, suggests a slightly warmer environment under the development of the TWC. In addition, the post-MBE high-amplitude climate system may have caused the increased abundance of active-swimming Propontocypris spp. due to their superior migration ability. Benthic ecosystems in marginal seas are sensitive and vulnerable to both short- and long-term climatic changes, and the MBE is suggested to be a global biotic event affecting benthic ecosystems substantially.
Previous studies in Western populations have linked caffeine intake with health status. While detailed dietary assessment studies in these populations have shown that the main contributors to caffeine intake are coffee and tea, the wide consumption of Japanese and Chinese teas in Japan suggests that sources of intake in Japan may differ from those in Western populations. Among these teas, moreover, caffeine content varies widely among the different forms consumed (brewed, canned or bottled), suggesting the need for detailed dietary assessment in estimating intake in Japanese populations. Here, because a caffeine composition database or data obtained from detailed dietary assessment have not been available, we developed a database for caffeine content in Japanese foods and beverages, and then used it to estimate intake in a Japanese population.
The caffeine food composition database was developed using analytic values from the literature, 16 d weighed diet records were collected, and caffeine intake was estimated from the 16 d weighed diet records.
Four areas in Japan, Osaka (Osaka City), Okinawa (Ginowan City), Nagano (Matsumoto City) and Tottori (Kurayoshi City), between November 2002 and September 2003.
Two hundred and thirty Japanese adults aged 30–69 years.
Mean caffeine intake was 256·2 mg/d for women and 268·3 mg/d for men. The major contributors to intake were Japanese and Chinese teas and coffee (47 % each). Caffeine intake above 400 mg/d, suggested in reviews to possibly have negative health effects, was seen in 11 % of women and 15 % of men.
In this Japanese population, caffeine intake was comparable to the estimated values reported in Western populations.
The inhibitory effect on human and rat intestinal disaccharidase by the extractive from the leaves ofMorus alba (ELM) containing 0·24% 1-deoxynojirimycin equivalent and its inhibitory activities were investigated by the modified Dahlqvist method. In the presence of 1000-fold diluted ELM solution, the sucrase activity of four human samples was inhibited by 96% and that of maltase and isomaltase by 95 and 99 %, respectively. The activities of trehalase and lactase were inhibited by 44 and 38 %, respectively. The human disaccharidase activities varied from sample to sample because the samples were obtained from different resected regions after surgery. However, the ratio of the inhibitory effect for sucrase, maltase, isomaltase, trehalase and lactase was very similar among the four samples, and also that of resembled rat intestinal disaccharides. The inhibitory constant of the 1-deoxynojirimycin equivalent for sucrase, maltase and isomaltase was 2·1× 10−4, 2·5 × 10−4 and 4·5 10−4μM, respectively, and these inhibitory activities were shown, using rat brush border membrane vesicles, to be competitive. These results demonstrate that digestion is inhibited when an appropriate amount of ELM is orally ingested with sucrose or polysaccharide in man. When ELM was orally administered in a sucrose solution to fasted rats, the elevation in blood glucose was significantly suppressed, depending on the concentration of ELM given. These results suggest that ELM could be used as an ingredient in health foods and in foods that help to prevent diabetes.
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