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The clinical characteristics of male patients with pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex disease have not been clearly defined. We aimed to clarify the clinical characteristics of male patients with pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex disease compared with female patients.
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex disease who visited the outpatient clinic of the Shinshu University Hospital between 2003 and 2016 and compared the clinical characteristics of male and female patients.
A total of 234 patients with pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex disease were identified (68 men and 166 women). Male patients were significantly older than female patients. Blood examination results showed that the lymphocyte count, total protein level and albumin level were significantly lower in men than in women. Chest imaging findings were broadly categorised into the fibrocavitary and nodular bronchiectasis types. There were no significant differences in chest imaging findings and the time from diagnosis to disease exacerbation between men and women.
During the study period, the incidence of the nodular bronchiectasis type of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex disease in male patients increased compared with previous reports. Men had no difference in time to exacerbation compared with women.
To identify the predictive and prognostic factors associated with ampicillin-resistant enterococcal bacteraemia, we retrospectively reviewed demographic, microbiological and clinical data of patients attending the Kyoto University Hospital, Japan, between 2009 and 2015. Logistic regression and Cox regression analyses were performed to determine the predictive and prognostic factors, respectively. In total, 235 episodes of enterococcal bacteraemia were identified. As ampicillin susceptibility was uniform for Enterococcus faecalis isolates and almost all ampicillin-resistant isolates were E. faecium, bacteraemia due to these species was investigated separately. E. faecalis and E. faecium accounted for 41.7% (98/235) and 48.1% (113/235) of the isolates, respectively and 91.2% of all E. faecium were ampicillin resistant. Nosocomial E. faecium bacteraemia acquisition (odds ratio (OR), 13.6; 95% confidence intervals, 3.16–58.3) was associated with ampicillin-resistant isolates. Bacteraemia from an unknown source (hazard ratio (HR), 2.91; 95% CI 1.36–6.21) and an increased Pitt bacteraemia score (PBS) (HR, 1.36; 95% CI 1.21–1.52) were associated with 30-day mortality in E. faecium infections. Likewise, bacteraemia from an unknown source (HR, 4.17; 95% CI 1.25–13.9) and increased PBS (HR, 1.27; 95% CI 1.09–1.48) were associated with 30-day mortality in patients with E. faecalis bacteraemia. The empirical therapeutic administration of glycopeptides is recommended for patients with bacteraemia from an unknown source in whom severe E. faecium bacteraemia is suspected.
Although politicians’ personal attributes are an important component of elections and representation, few studies have rigorously investigated which attributes are most relevant in shaping voters’ preferences for politicians, or whether these preferences vary across different electoral system contexts. We investigate these questions with a conjoint survey experiment using the case of Japan’s mixed-member bicameral system. We find that the attributes preferred by voters are not entirely consistent with the observed attributes of actual politicians. Moreover, voters’ preferences do not vary when asked to consider representation under different electoral system contexts, whereas the observed attributes of politicians do vary across these contexts. These findings point to the role of factors beyond voters’ sincere preferences, such as parties’ recruitment strategies, the effect of electoral rules on the salience of the personal vote, and the availability of different types of politicians, in determining the nature of representation.
Representative democracy entails the aggregation of multiple policy issues by parties into competing bundles of policies, or “manifestos,” which are then evaluated holistically by voters in elections. This aggregation process obscures the multidimensional policy preferences underlying a voter’s single choice of party or candidate. We address this problem through a conjoint experiment based on the actual party manifestos in Japan’s 2014 House of Representatives election. By juxtaposing sets of issue positions as hypothetical manifestos and asking respondents to choose one, our study identifies the effects of specific positions on the overall assessment of manifestos, heterogeneity in preferences among subgroups of respondents, and the popularity ranking of manifestos. Our analysis uncovers important discrepancies between voter preferences and the portrayal of the election results by politicians and the media as providing a policy mandate to the Liberal Democratic Party, underscoring the potential danger of inferring public opinion from election outcomes alone.
A new methodology for very high-speed, energy-dispersive detection of X-ray fluorescence is being developed. The underlying reasoning behind it, as well as early results from the evaluation of the first prototype, is presented.
Air shower arrays with high counting rates at high altitude provide a unique means for the study of the time dependence of the Sun's shadow as seen in cosmic rays (Amenomori et al. 1992). With the Tibet-I array, operated from 1990 to 1993 at Yangbajing (4300m), we detected for the first time the influence of the solar and interplanetary magnetic fields (IMF) on the Sun's shadow. In this experiment the Sun's shadow seen by 10 TeV cosmic rays was found at a position 0.°7 away from the position of the Sun. This large displacement is considered to be caused by IMF which changed considerably in 1990-1993, near maximum, and during the declining phase of solar activity (cycle 22). A new Tibet-II array, enlarged in 1994, with a seven times larger effective area than the Tibet-I, has been operating since 1995 and allows us to observe the Sun's shadow every 3-4 months. The solar activity, being in the most quiet phase now in 1995-1997, will return to more active phase in 1998. Here, we present some results obtained in 1996 with Tibet-II array.
Insufficient nutrition during the perinatal period causes structural alterations in humans and experimental animals, leading to increased vulnerability to diseases in later life. Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica, in which partial (8–10%) egg white was withdrawn (EwW) from eggs before incubation had lower birth weights than controls (CTs). EwW birds also had reduced hatching rates, smaller glomeruli and lower embryo weight. In EwW embryos, the surface condensate area containing mesenchymal cells was larger, suggesting that delayed but active nephrogenesis takes place. In mature EwW quail, the number of glomeruli in the cortical region (mm2) was significantly lower (CT 34.7±1.4, EwW 21.0±1.2); capillary loops showed focal ballooning, and mesangial areas were distinctly expanded. Immunoreactive cell junction proteins, N-cadherin and podocin, and slit diaphragms were clearly seen. With aging, the mesangial area and glomerular size continued to increase and were significantly larger in EwW quail, suggesting compensatory hypertrophy. Furthermore, apoptosis measured by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end labeling analysis was higher in EwWs than in CTs on embryonic day 15 and postnatal day 4 (D4). Similarly, plasma glucocorticoid (corticosterone) was higher (P<0.01) on D4 in EwW quail. These results suggest that although nephrogenic activity is high in low-nutrition quail during the perinatal period, delayed development and increased apoptosis may result in a lower number of mature nephrons. Damaged or incompletely mature mesangium may trigger glomerular injury, leading in later life to nephrosclerosis. The present study shows that birds serve as a model for ‘fetal programming,’ which appears to have evolved phylogenetically early.
The impulse radar was found to be useful in surveying the internal structures of wet snow patches in mountain regions. Radar profiles revealed that the thickness of the perennial ice was 30 m, possibly the thickest in Japan. An unconformity widely extended nearly parallel to the surface at the depth of 2 to 9 m and divided the ice into two parts.
To verify the effectiveness and safety of the addition of adipose-derived regenerative cells to autologous fat injection therapy.
Unilateral vocal fold paralysis models were made by cutting the right recurrent laryngeal nerve in two pigs. At day 30, 0.5 ml adipose-derived regenerative cells mixed with 1 ml autologous fat was injected into the right vocal fold of one pig, with the other receiving 0.5 ml Ringer's solution mixed with 1 ml autologous fat. At day 120, fibrescopy, laser Doppler flowmeter, computed tomography, vocal function evaluation and histological assessment were conducted.
Although histological assessment revealed atrophy of the thyroarytenoid muscle fibre in both pigs, there was remarkable hypertrophy of the thyroarytenoid muscle fibre in the area surrounding the adipose-derived regenerative cells injection site.
The addition of a high concentration of adipose-derived regenerative cells to autologous fat injection therapy has the potential to improve the treatment outcome for unilateral vocal fold paralysis.
Emergent fluxes from a non-LTE model atmosphere code designed to calculate realistic O star atmospheres are applied to nebular calculations. The stellar models include wind and blocking effects due to several million doppler-shifted lines in the radiation driven atmosphere in a full NLTE treatment. These lines, which arise from heavy elements, reduce the stellar flux drastically between 228 and 912 å (Pauldrach et al. 1994) — the most important frequency regime for ionization in gaseous nebulae. We have three models with effective temperatures of 50000, 40000 and 35 000 K and log g values of 3.9, 3.8 and 3.5 respectively. They have been used to model Hii regions and their use has led to significant differences in the ionization structure of the nebular models.
Periodicity and new properties of the frequency curve. Bruno Hanisch uses the method of autocorrelation introduced by W. Pollack in geophysics for the discovery of periods in the frequency series of sunspots from 1794 to 1925. Dividing the whole interval into three sections he finds an eleven- and an eight-year period common to the three sections, whereas other periods found in the three sections differ widely from each other. The new method gives for the length of the main period II-8 years for the interval 1880 to 1925. This result agrees strikingly with the revolution period of Jupiter (Gerlands Beiträge zur Geophysik, 46, 1935).
Mr Royds writes: “The original scheme for daily character figures called for integers ranging from 0—5 to characterise the solar activity for bright and dark flocculi. Since then it has appeared to some observatories to be desirable, particularly as the spot cycle has approached its minimum, to quote character figures intermediate between whole integers. Many observatories have introduced 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, etc., in addition to whole integers, whilst others have also used 0.2, 0.7, 1.2, etc. It seems to me that sufficient experience has now been gained to decide how far this subdivision between whole integers is to be carried. Kodaikanal would be willing to revert to the original proposal of whole integers on the scale 0.5. If it is considered desirable to interpolate half integers, I suggest that whole integers on the scale 0-10 would be easier to print and to read.”
During the past four years the most important events in meteoric astronomy have been the good showers of the Leonids in 1930 and 1931. When these observations are added to the predictions based on computations of the perturbations, there is good reason to hope for an even better shower in 1932, perhaps rivalling that of 1866. As to the study of meteors in general, there has been an increasing revival of interest. Meteor Notes are now regular features of many scientific journals. Never before have so many people been working in this branch of science. A very brief outline of such activities follows.
The past few years have witnessed a great increase in the amount of work done on meteors and in the number of observers. At several observatories programmes of work have been undertaken in the hope of solving specific problems. Several countries now have flourishing meteor societies, or sections of larger astronomical societies, devoted to this field. To solve the problems that have arisen the help of other scientists, especially in physics, geology, and meteorology, has been enlisted to the mutual benefit of all. Historical research, particularly in Asia, has added much to our knowledge of meteor showers for the past thousand or more years.
The Commission formed a Sub-Commission on Zodiacal Light, presided over by Prof. Issei Yamamoto. The constitution of a sub-commission on the light of the night sky and kindred phenomena was proposed, but left in abeyance, pending the Stockholm Meeting. Dr Jean Dufay kindly consented to write, at the president’s request, a paper on the present state of the problem of the light of the night sky, which is printed with this Report.
Evolution of magnetic structures in the region around an eruptive prominence of August 28, 1992 are examined using soft X-ray images obtained by Yohkoh. The eruption was preceded by the appearance of a large-scale soft X-ray jet which was ejected from near the root of the southern end of the prominence. Changes of magnetic geometry at the southern end of the prominence appeared to trigger the eruption. In the course of prominence eruption, helically twisted soft X-ray loops were observed around the prominence. This indicates that magnetic reconnection of a sheared arcade took place underneath the erupting prominence.
The effects of WO3 doping in 4,4’-bis-9-carbozyl biphenyl (CBP) were studied through detailed electrical device characterization. A series of hole-only devices have been fabricated, where the doping level was varied from 10-40mol% and the doped CBP thickness was varied from 5-40 nm. It was found that, to achieve effective doping for improved hole injection and transport, the doping level should be greater than 20mol% and the doped layer should be at least 10 nm thick. It was also found that an energy barrier exists at the doped and undoped CBP interface, resulting in an additional voltage drop. This finding was explained by a large downward shift of the Fermi level in WO3-doped CBP, which causes band bending and depletion at the interface. Finally, simplified green phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with CBP as the hole transport and host material were fabricated. With a WO3-doped hole transport layer, the OLEDs attained brightness above 105 cd/m2 at 20 mA/cm2, and exhibited an improved reliability under constant-current stressing as compared to undoped OLEDs.
Stabilized Au NPs were directly deposited on nanostructured ZnO and ZrO2 by a simple one-step strategy based on sacrificial anode electrolysis. The annealed nanocomposites are proposed as active layers in resistive gas sensors for low-cost processes. Results on the performance of gas sensors based on pristine and Au-doped MOx nanostructured thin films, used for the detection of NO2 gas, were reported at an operating temperature of 300°C, evaluating the effects of the MOx chemical composition and morphology, and the Au-doping.