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We present evolutionary synthesis modeling of the nuclear regions of the starburst galaxy M 82, based on near-infrared integral field spectroscopy and mid-infrared ISO spectroscopy. Our data indicate the occurrence of two distinct starburst episodes in the central 500 pc about 8 – 15 Myr and 5 Myr ago, each lasting a few million years only. The first burst was most intense within 50 pc of the nucleus while the second burst took place in a circumnuclear ring of radius ~ 85 pc and along the stellar bar at larger radii. These recent episodes succeeded earlier starburst activity ~ 1 kpc away from the nucleus and peaking 650 Myr ago, as traced by the luminous star clusters studied by de Grijs et al. (2001). The combined results of both studies reveal complex evolution of starburst activity in M 82 which is consistent with a tidally-induced bar-driven scenario.
We argue that the wind from IRS 16 and He I stars in the central 1 pc of the Galaxy is responsible for the peculiar features of accretion onto a putative black hole at the Galactic center. What makes Sgr A∗ unique is not that it is just underfed but, in addition, it has a much lower efficiency of accretion and possibly a lower mass, compared to the AGN case.
We exploit the deep Hα IFU kinematic data from the KMOS3D and SINS/zC-SINF surveys to explore the so far unconstrained outer rotation curves of star-forming disk galaxies at high redshift. Through stacking the signal of ~ 100 massive disks at 0.7 < z < 2.6, we construct a representative rotation curve reaching out to several effective radii. Our stacked rotation curve exhibits a turnover with a steep falloff in the outer regions, significantly strengthening the tantalizing evidence previously hinted at in a handful only of individual disks among the sample with the deepest data.
This finding confirms the high baryon fractions found by comparing the stellar, gas and dynamical masses of high redshift galaxies independently of assumptions on the light-to-mass conversion and Initial stellar Mass Function (IMF). The rapid falloff of the stacked rotation curve is most naturally explained by the effects of pressure gradients, which are significant in the gas-rich, turbulent high-z disks and which would imply a possible pressure-driven truncation of the outer disk.
A sensor which detects mechanical stresses and stores the position and the strength of these loads by color change of embedded quantum dots (QDs) is presented. The top and bottom electrodes of the sensor are inkjet-printed which leads to a fast and accurate deposition of thin (approx. 50 - 300 nm) and conductive layers. The used silver and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythio-phene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) inks are optimized in terms of printability and opportunities of functionality forming without influencing the active layer of the sensor. The active layer of the sensor is spin-coated and consists of the QDs embedded in semi-conducting poly(9-vinylcarba-zole) (PVK). The hole transport characteristic of PVK and the band level alignment of the used materials ensures the preferred injection of only one type of charge carrier into the QDs. As a result the mechanical stress is visualized by a decreasing in photoluminescence (PL) of the QDs.
Optoplasmonic networks consisting of dielectric microsphere resonators and plasmonic nanoantennas in a morphologically well-defined on-chip platform support unique electromagnetic signatures that are hybrids of photonic whispering gallery modes and localized surface plasmon resonances. Here we explore the dependence of their near- and far-field responses on the key structural parameters, including the size of the gold nanoparticles forming the plasmonic elements, the separation between the microspheres, and the geometry of the chain. The high degree of structural flexibility, which is experimentally accessible through template guided self-assembly approaches, makes these optoplasmonic structures a unique electromagnetic material for tuning spectral shapes and intensities.
The Inkjet printing technology is a direct patterning technique to deposit functional materials with high precision and accuracy. This deposition technology is often used to manufacture conductive electrodes for different active and passive electronic devices on flexible foils. It is an up-scalable process in terms of printing devices from low (via. Sheet-to-Sheet, S2S platform) to high (via. Roll-to-Roll platform) quantities. For manufacturing of these conductive electrodes and hence electronic devices through the R2R platform, a suitable post-treatment/curing methodology is very much desired. In this work, the focus is concentrated on the curing methodology using the Infra-red radiation for both the inkjet-printed conductive electrodes and insulator layer, for completing a “proof of concept” Metal-Insulator-Metal (MIM) electronic device structure over the R2R platform. A conductive silver nano-particle and a polymeric dielectric ink are used to print the top and bottom conductive electrodes, with a middle insulator layer for the MIM structure respectively. It is observed that not only the printed silver electrode layers (both top and bottom) can be cured with the help of the Infra-red radiation, but also the insulator layer. Additionally, the layers constituting the MIM device structure is cured with the conventional curing methodology which in this case is thermal curing using a convection oven. This curing procedure for the printed functional layers is generally performed for the S2S manufacturing process. The conductive electrodes are then electrically characterized by measuring the sheet resistance (on the foil and dielectric layer) as a function of the un-conventional Infra-red radiation and conventional oven curing methodologies. The cured layers for both the conductive electrodes and insulator layers are morphologically analyzed for the layer thickness and homogeneity. The electrical performance of the cured insulator in form of the obtained capacitance from the MIM passive device is compared for the two mentioned curing methodologies.
Inkjet printing is a well-accepted deposition technology for functional materials in the area of printed electronics. It allows the precise deposition of patterned functional layers on both, rigid and flexible substrates. Furthermore, inkjet printing is considered as up-scalable technology towards industrial applications. Many electronic devices manufactured with inkjet printing have been reported in the recent years. Some of the evident examples are capacitors, resistors, organic thin film transistors and rectifying Schottky diodes. [1, 2, 3] In this paper we report on the manufacturing of an inkjet-printed metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) diode on flexible plastic substrate. The structure is comprised of an insulating and a polymeric semiconducting layer sandwiched between two silver electrodes. The current vs. voltage characteristics are rectifying with rectification ratio up to 100 at |4 V|. Furthermore, they can carry high current densities (up to mA/cm2) and have a low capacitance which makes them attractive for high frequency rectifying circuits. They are also an ideal candidate to replace conventional Schottky diodes for which the fabrication remains a challenge. This is because inkjet printing of Schottky diodes require additional processing steps such as intense pulsed light sintering (IPL sintering)  or post-treatments at high temperatures. The deposition of two different metal layers using inkjet printing e.g. Cu or Al with Ag is possible. However, the mentioned post treatment technologies might be incompatible with the already existing layer stack– e.g. it could degrade the organic semiconductor or can damage insulator which in this case is present in the MIS diode architecture.
Silver nanoparticle inks are increasingly applied for the manufacture of inkjet-printed electrically conductive patterns. In order to obtain high conductivity, the printed liquid patterns have to be functionalized by an appropriate post- treatment step. Modern post-treatment methods using e.g. microwaves, intense pulsed light or adopted infrared radiation, are nevertheless the basis of the thermal process. The thermal treatment e.g. in furnaces or on heating plates, is applicable for a great variety of inks and ensures an efficient sintering without major technical efforts. It has been studied intensively wherein the reports mainly focus on reduction of the resistivity by controlling the parameters of the thermal treatment. Our researches exceed these comparative studies by investigating multi-layered patterns, their manufacturing and post-treatment.
Two silver nanoparticle inks were inkjet printed on a rigid and a flexible substrate. The geometry of the patterns was varied. The different drying behaviors of the inks were investigated. In addition, the number of layers which were printed on top of each other was varied. The sintering temperatures and time durations were varied.
The morphology of the patterns is investigated by profilometry and optical microscopy. The microstructure is analyzed by scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. Furthermore, the electrical characteristics were determined by the measurement of the resistance. The results indicate the relation between the manufacture and the resulting microstructure and functionality of the patterns. The knowledge of these parameters enables us to control the industrial manufacturing of similar conductive patterns.
X-ray diffraction is commonly used for non-destructive and precise quantitative determination of internal strain distributions. In recent years tomographic imaging has also been established as a powerful tool for precise non-destructive evaluation of internal structure in materials offering submicron resolution 3D imaging of density distributions. “Diffraction Strain tomography” (DST) concept (Korsunsky, Vorster et al. 2006) has been introduced as a means of tomographic reconstruction of two-dimensional internal strain distributions. The application of this approach during in situ loading has been subsequently demonstrated (Korsunsky et al., 2011). In the present study, similar acquisition strategy was used for diffraction data collection from a Ni-base superalloy turbine blade fabricated by DMLS (Direct Metal Laser Sintering, also sometimes referred to as DLD, Direct Laser Deposition). The experiment was conducted on beamline I12 (JEEP) at Diamond Light Source, UK. Each location within the object was multiply “sampled” (i.e. diffraction patterns were collected containing its contribution) by incident X-ray beams travelling through the sample at different angles. The setup of the beamline also allowed to acquire simultaneously a conventional (absorption tomography) reconstruction of the sample shape. The aim of the experiment was to obtain detailed information about the sample shape, structure, and state. The interpretation of diffraction tomography data requires precise calibration of the sample detector distance at different rotations and positions across the sample, and subsequent application of corrections to remove geometry-induced strain aberrations.
Laser annealing experiments on commercially available phase pure tenorite (CuO) nanoparticles (NPs) were performed in air and nitrogen atmosphere to improve the structural and electronic properties, with respect to their suitability for photovoltaic applications. The particles exhibit size variations from about 30 nm to 100 nm. The influence of the thermal treatment is investigated by photoluminescence (PL) and Raman spectroscopy. Annealing of the particles in air by a laser treatment improved the material quality by defect reduction. Additional laser annealing in N2 atmosphere leads to a phase transition of the NPs from tenorite to cuprite (Cu2O). Due to the low partial oxygen pressure, the transition is initiated at about 1/3 of the maximum laser power used for the series in air, which is indicated by a drastic increase of the band edge emission from Cu2O. However, annealing with higher laser power leads to strong defect luminescence, which originates from copper and oxygen vacancies. A weak remaining tenorite band edge emission shows an incomplete phase transition.
The two-dimensional problem of an elastic-plate impact onto an undisturbed surface of water of infinite depth is analysed. The plate is forced to move with a constant horizontal velocity component which is much larger than the vertical velocity component of penetration. The small angle of attack of the plate and its vertical velocity vary in time, and are determined as part of the solution, together with the elastic deflection of the plate and the hydrodynamic loads within the potential flow theory. The boundary conditions on the free surface and on the wetted part of the plate are linearized and imposed on the initial equilibrium position of the liquid surface. The wetted part of the plate depends on the plate motion and its elastic deflection. To determine the length of the wetted part we assume that the spray jet in front of the advancing plate is negligible. A smooth separation of the free-surface flow from the trailing edge is imposed. The wake behind the moving body is included in the model. The plate deflection is governed by Euler’s beam equation, subject to free–free boundary conditions. Four different regimes of plate motion are distinguished depending on the impact conditions: (a) the plate becomes fully wetted; (b) the leading edge of the plate touches the water surface and traps an air cavity; (c) the free surface at the forward contact point starts to separate from the plate; (d) the plate exits the water. We could not detect any impact conditions which lead to steady planing of the free plate after the impact. It is shown that a large part of the total energy in the fluid–plate interaction leaves the main bulk of the liquid with the spray jet. It is demonstrated that the flexibility of the plate may increase the hydrodynamic loads acting on it. The impact loads can cause large bending stresses, which may exceed the yield stress of the plate material. The elastic vibrations of the plate are shown to have a significant effect on the fluid flow in the wake.
Commercially available tenorite (CuO) nanoparticles (NPs) were investigated in particular with respect to their suitability for photovoltaic applications. NPs with a diameter of about 30 nm were step wise annealed up to 1000°C in nitrogen atmosphere. The influence of the annealing treatment on the structural and electronic properties was investigated by Raman, photoluminescence (PL) and photothermal deflection spectroscopy (PDS) as well as X-ray diffraction measurements. Size, shape, and phase of the untreated NPs are analyzed by TEM measurements. The PL and PDS results show a strong increase of the tenorite band edge emission at about 1.3 eV accompanied by a decreasing sub gap absorption with increasing annealing temperature up to 700°C. According to literature, a phase transition from tenorite to cuprite (Cu2O) was expected and observed after annealing at 800°C. Strong cuprite band edge emission at about 2 eV accompanied by very weak defect and possibly tenorite band edge emission was found for samples annealed at 800°C and 1000°C.
After almost three decades of intensive fundamental research and development activities intermetallic titanium aluminides based on the -TiAl phase have found applications in automotive and aircraft engine industries. The advantages of this class of innovative high-temperature materials are their low density as well as their good strength and creep properties up to 750°C. A drawback, however, is their limited ductility at room temperature, which is reflected by a low plastic strain at fracture. This behavior can be attributed to a limited dislocation movement along with microstructural inhomogeneity. Advanced TiAl alloys, such as β-solidifying TNM™ alloys, are complex multi-phase materials which can be processed by ingot or powder metallurgy as well as precision casting methods. Each production process leads to specific microstructures which can be altered and optimized by thermo-mechanical processing and/or subsequent heat-treatments. The background of these heat-treatments is at least twofold, i.e. concurrent increase of ductility at room temperature and creep strength at elevated temperature. In order to achieve this goal the knowledge of the occurring solidification processes and phase transformation sequences is essential. Therefore, thermodynamic calculations were conducted to predict phase fraction diagrams of engineering TiAl alloys. After experimental verification, these phase diagrams provided the base for the development of heat treatments to adjust balanced mechanical properties. To determine the influence of deformation and kinetic aspects, sophisticated ex- and in-situ methods have been employed to investigate the evolution of the microstructure during thermo-mechanical processing and subsequent multi-step heat-treatments. For example, in-situ high-energy X-ray diffraction was conducted to study dynamic recovery and recrystallization processes during hot-deformation tests. Summarizing all results a consistent picture regarding microstructure formation and its impact on mechanical properties in TNM alloys can be given.
We present an investigation of the degree of oxidization of tungsten oxide (WOx) thin films used as gate dielectric for metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MISFET). By means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy WOx thin films grown by pulsed-laser deposition at room temperature were investigated. The electrical and optical properties depend significantly on the oxygen pressure during deposition and are affected by the stoichiometric ratio of oxygen and tungsten.