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Most tonalite–trondhjemite–granodiorite (TTG) suites are Archean–Palaeoproterozoic in age, but those of Neoproterozoic–Phanerozoic age are scarce. A rare Ediacaran high-Al TTG suite has been identified at the Fannani Igneous Complex (FIC) in the northern Arabian–Nubian Shield, which is essentially composed of amalgamated Neoproterozoic island-arc Pan-African composite terranes that contain several ophiolitic sutures. The FIC exhibits a wide range of SiO2, Al2O3, Sr and Zr, shows moderate rare earth element (REE) enrichment, and K, Ti, Nb, Y and heavy REE depletion. It is a subsolvus suite with clear orogenic affinities and strong arc-geochemical signatures. The precise U–Pb zircon thermal ionization mass spectrometry age obtained (607.4 ± 1.95 Ma) indicates oceanic subduction extended to late stages of the East African Orogeny. The FIC exhibits 87Sr/86Sr compositions of 0.70346–0.71091 (Sr(i) ratio, 0.70284), and 143Nd/144Nd of 0.51254–0.51270 (ϵNd(t) = +5.12 to +7.16), typical of modern oceanic-arc rocks (as Japan-arc basalts), and suggestive of mantle sources and island-arc settings. The FIC possesses low values of Yb (1.55 ppm), Nb (14 ppm) and Y (24 ppm), and high ratios of Sr/Y (27), Zr/Sm (46) and Nb/Ta (11.8), typical of magmas produced by anatexis of a basaltic slab. Partial melting models show that the FIC magma was generated by melting (F = 0.25–0.50) of a subducted oceanic crust transformed into eclogite, leaving 10–25% garnet in the residue. The FIC and similar complexes produced via slab melting during the closure of the Mozambique Ocean formed large juvenile belts along the East African Orogen that sutured East and West Gondwana together into a united supercontinent.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Flavorings differ between brands and tobacco products, potentially altering the sensory perceptions. This study aimed to examine discrepancies in flavor preference across various non-cigarette tobacco products among a national representative sample of US adult regular tobacco users. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Data from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study Wave 3 (W3) were used. Weighted prevalence of flavor preference for various tobacco products, including electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), traditional cigars, cigarillos/filtered cigars, hookah and snus/smokeless, was presented for 9,037 adult current and new former users of multiple flavored tobacco products. Within-subject flavor discrepancies were assessed using generalized estimating equations (GEE) models considering the complex sampling design of the PATH study. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Most regular users of a flavored tobacco products reported using one flavor category per product. Fruit flavors, followed by tobacco, were the most common flavor categories among ENDS (32% and 25%, respectively) and hookah users (44% and 36%, respectively). Tobacco flavor was the most common among regular users of traditional cigars (80%), cigarillos/filtered cigars (55%), and smokeless tobacco (79%). Polytobacco users of ENDS and traditional cigars had the largest discrepancy, where about 68-76%% used different flavor categories when switching products. Conversely, polytobacco users of traditional cigars and cigarillos/filtered cigars had the lowest discrepancy (23-25%). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Many consumers of multiple tobacco products had different flavor preferences when switching between products. In the event of a partial or full flavor ban for ENDS, these findings raise questions about consumer loyalty to a particular tobacco product or a particular flavor category. Conflict of Interest Description: MLG serves as a paid consultant for Johnson & Johnson and has received research grant from Pfizer, manufacturers of smoking cessation medications. The other authors have no conflicts to declare. CONFLICT OF INTEREST DESCRIPTION: MLG serves as a paid consultant for Johnson & Johnson and has received research grant from Pfizer, manufacturers of smoking cessation medications. The other authors have no conflicts to declare.
Knowledge of bio-physicochemical variables is essential to better understand the functioning of tropical marine ecosystems, which are rich in biodiversity and provide nutrition and livelihoods to billions of people in the developing countries. This study analysed the spatial and temporal variability of phytoplankton and zooplankton with chlorophyll, primary productivity, temperature, salinity, oxygen and nutrients in the Bay of Bengal (BoB), collecting data from the World Ocean, and COPEPOD and Aqua MODIS records. The results indicated a strong gradient in bio-physicochemical conditions of the BoB, from the coast to the open sea. Specifically, the spatial variability in chlorophyll was negatively correlated (R2 = 0.59) with temperature and zooplankton, while a positive correlation (R2 = 0.70) was noted between chlorophyll and silicate, nitrate, phosphate, dissolved oxygen and salinity. All the variables exhibited a strong vertical gradient at depths up to 500 m. Temperature, nutrients, zooplankton and to a lesser extent salinity and rainfall had an influence on the annual abundance of phytoplankton. Over the long term, a significant positive trend in temperature and a significant negative trend in primary productivity were observed in the BoB. The findings of this study will be useful to draw insights on the state of fisheries habitats and the overall environmental conditions of the BoB in response to future climate changes.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Wheezing has been shown to be associated with use of cigarettes, and more recently, electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). This study assessed the association of poly use of tobacco products with wheezing among a national representative sample of US adult current tobacco users. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Data from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study Wave 3 (W3) were used. Weighted prevalences of self-reported wheezing and related respiratory symptoms for non-users compared to users of cigarettes, ENDS, cigars, and any combination of these products (poly use of tobacco products) were presented for 28,082 adults. The cross-sectional association of tobacco use with self-reported wheezing and other related respiratory symptoms was assessed using weighted multivariable and ordinal logistic regression with consideration of complex sampling design. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Most adults who reported on wheezing symptoms did not currently use cigarettes, ENDS or cigars (79%), 15% used cigarettes, 3% used a combination of cigarettes, ENDS and cigars, 1% used ENDS, and 1% used cigars. Significantly higher odds of ever had wheezing or whistling in chest at any time in the past was observed among current cigarette (adjusted OR: 2.62, 95%CI: 2.35, 2.91), ENDS (1.49, 95%CI: 1.14, 1.95), and poly users (2.67, 95%CI: 2.26, 3.16) compared to non-users. No differences were seen for cigar use. Polytobacco use was associated with a higher odds of ever wheezing when compared to ENDS (1.61, 95%CI: 1.19, 2.17) and cigar use (2.87, 95%CI: 1.93, 4.26), but not cigarettes. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Wheezing is associated with the use of cigarettes, ENDS, or any combination of cigarette, ENDS and cigars likely due to the inhalation of noxious chemicals and gases found in the smoke of cigarettes and ENDS that are likely to increase the odds of experiencing wheezing. CONFLICT OF INTEREST DESCRIPTION: MLG serves as a paid consultant for Johnson & Johnson and has received research grant from Pfizer, manufacturers of smoking cessation medications. The other authors have no conflicts to declare.
In the current absence of a vaccine for COVID-19, public health responses aim to break the chain of infection by focusing on the mode of transmission. We reviewed the current evidence on the transmission dynamics and on pathogenic and clinical features of COVID-19 to critically identify any gaps in the current infection prevention and control (IPC) guidelines.
In this study, we reviewed global COVID-19 IPC guidelines by organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO), the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). Guidelines from 2 high-income countries (Australia and United Kingdom) and from 1 middle-income country (China) were also reviewed. We searched publications in English on ‘PubMed’ and Google Scholar. We extracted information related to COVID-19 transmission dynamics, clinical presentations, and exposures that may facilitate transmission. We then compared these findings with the recommended IPC measures.
Nosocomial transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in healthcare settings occurs through droplets, aerosols, and the oral–fecal or fecal–droplet route. However, the IPC guidelines fail to cover all transmission modes, and the recommendations also conflict with each other. Most guidelines recommend surgical masks for healthcare providers during routine care and N95 respirators for aerosol-generating procedures. However, recommendations regarding the type of face mask varied, and the CDC recommends cloth masks when surgical masks are unavailable.
IPC strategies should consider all the possible routes of transmission and should target all patient care activities involving risk of person-to-person transmission. This review may assist international health agencies in updating their guidelines.
Depression is a global public health problem with highest rates in women in low income countries including Pakistan. There are no treatment trials from such countries comparing the efficacy of antidepressant treatment with a group psychological intervention.
We conducted a preliminary RCT in an urban primary care clinic in Karachi, Pakistan. Consecutive eligible women scoring > 12 on the CIS-R and > 18 on HDRS (n=66) were randomly assigned to antidepressant or group psychosocial treatment. The primary outcome measure was HDRS score; secondary outcome measures were disability and quality of life.
96% patients were assessed at 3 & 6 months after baseline. At 6 months response (50% reduction of HDRS score) occurred in 20 (60.6%) and 22(66.7%) of the psychosocial and antidepressant groups respectively. There was also significant reduction in disability and improvement in health related quality of life in both groups.
Low costs antidepressants and group psychosocial treatment on the principles of CBT merit further assessment as primary treatments for depression in low income countries.
Depression is a global public health problem with highest rates in women in low income countries including Pakistan. Paediatricians may be a resource to help with maternal depression. Little is known in low income countries about the prevalence of depression and its social correlates in mothers of children attending paediatric clinics.
Using cross-sectional design consecutive women attending the paediatric clinic were screened using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (n=185). Women scoring 12 or more (n=70) and a random sample of low scorers (n=16) were interviewed using the Clinical Interview Schedule Revised (CIS-R) to confirm the diagnosis of depression, the Oslo scale was used to measure social stress and EQ-5D for health related quality of life.
The prevalence of maternal depression was 51%. The mean age of the sample was 26 years. Depressed mothers were more likely to be living in a joint family household, they were less educated and they and their husbands were less likely to be employed. The depressed mothers had more financial difficulties and they were more likely to sleep hungry during the last month due to financial problems. The depressed mothers had less social support and poorer quality of life compared to non depressed mothers.
Maternal depression in this health care setting is high and it is associated with social stress and poor social support. Paediatric appointments may be an opportunity for care and care delivery for maternal depression.
To investigate the effect of perinatal depression on birth weight, head circumference, length and infant behaviour in a group of Pakistani women living in the Greater Manchester area of the United Kingdom.
Using a prospective cohort design British Pakistani women were screened using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (n=714), the Life events and Difficulty Schedule was used to measure social stress and the Schedule for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry interview to confirm the diagnosis of depression. Details of birth weight and height were taken from hospital records. Physical and cognitive development of the infants using the Bayleys Scale of Infant Development (BSID-111) was assessed at 6 months postnatal.
There was no significant difference in birth weight (p=0.0948) and head circumference (p=0.75) at baseline or at 6 months between the two groups. The length of the infants of depressed mothers at 6 months was significantly less (p=0.02) than the infants of non depressed mothers. There was also a significant difference between the two groups in adaptive behaviour in leisure (p=0.043) and health & safety (p=0.049).
Infants of depressed British Pakistani mothers are not more likely to weigh less at birth or 6 months when compared to infants of non depressed mothers. However they are more likely to be shorter at 6 months and score lower on the BSID on leisure and health & safety areas of adaptive behaviour.
To examine the factors that influence mental health professional's prescription of antidepressant.
There are many studies on factors affecting decision of mental health professionals regarding selection of antidepressant. The clinical experience of the developing countries is different from that of the developed countries where nonpharmacological attributes of a drug like affordability and availability play a greater role in prescription of drug.
A semi-structured questionnaire was used to investigate which antidepressant was the preferred choice of psychiatrists and nurses and factors which influenced their decision making. Ethical permissions were obtained from local research and ethics committees.
The results of this study show that health professional would consider efficacy (64%) and tolerability (24%) to be the most important factors in choice of anti psychotics for themselves while efficacy (56%) and cost (24%) would be considered important factor while prescribing drugs to the patient.
Beside efficacy other factors like cost & affordability found to be the important factor in influencing the decision of the psychiatrists.
There is some evidence that anti-inflammatory treatment may have beneficial effects in schizophrenia and major depression. Statins are cholesterol-lowering agents but have been found to be anti-inflammatory and also decrease C-reactive protein (CRP). Ondansetron is a serotonin (5-HT3) receptor antagonist widely used to prevent nausea and vomiting in patients receiving chemotherapy for cancer. Small studies have suggested that adjunctive Ondansetron is efficacious against schizophrenia symptoms. We carried out a feasibility study in schizophrenia patients (within 5 years of first diagnosis) to explore the adjunctive use of simvastatin and ondansetron on positive, negative and general psychopathology.
This was a 12 week rater blind placebo controlled study. All to gather 36 patients with DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia were recruited, 12 in each arm. Patients were assessed at baseline and at 12 weeks using PANSS, CGI, GAF and AIMS.
Both simvastatin and ondansetron provide some evidence of a reduction in symptoms compared to treatment as usual (TAU) on PANSS total score, although, this was not statistically significant. In the secondary analyses, no significant differences were seen on CGI, GAF and AIMS.
Anti-inflammatory treatments have shown to have some beneficial effects in schizophrenia. Both simvastatin and ondansetron provide some evidence of a reduction in symptoms compared to treatment as usual. This study has led to a larger SMRI-funded, double blind, randomized control trial.
Immune mechanisms have been implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. This has lead to clinical trials of re-purposing drugs with off-target anti-inflammatory actions. They include the antibiotic minocycline and simvastatin (HMP-Co reductase inhibitor), which decrease microglial activation, and ondansetron a 5-HT3-receptor antagonist that has limited effects on cytokine production. This presentation will address their efficacy and mechanism of action.
1) Update on trials with minocycline including our own positive finding on negative symptoms (PMID: 16959472)
2) Present new results with ondansetron and simvastatin summarised below.
Ondansetron (8mg) and simvastatin (40mg) vs placebos in 2x2 design (PMID: 23782463). Patients aged 18-65, stable treatment, DSM IV schizophrenia-related diagnosis. PANSS and cognition at 0,3,6 months.
The four cells of the 2x2 design contained 302 patients. The interaction between ondansetron and simvastatin was significant at p=.006 reflecting the lower scores in the 3 active treatment groups than in the P+P group. Ondansetron improved verbal (p=.007) and visual list learning (p=.02) with no other treatment effects on cognition.
Minocycline appears to benefit negative symptoms in early psychosis with a minor effect on cognition. Simvastatin had limited effects in our patients with established schizophrenia but its anti-inflammatory effects could be worth investigating in early psychosis. Ondansetron has a significant effect on new learning, which might be expected from its 5-HT3 antagonist properties. This may underlie a benefit on negative symptoms reported by others and us.
Alluvial mineral sands rank among the most complex subjects for mineral characterization due to the diverse range of minerals present in the sediments, which may collectively contain a daunting number of elements (>20) in major or minor concentrations (>1 wt%). To comprehensively characterize the phase abundance and chemistry of these complex mineral specimens, a method was developed using hyperspectral x-ray and cathodoluminescence mapping in an electron probe microanalyser (EPMA), coupled with automated cluster analysis and quantitative analysis of clustered x-ray spectra. This method proved successful in identifying and quantifying over 40 phases from mineral sand specimens, including unexpected phases with low modal abundance (<0.1%). The standard-based quantification method measured compositions in agreement with expected stoichiometry, with elemental detection limits in the range of <10–1,000 ppm, depending on phase abundance, and proved reliable even for challenging mineral species, such as the multi-rare earth element (REE) bearing mineral xenotime [(Y,REE)PO4] for which 24 elements were analyzed, including 12 overlapped REEs. The mineral identification procedure was also capable of characterizing mineral groups that exhibit significant compositional variability due to the substitution of multiple elements, such as garnets (Mg, Ca, Fe, Mn, Cr), pyroxenes (Mg, Ca, Fe), and amphiboles (Na, Mg, Ca, Fe, Al).
There is strong association between depression and mortality rates among patients with CHF. Despite the massive burden of cardiac disease as well as that of depression in Pakistan, there is limited data regarding the prevalence of depression in patients suffering from CHF. The aim of this study was to assess prevalence of depression in patients with CHF and to compare the health related quality of life of depressed and non-depressed patients with CHF.
A total of 1009 patients diagnosed with CHF were recruited from different public hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan. Depression was assessed at baseline using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and health related quality of life was assessed using Euro Qol (EQ-5D).
Of the 1009 participants recruited to the study, 66.4% (n = 670) met the threshold for depression using the BDI measure. Of the depressed patients, 66.7% (n = 447) were male. Preliminary results indicate that participants who were depressed at baseline had poorer health related quality of life on EQ-5D measures as compared to those who were non-depressed (mean EQ-5D descriptive score 10.45 in depressed patients vs 7.37 in non-depressed patients and mean EQ-5D visual scale score 35.09 in depressed patients vs 52.19 in non-depressed patients).
Considering the high prevalence of depression and its serious negative impact on quality of life of patients suffering from chronic physical illness, it is important to design and test culturally adapted psychosocial interventions to reduce depression and improve quality of life for these patients.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
We assessed the role of home visits by Shasthya Shebika (SS) – female volunteer community health workers (CHWs) – in improving the distribution of micronutrient powder (MNP), and explored the independent effects of caregiver–provider interaction on coverage variables.
We used data from three cross-sectional surveys undertaken at baseline (n 1927), midline (n 1924) and endline (n 1540) as part of an evaluation of a home fortification programme. We defined an exposure group as one that had at least one SS visit to the caregiver’s household in the 12 months preceding the survey considering three outcome variables – message (ever heard), contact (ever used) and effective coverage (regular used) of MNP. We performed multiple logistic regressions to explore the determinants of coverage, employed an ‘interaction term’ and calculated an odds ratio (OR) to assess the modifying effect of SS’s home visits on coverage.
Sixty-eight sub-districts from ten districts of Bangladesh.
Children aged 6–59 months and their caregivers.
A home visit from an SS positively impacts message coverage at both midline (ratio of OR 1·70; 95 % CI 1·25, 2·32; P < 0·01) and endline (ratio of OR 3·58; 95 % CI 2·22, 5·78; P < 0·001), and contact coverage both at midline (ratio of OR 1·48; 95 % CI 1·06, 2·07; P = 0·021) and endline (ratio of OR 1·74; 95 % CI 1·23, 2·47; P = 0·002). There was no significant effect of a SS’s home visit on effective coverage.
The households visited by BRAC’s volunteer CHWs have better message and contact coverage among the children aged 6–59 months.
Ficus deltoidea var. deltoidea Jack (FD) is a well-known plant used in Malay folklore medicine to lower blood glucose in diabetic patients. For further research of the antihyperglycemic mechanisms, the protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B)-inhibitory effect of FD was analysed both in vitro and in vivo. To optimise a method for FD extraction, water, 50, 70, 80, 90 and 95 % ethanol extracts were prepared and determined for their total phenolic and triterpene contents, and PTP1B-inhibition capacity. Among the tested extracts, 70 % ethanol FD extract showed a significant PTP1B inhibition (92·0 % inhibition at 200 µg/ml) and high phenolic and triterpene contents. A bioassay-guided fractionation of the 70 % ethanol extract led to the isolation of a new triterpene (3β,11β-dihydroxyolean-12-en-23-oic acid; F3) along with six known compounds. In vivo, 4 weeks’ administration of 70 % ethanol FD extract (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/d) to streptozotocin–nicotinamide-induced type 2 diabetic rats reversed the abnormal changes of blood glucose, insulin, total Hb, GLUT2, lipid profile, and oxidative stress in liver and pancreas. Moreover, FD reduced the mRNA expression of the key gluconeogenic enzymes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose 6-phosphatase) and restored insulin receptor and GLUT2 encoding gene (Slc2a2) expression. In addition, FD significantly down-regulated the hepatic PTP1B gene expression. These results revealed that FD could potentially improve insulin sensitivity, suppress hepatic glucose output and enhance glucose uptake in type 2 diabetes mellitus through down-regulation of PTP1B. Together, our findings give scientific evidence for the traditional use of FD as an antidiabetic agent.
As the Boko Haram insurgency heads into its second decade, it seems no quick end is in sight. What are the possible scenarios for the future trajectory of Boko Haram, and in particular what is its endgame? While predicting the future is a very hazardous business, plausible endgame scenarios can be envisioned based on reflection on the metamorphoses of Boko Haram, careful analysis of the dynamics of its current situation, and prognosis of its emergent trends. The formal declaration of the Boko Haram Caliphate and its territorial control over much of Borno State are no more. Yet the ‘technical military defeat’ proclaimed by President Muhammad Buhari in 2015 has not prevented Boko Haram from carrying out attacks not only in rural areas, but in big towns and even military bases, often killing Nigerian soldiers – as many as 100 soldiers in one attack. Negotiations leading to the release of Boko Haram captives in exchange for freeing incarcerated leaders of the insurgency came about more than a year after the proclamation of the technical defeat. It seems that decisive defeat leading to complete surrender and total cessation of hostilities is not on the immediate horizon. Yet what scenario is likely to unfold?
This chapter explores this question by drawing insights from the literature on the growth, decline, and end of past insurgent insurgencies and civil wars. Theoretically, one may argue that there are only a few possible outcomes to an insurgency: the government may defeat the insurgents; the insurgents may defeat the government; both parties may reach a negotiated settlement; there may be a stalemate; or the insurgency may transform into something else, such as organized crime. We suggest that rather than one distinct ending, Boko Haram is likely to continue its previous patterns of transformations and factionalization, precluding decisive outcomes. Unless distinctively different approaches are taken by the state, likely endgames include a negotiated settlement with some factions, the further entrenchment of the war economy with its continuous menacing of rural areas by others, and some elements potentially becoming absorbed into the global terrorist networks of the Islamic State.
Alkali-borosilicate glasses (ABS) are used as host immobilization matrices for different radioactive waste streams and are characterized by their ability to incorporate a wide variety of metal oxides with respectively high waste loadings. The vitreous wasteform is also characterized by very good physical and chemical durability. The durability of three ABS compositions were analyzed by investigating their leaching behavior using the MCC1 test protocol and these data were used to investigate the waste components retention in the altered layer and the evolution of the interfacial water composition during the test. The results indicated that the Mg species evolution is exceptional with respect to other alkaline elements and dependent on glass matrix composition and leaching progress, while transition elements speciation is fairly constant throughout leaching process and independent on glass compositions. Si and B species are changing during leaching process and are affected by waste composition. For modified wasteform sample, evolution of Mg, Si and B species is respectively constant, whereas at highest waste loading, these elements have fairly constant speciation evolution within the first 2 weeks of leaching.
Drought and high temperature each damage rice (Oryza sativa L.) crops. Their effect during seed development and maturation on subsequent seed quality development was investigated in Japonica (cv. Gleva) and Indica (cv. Aeron 1) plants grown in controlled environments subjected to drought (irrigation ended) and/or brief high temperature (HT; 3 days at 40/30°C). Ending irrigation early in cv. Gleva (7 or 14 days after anthesis, DAA) resulted in earlier plant senescence, more rapid decline in seed moisture content, more rapid seed quality development initially, but substantial decline later in planta in the ability of seeds to germinate normally. Subsequent seed storage longevity amongst later harvests was greatest with no drought because with drought it declined from 16 or 22 DAA onwards in planta, 9 or 8 days after irrigation ended, respectively. Later drought (14 or 28 DAA) also reduced seed longevity at harvest maturity (42 DAA). Well-irrigated plants provided poorer longevity the earlier during seed development they were exposed to HT (greatest at anthesis and histodifferentiation; no effect during seed maturation). Combining drought and HT damaged seed quality more than each stress alone, and more so in the Japonica cv. Gleva than the Indica cv. Aeron 1. Overall, the earlier plant drought occurred the greater the damage to subsequent seed quality; seed quality was most vulnerable to damage from plant drought and HT at anthesis and histodifferentiation; and seed quality of the Indica rice was more resilient to damage from these stresses than the Japonica.
The 2008 economic recession was associated with an increase in suicide internationally. Studies have focused on the impact in the general population with little consideration of the effect on people with a mental illness.
To investigate suicide trends related to the recession in mental health patients in England.
Using regression models, we studied suicide trends in mental health patients in England before, during and after the recession and examined the demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients. We used data from the National Confidential Inquiry into Suicide and Safety in Mental Health, a national data-set of all suicide deaths in the UK that includes detailed clinical information on those seen by services in the last 12 months before death.
Between 2000 and 2016, there were 21 224 suicide deaths by patients aged 16 or over. For male patients, following a steady fall of 0.5% per quarter before the recession (quarterly percent change (QPC) 2000–2009 –0.46%, 95% CI –0.66 to –0.27), suicide rates showed an upward trend during the recession (QPC 2009–2011 2.37%, 95% CI –0.22 to 5.04). Recession-related rises in suicide were found in men aged 45–54 years, those who were unemployed or had a diagnosis of substance dependence/misuse. Between 2012 and 2016 there was a decrease in suicide in male patients despite an increasing number of patients treated. No significant recession-related trends were found in women.
Recession-associated increases in suicide were seen in male mental health patients as well as the male general population, with those in mid-life at particular risk. Support and targeted interventions for patients with financial difficulties may help reduce the risk at times of economic hardship. Factors such as drug and alcohol misuse also need to be considered. Recent decreases in suicide may be related to an improved economic context or better mental healthcare.
Declaration of interest
N.K. is supported by Greater Manchester Mental Health NHS Foundation Trust. L.A. chairs the National Suicide Prevention Strategy Advisory Group at the Department of Health (of which N.K. is also a member) and is a non-executive Director for the Care Quality Commission. N.K. chairs the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) depression in adults guideline and was a topic expert member for the NICE suicide prevention guideline.
Hypoalbuminemia is associated with morbidity and mortality in critically ill children. In this multi-centre retrospective study, we aimed to determine normative values of serum albumin in neonates and infants with congenital heart disease, evaluate perioperative changes in albumin levels, and determine if low serum albumin influences post-operative outcomes. Consecutive eligible neonates and infants who underwent cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass at one of three medical centres, January 2012–August 2013, were included. Data on serum albumin levels from five data points (pre-operative, 0–24, 24–48, 48–72, 72 hours post-operative) were collected. Median pre-operative serum albumin level was 2.5 g/dl (IQR, 2.1–2.8) in neonates versus 4 g/dl (IQR, 3.5–4.4) in infants. Hypoalbuminemia was defined as <25th percentile of these values. A total of 203 patients (126 neonates, 77 infants) were included in the study. Post-operative hypoalbuminemia developed in 12% of neonates and 20% of infants; 97% occurred in the first 48 hours. In multivariable analysis, perioperative hypoalbuminemia was not independently associated with any post-operative morbidity. However, when analysed as a continuous variable, lower serum albumin levels were associated with increased post-operative morbidity. Pre-operative low serum albumin level was independently associated with increased odds of post-operative hypoalbuminemia (OR, 3.67; 95% CI, 1.01–13.29) and prolonged length of hospital stay (RR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.08–1.82). Lower 0–24-hour post-operative serum albumin level was independently associated with an increased duration of mechanical ventilation (RR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.12–1.64). Future studies should further assess hypoalbuminemia in this population, with emphasis on evaluating clinically meaningful cut-offs and possibly the use of serum albumin levels in perioperative risk stratification models.