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We have observed a 0.7×1.2deg2 field in the SGP region with the UT / NAOJ Mosaic CCD Camera attached to the 40-inch Swope Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory, and constructed a sample of 1150 galaxies in the region down to R=20.5. Then we applied to the sample a new, objective cluster-finding technique, which is an improved variant of the so-called “matched-filter technique” pioneered by Postman et al. (1996). Using projected positions and apparent magnitudes of galaxies simultaneously, this technique can, not only find cluster candidates, but also estimate their redshifts and richnesses. A number of Monte Carlo simulations demonstrated enough accuracies of the estimations and much lower spurious detection rate than that by conventional cluster-finding methods which use only surface density of galaxies.
At present, the photometric data for clusters at z ≲ 0.2 mainly come from photographic photometry. The lack of CCD data for such clusters is simply due to the fact that no CCD camera had been available until recently that covers the wide extension of clusters within a reasonable amount of observing time. We have developed a large mosaic CCD camera and conducted multicolor imaging observations of z ≲ 0.2 clusters using the 40-inch Swope telescope at Las Campanas Observatory.
Recently it has been reported that there may be a discrepancy between big bang nucleosynthesis theory and observations (BBN crisis) (Hata et al., 1995). One way to solve the discrepancy might be to adopt some modifications of standard physics used in SBBN (Kawasaki et al, 1997). We show that BBN predictions agree with the primordial abundances of light elements, 4He, D, 3He and 7Li inferred from the observational data if the electron neutrino has a net chemical potential ξve due to lepton asymmetry (Kohri et al., 1997). We study BBN with the effects of the neutrino degeneracy in details using Monte Carlo simulation and make a likelihood analysis using the most recent data. We estimate that (95% C.L.) and (95% C.L.) adopting the presolar Deuterium abundance as the primordial values. If we adopted the low D abundance which is obtained by the observation of the high redshift QSO absorption systems, (95% C.L.) and The estimated chemical potential of ve is about 10−5 eV which is much smaller than experiments can detect (≃ 1 eV). In other words, BBN gives the most stringent constraint on the chemical potential of ve.
We observed three 0.44 square degree fields centered on the Coma cluster center (Coma-1), about 1 degree SW of the Coma center (Coma-3), and on a control field in SA57 with the mosaic CCD camera at the prime focus of the 4.2-m William Herschel Telescope. We detected 5628, 5020, and 4323 galaxies down to R = 22 mag in Coma-1, Coma-3, and SA57 fields, respectively. We measure the magnitude and color within the variable aperture r90 in which about 90% of the total flux is included. The histograms of (B–R) colors of galaxies are made for four magnitude bins of width ΔR = 2 mag covering 13 < R < 21 mag for each of the three fields. The mean colors and the 1σ scatters of the Coma galaxies are obtained by a histogram subtraction technique (Coma-1/3 minus SA57). We find a very shallow slope of the color-magnitude relation (CMR), Δ(B–R)/ΔR=−0.0037, which indicates nearly a constant (B–R) color over 6 magnitude in 15 < R < 21 mag (−19.5 < MR < −13.5 at Coma cluster). Dwarf galaxies are dominant in this magnitude range, and we conclude that the mean color of dwarf galaxies in the Coma clusters is nearly constant at (B–R) ∼ 1.6–1.7, which is similar to the color of the faint end of giant elliptical galaxies.
Recent investigations revealed that the explosive decay of the inflaton field takes place in the first stage of reheating due to the effect of parametric resonance (Kofman et al., 1994). One of surprising possibilities of the non-thermal fluctuations (created particles) during preheating is the symmetry restoration which may lead to the formation of topological defects (Kofman et al., 1996; Tkachev, 1996).
New ASCA observations of two anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXP) 4U 0142+61 and 1E 1048.1-5937, made in 1998, when compared to earlier observations in 1994 show remarkable stability in the intensity, spectral shape and pulse profile. The energy spectra consist of two components, a power-law and a blackbody emission from the neutron star surface. In IE 1048.1-5937, we have identified three epochs with different spin-down rates and discuss its implications for the magnetar hypothesis of the AXPs. We also note that the spin-down rate and its variations in IE 1048.1-5937 are much larger than what normally can be produced by an accretion disc with very low mass accretion rate corresponding to its low X-ray luminosity.
Control of the polarity of GaN films deposited by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition was achieved by substrate nitridation and subsequent annealing of a buffer layer. The surface morphology and optical properties of 1.2μm GaN films were influenced by the different growth mode due to the polar direction. Coaxial impact collision ion scattering spectroscopy revealed that the polarity composition of a buffer layer on nitrided sapphire varied by annealing in a H2 atmosphere. It was considered that the systematic variation of the surface morphology was caused by the polarity composition of the buffer layer.
The presence of the fermentable sugar d-mannitol in the diet improves nitrogen (N) utilization in rabbits. To clarify the mechanism by which d-mannitol improves N utilization, we studied the effect of d-mannitol on the fate of blood urea N in growing rabbits. Growing rabbits received a control diet or a diet containing d-mannitol, which were formulated by adding 80 g/kg glucose or d-mannitol to timothy hay. After 9 days of feeding of the experimental diets, 15N-urea was administrated intravenously under anesthesia 1 h before slaughter. The blood urea level (concentration of both urea N (43.6% of the control group (CG), P < 0.05) and 15N (95% of the CG, P < 0.05) in blood serum) was reduced in the mannitol group. The concentration and amount of N, and 15N atom % excess in the contents of the cecum and colon were higher (P < 0.05) in the rabbits fed the mannitol diet than in rabbits fed the control diet, especially in the cecum. The consumption of mannitol caused bacterial proliferation in the cecum characterized by marked short-chain fatty acid production (165% of the CG, P < 0.05), decreased cecal ammonia N (73% of the CG, P < 0.05) and elevated cecal bacterial N (150% of the CG, P < 0.05). On the other hand, addition of d-mannitol to the diet decreased N (80% of the CG, P < 0.05) and 15N (77% of the CG, P < 0.05) excretion in the urine. These results indicate that d-mannitol increases the transfer of blood urea N to the large intestine, where it is used for bacterial N synthesis.
We have fabricated submonolayer-thick films of CdSe colloidal nanodots in order to investigate electronic properties of individual nanodots by conductive-tip atomic force microscopy (AFM). Topographic and current images of isolated single CdSe colloidal dots on single crystalline Au (111) surface which was covered with dodecanethiol self-assembled monolayer were obtained by AFM operating in contact mode with a conductive tip under appropriate bias voltages. In the current image, it is found that the dot regions have higher electric resistances due to tunneling resistance through the CdSe dots. We also found 10 nm-scale electric inhomogeneity around the dots, which may corresponds to the previously reported etch-pits of Au (111) surfaces formed during the deposition of the dodecanethiol molecules.
A new combinatorial pulsed laser deposition system has been developed for rapid optimization of epitaxial growth process by using a carrousel type masking plate. Under in-situ monitoring of growing surface with reflection high energy electron diffraction, eight films with different compositions or preparation parameters can be fabricated on a single substrate. By using this system, we have succeeded in the one lot optimization of YBa2Cu3O7-d(YBCO), PrGaO3, SrO and BaO film growths on the B-site (TiO2) terminated SrTiO3(001) substrates. Key results from these experiments include the high sensitivity of YBCO film crystallinity to the laser focusing as well as of growth behavior of epitaxial SrO and BaO films to the crystal habit with the underlying atomic layers.
Thin films of Y-type magnetoplumbite (Ba2Co2Fe12O22: Co2Y) with such a huge unit cell length as 43.5 Å has been successfully fabricated for the first time with the aid of combinatorial optimization of pulsed laser deposition process. Planning a thickness gradient CoO buffer layer on MgAl2O4(111) substrate was very effective for prevent the phase separation of Co deficient impurity (BaFe2O4) to reside in the formation of desired Co2Y phase.From the TEM analysis, the CoO buffer layer of optimum thickness was incorporated into the Co2Y film to make theinterface with the make an atomically sharp.
Magnetic properties of Co-doped rutile (Ti1-xCoxO2) film in combinatorial composition-spread form have been surveyed by means of a Scanning Superconducting-quantum-interference-device Microscope (SSM). As a consequence, we found magnetic domains in the spatial regions with x>0.05 without external field, giving strong evidence for ferromagnetism with finite spontaneous magnetization. The magnetic moment was monotonously increased with increasing doping level x from 0.05 to ∼ 0.13. On the other hand, it was almost unchanged for x > ∼ 0.13, suggesting that Co does not dissolve into rutile film beyond x ∼ 0.13. The SSM results on the rutile Ti0.95Co0.05O2 thin films with different thickness showed that the magnetic moment is proportional to film thickness, leading to a conclusion that the presently observed ferromagnetism does not result from Co or Co-based oxide particles on the film surface.
We show here three different ways of combinatorial experiments for achieving precise control of dopant concentration in ZnO thin films. Alternating ablation of highly pure single crystal target and ceramics target doped with concentrated Ga dopant yielded in a systematic control of Ga concentration with keeping minimal contamination of undesired impurity. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy for a stack of several ZnO films grown at different temperatures under a constant exposure of N radical gave us a systematic calibration curve for the N concentration. With using a special heating method to give a controlled temperature gradient on a substrate, we demonstrate that continuous spread of N concentration can be built in a film on a substrate with keeping constant Ga concentration. Such systematic experiments taking into account the “combinatorial” concept enable us to make ZnO films with controlled dopant concentrations.
We report on the development of a high throughput x-ray diffractometer that concurrently measures spatially resolved x-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra of epitaxial thin films integrated on a substrate. A convergent x-ray is focused into a stripe on a substrate and the diffracted beam is detected with a two-dimensional x-ray detector, so that the snapshot image represents a mapping of XRD intensity with the axes of the diffraction angle and the position in the sample. High throughput characterization of crystalline structure is carried out for a BaxSr1-xTiO3 composition-spread film on a SrTiO3 substrate. Not only the continuous spread of the composition (x), but also the continuous spread of the growth temperature (T) are given to the film by employing a special heating method. The boundary between the strained lattice and relaxed lattice is visualized by the concurrent XRD as functions of x and T in a high throughput fashion.