Skip to main content Accessibility help

D-STEM: A Parallel Electron Diffraction Technique Applied to Nanomaterials

  • K.J. Ganesh (a1), M. Kawasaki (a2), J.P. Zhou (a1) and P.J. Ferreira (a1)


An electron diffraction technique called D-STEM has been developed in a transmission electron microscopy/scanning transmission electron microscopy (TEM/STEM) instrument to obtain spot electron diffraction patterns from nanostructures, as small as ∼3 nm. The electron ray path achieved by configuring the pre- and postspecimen illumination lenses enables the formation of a 1–2 nm near-parallel probe, which is used to obtain bright-field/dark-field STEM images. Under these conditions, the beam can be controlled and accurately positioned on the STEM image, at the nanostructure of interest, while sharp spot diffraction patterns can be simultaneously recorded on the charge-coupled device camera. When integrated with softwares such as GatanTM STEM diffraction imaging and Automated Crystallography for TEM or DigistarTM, NanoMEGAS, the D-STEM technique is very powerful for obtaining automated orientation and phase maps based on diffraction information acquired on a pixel by pixel basis. The versatility of the D-STEM technique is demonstrated by applying this technique to nanoparticles, nanowires, and nano interconnect structures.


Corresponding author

Corresponding author. E-mail:


Hide All
Alloyeau, D., Ricolleau, C., Okiawa, T., Lanlois, C., Bouar, Y.L. & Loiseau, A. (2008). STEM nanodiffraction technique for structural analysis of CoPt nanoparticles. Ultramicroscopy 108, 656662.
Amberger, E., Stumpf, W. & Buschbeck, K.C. (1981). Gmelin Handbook of Inorganic Chemistry. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
Andrieveski, R.A. & Glezer, A.M. (2001). Size effects in properties of nanomaterials. Scripta Mater 44, 16211624.
Cowley, J.M. (1996). Electron nanodiffraction: Progress and prospects. J Elect Microsc 45, 310.
Cowley, J.M. (1999). Electron nanodiffraction. Microsc Res Techniq 46, 7597.
Cowley, J.M. (2004). Applications of electron nanodiffraction. Micron 34, 345360.
Cowley, J.M., Janney, D.E., Gerkin, R.C. & Buseck, P.R. (2000). The structure of ferritin cores determined by electron nanodiffraction. J Struct Biol 131, 210216.
Fultz, B. & Howe, J.M. (2001). Convergent-beam electron diffraction. In Transmission Electron Microscopy and Diffractometry of Materials, pp. 306307. New York: Springer.
He, H. & Nelson, C. (2007). A method of combining STEM image with parallel beam diffraction and electron-optical conditions for diffractive imaging. Ultramicroscopy 107, 340344.
Herzer, G. (2005). Anisotropy in soft magnetic nanocrystalline alloys. J Magn Mag Mat 294, 99106.
Humphreys, F.J. (2004). Characterization of fine scale microstructures by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Scripta Mater 51, 771776.
Kolb, U., Gorelik, T., Kubel, C., Otten, M.T. & Hubert, D. (2007). Towards automated diffraction tomography: Part I—Data acquisition. Ultramicroscopy 107, 507513.
Kumar, K.S., Swygenhoven, V.H. & Suresh, S. (2003). Mechanical behavior of nanocrystalline metals and alloys. Acta Mater 51, 57435774.
Lu, L., Shen, Y., Chen, X., Qian, L. & Lu, K. (2004). Ultrahigh strength and high electrical conductivity in copper. Science 304, 422426.
Lund, A.C. & Schuh, C.A. (2005). Strength asymmetry in nanocrystalline metals under multiaxial loading. Acta Mater 53, 31933205.
Rolland, P., Dicks, K. & Ravel-Chapuis, R. (2002). EBSD spatial resolution in the SEM when analyzing small grains or deformed material. Microsc Microanal 8(S2), 670CD671CD.
Voyles, P.M. & Muller, D.A. (2002). Fluctuation microscopy in the STEM. Ultramicroscopy 93, 147159.


D-STEM: A Parallel Electron Diffraction Technique Applied to Nanomaterials

  • K.J. Ganesh (a1), M. Kawasaki (a2), J.P. Zhou (a1) and P.J. Ferreira (a1)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed